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Changes since Pike 7.2: 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New/improved functionality: 
--------------------------- 
 
o New Hilfe 
    The interactive pike environment you get when running pike without 
    giving a program name, has been thoroughly rewritten. Most notably 
    it now supports more of the common pike constructs, and is more 
    extendable and configurable. Start it and type help for more info. 
 
o AutoDoc 
    The major parts of Pike now has some sort of documentation on 
    class and function level thanks to the AutoDoc system which has 
    been deployed during the last year. Manual dumps are published on 
    http://pike.ida.liu.se/docs/reference/. 
 
o pike -x 
    When starting pike with the -x parameter, the pike process will 
    run the named script in Tools.Standalone, giving the rest of the 
    arguments as command-line switches. This is a convenient way of 
    running rsif (replace string in file) and pv (the image viewer 
    you may be familiar with from Tools.PV). 
 
o pike -e scope 
    When running command line one liners with pike -e you can now 
    access the numer of arguments, the actual arguments and the 
    environment variables through the variables argc, argv and env. 
 
o unbug 
    Embryo of a Pike debugger. Not stable nor finished. 
 
o Unicode 3.2.0 
    All charts have been updated to Unicode 3.2.0. This applies both to 
    the Unicode module as well as to Pike-global functionality such as 
    upper_case/lower_case. unicode_to_string() also has support for 
    surrogate and byteorder mark handling. 
 
o Extended random() 
    random() now works on floats, arrays, multisets, mappings and 
    objects in addition to integers. 
 
o delay()/sleep() 
    sleep() no longer busywaits, which it previously did for small 
    values. The old behavior is available from the delay() function. 
    (This has change been made in later 7.2 releases too.) 
 
o search(string, int) / has_value(string, int) 
    Both of these methods now handle both looking for strings and 
    integers (the unicode number for a single character). 
    Examples: search("hi, ho!", '!'), has_value("Nope.", ' ') 
 
o Expanded Charset module 
    The character set module now has support for the character sets 
    Shift_JS, UTF-7.5, EUC, Big5, CP950, UTF-16, UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE. 
    It is now also easier to get the right charset codec since the 
    names are normalized internally. 
 
o sprintf("%O", foo) is more descriptive 
    If foo is a program or an object then Pike will try to find the 
    resolved name instead of returning just "program" or "object". 
    However, if an object contains an _sprintf function it will still 
    be called in this case. 
 
o basetype(foo) 
    Returns a string with the basic type of foo as opposed to 
    typeof(foo) that returns the actual type. Also available as 
    sprintf("%t", foo). 
 
o getenv()/putenv() 
    The environment variable functions getenv and putenv is now is now 
    both case insensitive on Microsoft Windows systems. This should 
    make your programs more portable. 
 
 
Language additions: 
------------------- 
 
o foreach(X; Y; Z) 
    The foreach statement has been extended to allow iterations over 
    mappings, multisets and any object that implements the iterator 
    interface (see below). To make it possible to use this 
    conveniently, a new syntax has been added to get both the index 
    and the value in each iteration: 
 
        foreach (something; index-expr; value-expr) ... 
 
    This iterates over something, assigning in turn each index to 
    index-expr and each value to value-expr. The index and value 
    expressions can be declarations or lvalues, and they can also be 
    left out if the index and/or value part isn't interesting. 
 
    Note that it depends on the data type whether the iteration order 
    is well defined or not; arrays and multisets are iterated over 
    starting with the first element while mappings are visited in some 
    arbitrary order (each element is still visited only once, though). 
 
o Iterators 
    As noted above, an iterator interface has been added that is now 
    used in various places to iterate over different data structures. 
    Not only the built-in data types are supported, but actually any 
    object that fulfills the interface for iterators: 
 
    When iterating over an object o, o->_get_iterator() is called to 
    get an iterator object. An iterator object should at least have 
    two functions, index() and value(), to get the index and value 
    at the current position, a function `+=(int steps) to advance the 
    current position the specified number of steps, and a `!() that 
    returns zero if the end of the data set hasn't been reached yet. 
 
    Also, if the object o lacks a _get_iterator function, it's assumed 
    to be an iterator itself. This makes it possible to pass an 
    iterator explicitly to e.g. the foreach statement. 
 
    The built-in data types also have iterator classes with this 
    interface. They are found as Array.Iterator, Mapping.Iterator, etc 
    and can be used to iterate over these data types in some custom 
    fashion. This is especially useful for mappings and multisets, 
    which cannot be iterated over directly in any other way. For 
    example, to get some arbitrary index in a mapping m: 
 
        mixed any_index = Mapping.Iterator(m)->index(); 
 
o Automap 
    To perform per-element operations on arrays, there is now a convenience 
    syntax for map(), that can make code more readable in some situations. 
    Summing up two arrays element by element using automap looks like this: 
 
        a[*] + b[*]; // the result has as many elements as the shortest array. 
 
    Multiplying all elements in a by a constant: 
 
        a[*] * 4711; 
 
    Make an array of what sprintf("%O", a[n]) returns for all elements in a: 
 
        sprintf("%O", a[*]); 
 
o Implicit lambda 
    A convenient way to embed code that needs pre- and/or post- 
    initialization. If a statement starts with a function call 
    followed directly by a brace block, then the block is transformed 
    to a lambda function which is passed as the last argument to the 
    function being called. 
 
    The following example embeds OpenGL calls that modifies the matrix 
    in an implicit lambda that will save the matrix before execution 
    and restore it afterwards: 
 
       void PushPop( function f ) 
       { 
         glPushMatrix(); 
         mixed err = catch(f()); 
         glPopMatrix(); 
         if (err) throw(err); 
       } 
 
       void do_something() 
       { 
         PushPop() { 
           glTranslate( ((1.0-0.08))/2, 0.0, 0.0 ); 
           draw_stuff(); 
         }; 
       } 
 
    Note that although useful, this feature has important 
    disadvantages and will probably be obsoleted by a better 
    alternative in the future. The problem is that the inner brace 
    block become a completely separate function instead of remaining a 
    block. The difference (apart from being slower) is shown by this 
    example: 
 
       void do_something() 
       { 
         PushPop() { 
           if (glError()) return; 
           glTranslate( (1.0-0.08)/2, 0.0, 0.0 ); 
           draw_stuff(); 
         }; 
         draw_more_stuff(); 
       } 
 
    Since the inner block is a separate function, the return statement 
    doesn't exit do_something() as one might expect, causing 
    draw_more_stuff() to be called even when there's a GL error. 
    Another effect is that break and continue can't be associated with 
    statements outside the implicit lambda block. 
 
    Another method that overcomes these problems will likely be 
    implemented. The problem is that it can give compatibility 
    problems to change old code that uses implicit lambdas to that 
    one, since e.g. return will work differently without giving any 
    sort of error. 
 
o Access to hidden variables in surrounding scopes 
    Include the names of the surrounding classes themselves in the lookup for 
    Foo::, to make it possible to address hidden variables in the scopes of 
    surrounding classes, e.g: 
 
       class Foo { 
         int i; 
         void create (int i) {Foo::i = i;} 
       } 
 
o global:: 
    Added new keyword global to be able to access identifiers on the 
    top level of the compilation unit using global::foo. 
 
o global. 
    All top level modules (and other identifiers in that scope) can now 
    be accessed with a "global." prefix. This is useful in cases where 
    local identifiers overshadow the top level, for instance in the Image 
    module, where the Image.Image class would occasionally block your view. 
 
o this 
    Added a magic identifier "this" that can be used instead of 
    this_object(). Like this_program, it only exists when there's no 
    other identifier with that name. The primary reason for adding 
    this magic identifier is to make it possible to address the object 
    of a surrounding class with Foo::this. 
 
o The Local module 
    All Pike modules and classes found in the directory hierarchies 
    /usr/local/pike_modules, /opt/pike_modules, /opt/share/pike_modules, 
    /usr/local/share/pike_modules, $HOME/pike_modules, and 
    $PIKE_LOCAL_PATH (a :-separated list of directories) are available 
    with the prefix "Local.". Local.add_path() and Local.remove_path() 
    respectively adds and removes entries from the list of paths to 
    inspect when resolving Local.* symbols. 
 
o The program type can be specialized 
    It's possible to specialize a program variable by adding a program 
    identifier, much like an object variable can be specialized. E.g: 
 
       program(Stdio.File) fd_prog = Stdio.File; 
 
o ::_indices(), ::_values(). 
    There are now two "magic" functions ::_indices() and ::_values() 
    that can be used by an object to list all identifiers and their 
    values in itself. They are primarily intended when the _indices() 
    and _values() lfuns have been defined, to get the default 
    implementations. This is to complement the "magic" ::`->() and 
    ::`->=() functions that exist in earlier releases. 
 
o UNDEFINED 
    To generate a 0 (zero) with a zero_type(var) == 1, you previously 
    had to use constructs like ([])[0]. This is now available as the 
    globally available symbol UNDEFINED. 
 
o _m_delete 
    A class can now define a function mixed _m_delete(mixed index) to 
    make the objects work like mappings with m_delete(). (This feature 
    has been added to later 7.2 releases too.) 
 
o Constant objects 
    An object can now be constant, allowing for better 
    performace and better dumping. For example used for Gmp.Bignum, 
    Math.Matrix and Image.Color. 
 
 
New modules / classes / methods / functionality added: 
------------------------------------------------------ 
 
o ADT.History 
    ADT implementation of a "leaking stack". Hilfe example: 
      > object h=ADT.History(3); 
      > for(int i=17; i<22; i++) h->push(i); 
      Ok. 
      > h->get_first_entry_num(); 
      (1) Result: 3 
      > h[3]; 
      (2) Result: 19 
 
o ADT.Relation.Binary 
    Handles binary relations. Hilfe example: 
      > object r=ADT.Relation.Binary("test"); 
      > r->add(1,2)->add(2,3)->add(3,5)->add(1,4)->add(4,5); 
      (1) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->find_shortest_path(1,5); 
      (2) Result: ({ /* 3 elements */ 
                      1, 
                      4, 
                      5 
                  }) 
      > r->remove(1,4); 
      (3) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->add(5,1); 
      (4) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->find_shortest_path(1,5); 
      (5) Result: ({ /* 4 elements */ 
                      1, 
                      2, 
                      3, 
                      5 
                  }) 
 
o Audio.Codec and Audio.Format 
    Contain decoders/encoders and format parsers for audio. 
    Currently WAV and MP3. 
    Note: The API remains marked "unstable". 
 
o Crypto.md4 
    Hash used for NT Lanmanager passwords. 
 
o Crypto.crypt_md5 
    Convenience function to produce crypted $1$ style crypted 
    passwords (commonly called MD5 passwords). 
 
o Debug.Tracer 
o Debug.Subject 
    Helper classes that helps in understanding what Pike is doing. 
 
o DVB 
    Access to DVB (digital sat) resources. Controls tuner, MP2 
    audio and video decoders. Allows extract multiple channels 
    at once. 
    Note: Only old 0.9.4 DVB API is supported. 
 
o Gz.File 
    Pike can now compress and decompress the Gzip format. This is 
    still a bit experimental but the basic functions should work  
    just fine. 
 
o HTTP.Server 
    A simple HTTP Server. 
 
o Image.Dims 
    Can extract the dimensions of an image with a minimal amount of 
    data loading. Currently handles JPEG, GIF and PNG images. Hilfe 
    example: 
      > Image.Dims.get(Stdio.File("test.gif")); 
      (1) Result: ({ /* 2 elements */ 
                      1412, 
                      1120 
                  }) 
 
o Image.DWG 
    Decodes the thumbnail images embedded in AutoCAD drawings. 
 
o Image.Fonts 
    High level API for font handling. Should be used instead of 
    accessing the FreeType, TTF and Image.Font modules directly. 
 
o Image.Image  
    Added two new methods: blur() and grey_blur(). 
 
o Image.JPEG 
    Support for lossless transforms and handling of metadata. 
 
o Image.PVR 
    VQ compression/decompression added. 
 
o Image.SVG 
    Support for Structured Vector Graphics through the Gnome SVG 
    library. Requires Gnome 2. 
 
o Locale.Language 
    FIXME: nilsson? 
 
o Math.Matrix 
    Methods sum(), max(), min(), convolve() and dot_product() added. 
     
o Math.Transforms 
    Glue for supporting FFT and iFFT via libfftw and librfftw. 
 
o Math 
    Added inf and nan constants. 
 
o MIME.Message 
    Guess mode added. *FIXME: expand on this* 
 
o Parser.Python 
    Splits Python source code into text tokens. 
 
o Parser.RCS 
    Extracts data from RCS or CVS repositories. 
 
o Parser.XML.NSTree 
    FIXME: Nilsson? 
 
o Protocols.X.KeySyms 
 
o Standards.CIFF 
 
o Standards.FIPS10_4 
    FIXME: remove? 
 
o Standards.ID3 
    ID3 tags decoder/encoder. Supports versions: 1.0, 1.1, 
    2.2-2.4. Frequently used in MP3 files for encapsulating metadata. 
 
o Standards.RDF 
    FIXME: nilsson? 
 
o System.Time 
    Used to get the current time with sub second precision. 
 
o System.Timer 
    Measures the time between two calls. 
 
o System.Memory  
   Handles read/write from mmap'ed or allocated memory. 
 
system.normalize_path 
system.gettimeofday 
system.get_netinfo_property (Max OS X) 
system.usleep/nanosleep 
   FIXME: per? 
 
o Stdio 
    Moved get_all_active_fd() from spider to Stdio. 
    Added methods to Stdio.File: sync(), line_iterator() 
 
o Stdio.expand_symlinks(string path) 
    Expands all symlinks along a path (returns 0 for broken links). 
    (Only available on systems with readlink.) 
 
o Stdio.FakeFile 
    Wraps a string and exports a Stdio.File interface. 
 
o Stdio.File->grantpt() 
    can now allocate a VTY on systems with /dev/ptmx support. 
 
    Minimal example: 
      fd = Stdio.File("/dev/ptmx", "rw" ); 
      Stdio.File fd2 = Stdio.File( fd->grantpt(), "rw" ); 
      Process.create_process( ({ "/bin/bash" }), ([ 
        "stdin":fd2,  "stdout":fd2, "stderr":fd2, "setsid":fd2,  
      ]) ); 
 
o Tools.PV 
    Convenience tool that sets up a canvas with GTK, presents a 
    picture on it and delivers a number of image inspection and 
    manipulation options. This is a great tool for image work in 
    Hilfe. 
 
      > object i=Image.Image(32,32)->random(); 
      > Tools.PV(i); 
 
    The Pike Viewer tool is also accessible via "pike -x pv". 
 
o Shuffler 
 
o Gmp.mpq and Gmp.mpf 
    Multi precision fractions. 
 
o String.SplitIterator 
    FIXME: grubba 
 
o String.Replace, String.SingleReplace 
    FIXME 
 
o SDL 
    Wrapper for a subset of Simple DirectMedia Layer 
    functionality. Useful for writing games, movie players and other 
    graphically intensive applications. 
 
o Oracle 
     CLOB and BLOB support. 
 
o Return value from catch blocks. 
    The return value from catch blocks that exit normally has been 
    changed from a normal zero (i.e. zero_type 0) to UNDEFINED (i.e. 
    zero_type 1). 
 
 
Optimizations: 
-------------- 
 
o Machine code used on some architectures. 
 
o Computed goto 
 
o Better module dumping 
 
o Overall speed improvements. 
    Function calls (new opcodes) 
    sprintf 
    arrays 
    replace 
 
o Deferred backtraces. 
 
o Saved 8 bytes per object for objects not using their parent scope 
 
o Improvement and bug tickets closed: 1499 
 
 
Compatibility changes: 
---------------------- 
 
The following changes are known to break compatibility. The old 
behavior is emulated in the compatibility layer that is activated by 
adding the preprocessor directive "#pike 7.2" to your program or by 
giving the argument "-V7.2" to the pike executable. 
 
o "global" has become a reserved keyword. 
 
o Changed lookup rule for ::. 
    Previously the identifier in front of :: was only looked up among 
    the preceding inherits. Now the lookup additionally includes the 
    names of the surrounding classes. The inherits inside a class 
    still take precedence over the name of the class, though. 
 
o Using local:: on variables is an error. 
    Previously the construct local::foo could be used to access the 
    identifier "foo" in the class scope if it had been overridden by 
    an argument or function variable. That is however only a 
    side-effect of the real use for local::, namely to bind the 
    identifier statically at that point only, to avoid getting an 
    overridden version. In the case of variables this leads to 
    questionable semantics, which is the reason it's been made an 
    error in this version. Pike 7.2 didn't implement it correctly; 
    there local:: on variables had only the effect to access the class 
    scope. Now a proper way to access hidden identifiers has been 
    added, so all such uses of local:: should be replaced with 
    this_program::. 
 
o Identifier lookup 
    The search algorithm for finding identifiers from inherited classes 
    has been changed to look for the most recent definition in the most 
    recent inherit. In Pike 7.2 and prior, it looked up the last 
    definition regardless of inherit depth, unless there was a 
    definition in the current program. (This actually changed more than 
    once during 7.3 - between 7.3.23 and 7.3.32, it looked up the most 
    recent definition with the least inherit depth.) This example shows 
    what the lookup strategies would find: 
 
    class A { 
      int foo() {} 
    } 
 
    class B { 
      int foo() {} 
      inherit A; 
    } 
 
    class C { 
      inherit B; 
    } 
 
    class D { 
      inherit B; 
      inherit C; 
    } 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in D(): 
 
    D-+-B-+-foo          (Pike 7.3.23 --- Pike 7.3.32) 
      |   | 
      |   +-A---foo 
      | 
      +-C---B-+-foo      Pike 7.3.33 --- (present day) 
              | 
              +-A---foo              --- Pike 7.3.22 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in C(): 
 
    C---B-+-foo          Pike 7.3.23 --- (present day) 
          | 
          +-A---foo                  --- Pike 7.3.22 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in B(): 
 
    B-+-foo              All versions of Pike 
      | 
      +-A---foo 
 
o Thread.Condition()->wait() 
    This function takes a mutex lock to unlock while it waits on the 
    condition. That argument was previously optional, but not any 
    more. The reason is that any code that leaves it out will always 
    contain a race; it doesn't work to e.g. rely on the internal 
    interpreter lock in this case. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP 
    All methods in Protocols.HTTP that take a header mapping can now 
    handle array values (signifying multiple headers of that type). 
 
o Protocols.LDAP.client 
    The return code from all methods was changed to follow Pike's 
    logic better. 0 is now a failure. The old behavior is emulated in 
    a compatibility layer. 
 
o dirname 
    Now correctly returns a directory instead of just stripping the 
    part after the nearest directory separator. 
 
o default_yp_domain 
    The EFUN default_yp_domain is now only available as 
    Yp.default_domain. 
 
o LR 
    LR has been moved to Parser.LR and the API has been changed 
    slightly to conform to current API practice, e.g. regarding casing 
    of symbols. 
 
o wmml documentation removed 
    Use the documentation in the refdoc directory instead. 
 
o .build_lobotomize_crypto removed 
    Use the Makefile target lobotomize_crypto to lobotomize Pike. 
    Should preferably be executed in an unused tree straight from CVS. 
 
 
Compatibility changes without backward compatibility: 
----------------------------------------------------- 
 
The following changes were considered bugs and have no backwards 
compatibility layer. 
 
o enum and typedef have implicit local binding 
    enums and typedefs now always have static binding. In 7.2 they 
    could sometimes be dynamically bound. 
 
o Image.Layer modes modified 
    Alpha channel handling for modes add, subtract, multiply, divide, 
    modulo, invsubtract, invdivide, invmodulo, difference, max, min, 
    bitwise_and, bitwise_or, bitwise_xor, screen and overlay modified so 
    that the source layer alpha channel copied to the destination layer 
    alpha channel rather then mixed with the current layer alpha channel: 
 
    aD=aS 
 
    rather then the behavior before: 
 
    aD=(aL+(1-aL)*aS) 
 
    (which is the behavior of the 'normal' mode.) 
 
    Bug fixes in the above modes so that alpha r,g,b channels 
    are handled properly (separately). 
 
    Bug fixes in equal, not_equal, less, more, less_or_equal, and 
    more_or_equal modes so that the alpha channel is handled as 
    documented (which is, in fact, as above; aD=aS). 
 
    Bug fix in divide and invdivide to actually do what the modes are 
    supposed to do (rather then just black the layer). 
 
    And while on it, adding some modes: 
 
    'imultiply'  - D=(1-L)*S 
    'idivide'    - D=S/(1-L) 
    'invidivide' - D=L/(1-S) 
 
    'value_mul' - multiplying the source layer value 
    (as in h,s,v) with the current layer value to the destination 
    layer ("true burn"). 
 
 
C level/development changes: 
---------------------------- 
 
o Some global symbols have been renamed to avoid name clashes. 
    sp -> Pike_sp 
    fp -> Pike_fp 
    fatal -> Pike_fatal 
    empty_string -> empty_pike_string 
 
o --with-internal-profiling 
 
o Module symbols not available from other modules. 
 
 
Bugs fixed: 
----------- 
 
o Reworked trampolines to cause less circular references. (solves 1937) 
 
o Works with Autoconf 2.50 
 
(To browse bug tickets, either visit 
http://community.roxen.com/crunch/ - or append the ticket id to 
"http://bugs.roxen.com/" for an address directly to the ticket 
itself.) 
 
 
 
Uncategorized misc changes: 
--------------------------- 
o it is possible to change predefines without forking a new pike 
o #pragma save_parent 
o #pragma dont_save_parent (overrides constant __pragma_save_parent__) 
o dont_dump_module *FIXME: grubba* 
o C modules can no longer call functions in other dynamic C modules directly 
  FIXME: mast, grubba? 
o It is possible to inherit pike programs from C programs. 
o Separate weak flags for indices and values in mappings 
o Added low lowel glue for the Ffmpeg library. 
 
 
o Calendar.verify  *FIXME: remove?* 
 
Nilsson does lib: 
 
master.pike 
- add_predefine/remove_predefine 
- Improved handling of module cross dependencies. 
 
Array.common_prefix 
Array.count 
Array.greedy_diff 
Array.oid_sort_func 
Array.arrayify 
Array.uniq2 
Array.sum 
 
Local 
 
Multiset 
 
Pike.Backend 
Pike.Security 
Pike.BacktraceFrame 
Pike.WEAK_INDICES, WEAK_VALUES, WEAK 
 
Image.DWG 
Image.DIMS 
Image.Fonts 
Image.filled_circle 
 
String.Elite 
String.SingleReplace 
String.Replace 
String.SplitIterator 
String.soundex 
String.Buffer 
String.HTML 
String.int2char 
String.int2hex 
String.expand_tabs 
String.int2roman 
String.int2size 
 
ADT.History 
ADT.Relation.Binary 
 
Audio 
 
Debug.Subject 
Debug.Tracer 
 
Locale.Language 
 
MIME.ext_to_media_type 
 
Parser.Python 
Parser.RCS 
Parser.decode_numeric_xml_entity 
Parser.get_xml_parser 
Parser.parse_html_entities 
Parser.LR 
Parser.XML.NSTree 
 
Protocols.HTTP.Query supports https 
Protocols.LDAP supports ldaps 
Protocols.SNMP now works 
Protocols.XMLRPC 
 
SSL support TLS 1.0 
 
Standards.EXIF 
Standards.FIPS10_4 
Standards.ID3 
Standards.ISO639_2.map_to_639_1, convert_b_to_t, convert_t_to_b 
Standards.RDF 
Standards.CIFF 
 
Stdio.FakeFile 
Stdio.connect_unix 
Stdio.simplify_path 
Stdio.expand_symlinks 
Stdio.file_equal 
Stdio.FILE.set_charset 
 
DVB 
 
Web.Crawler