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Changes since Pike 7.2: 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New/improved functionality: 
--------------------------- 
 
o New Hilfe 
    The interactive pike environment you get when running pike without 
    giving a program name, has been thoroughly rewritten. Most notably 
    it now supports more of the common pike constructs, and is more 
    extendable and configurable. Start it and type help for more info. 
 
o AutoDoc 
    The major parts of Pike now have some sort of documentation on 
    class and function level thanks to the AutoDoc system which has 
    been deployed during the last year. Manual dumps are published on 
    http://pike.ida.liu.se/docs/reference/. 
 
o pike -x 
    When starting pike with the -x parameter, the pike process will 
    run the named script in Tools.Standalone, giving the rest of the 
    arguments as command-line switches. This is a convenient way of 
    running rsif (replace string in file) and pv (the image viewer 
    you may be familiar with from Tools.PV). 
 
o pike -e scope 
    When running command line one-liners with pike -e you can now 
    access the number of arguments, the actual arguments and the 
    environment variables through the variables argc, argv and env. 
 
o unbug 
    Embryo of a Pike debugger. Neither stable nor finished. 
 
o Unicode 3.2.0 
    All tables have been updated to Unicode 3.2.0. This applies both to 
    the Unicode module as well as to Pike-global functionality such as 
    upper_case/lower_case. unicode_to_string() now also has support for 
    surrogate and byteorder mark handling. 
 
o Extended random() 
    random() now works on floats, arrays, multisets, mappings and 
    objects in addition to integers. 
 
o delay()/sleep() 
    sleep() no longer busywaits, which it previously did for small 
    values. The old behavior is available from the delay() function. 
    (This has change been made in later Pike 7.2 releases too.) 
 
o search(string, int) / has_value(string, int) 
    Both of these methods now handle looking for both strings and 
    integers (the unicode number for a single character). 
    Examples: search("hi, ho!", '!'), has_value("Nope.", ' ') 
 
o Expanded Charset module 
    The character set module now has support for the character sets 
    Shift_JIS, UTF-7.5, EUC, Big5, CP950, UTF-16, UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE. 
    It is now also easier to get the right charset codec since the 
    names are normalized internally. 
 
o sprintf("%O", foo) is more descriptive 
    If foo is a program or an object then Pike will try to find the 
    resolved name instead of returning just "program" or "object". 
    However, if an object contains an _sprintf function it will still 
    be called in this case. 
 
o basetype(foo) 
    Returns a string with the basic type of foo as opposed to 
    _typeof(foo) which returns the actual type. Also available as 
    sprintf("%t", foo). Note that it is affected by _sprintf() in 
    objects. 
 
o getenv()/putenv() 
    The environment variable functions getenv and putenv are both 
    now case-insensitive on Microsoft Windows systems. This should 
    make your programs more portable. 
 
o Return value from catch blocks. 
    The return value from catch blocks that exit normally has been 
    changed from a normal zero (i.e. zero_type 0) to UNDEFINED (i.e. 
    zero_type 1). 
 
o SSL 
    The Pike SSL implementation now supports TLS 1.0. Also the LDAP 
    protocol and the methods in HTTP.Query now support secure transport 
    over SSL/TLS. 
 
 
Language additions: 
------------------- 
 
o foreach(X; Y; Z) 
    The foreach statement has been extended to allow iterations over 
    mappings, multisets and any object that implements the iterator 
    interface (see below). To make it possible to use this 
    conveniently, a new syntax has been added to get both the index 
    and the value in each iteration: 
 
        foreach (something; index-expr; value-expr) ... 
 
    This iterates over something, assigning in turn each index to 
    index-expr and each value to value-expr. The index and value 
    expressions can be declarations or lvalues, and they can also be 
    left out if the index and/or value part isn't interesting. 
 
    Note that it depends on the data type whether the iteration order 
    is well defined or not; arrays and multisets are iterated over 
    starting with the first element while mappings are visited in some 
    arbitrary order (each element is still visited only once, though). 
 
o Iterators 
    As noted above, an iterator interface has been added that is now 
    used in various places to iterate over different data structures. 
    Not only the built-in data types are supported, but actually any 
    object that fulfills the interface for iterators: 
 
    When iterating over an object o, o->_get_iterator() is called to 
    get an iterator object. An iterator object should at least have 
    two functions, index() and value(), to get the index and value 
    at the current position, a function `+=(int steps) to advance the 
    current position the specified number of steps, and a `!() that 
    returns zero if the end of the data set hasn't been reached yet. 
 
    Also, if the object lacks a _get_iterator function, it will be 
    assumed to be an iterator itself. This makes it possible to pass 
    an iterator explicitly to e.g. the foreach statement. 
 
    The built-in data types also have iterator classes with this 
    interface. They are found as Array.Iterator, Mapping.Iterator, etc 
    and can be used to iterate over these data types in some custom 
    fashion. This is especially useful for mappings and multisets, 
    which cannot be iterated over directly in any other way. For 
    example, to get some arbitrary index in a mapping m: 
 
        mixed any_index = Mapping.Iterator(m)->index(); 
 
o Automap 
    To perform per-element operations on arrays, there is now a convenience 
    syntax for map(), that can make code more readable in some situations. 
    Summing up two arrays element by element using automap looks like this: 
 
        a[*] + b[*]; // the result has as many elements as the shortest array. 
 
    Multiplying all elements in a by a constant: 
 
        a[*] * 4711; 
 
    Make an array of what sprintf("%O", a[n]) returns for all elements in a: 
 
        sprintf("%O", a[*]); 
 
o Implicit lambda 
    A convenient way to embed code that needs pre- and/or post- 
    initialization. If a statement starts with a function call 
    followed directly by a brace block, then the block is transformed 
    to a lambda function which is passed as the last argument to the 
    function being called. 
 
    The following example embeds OpenGL calls that modifies the matrix 
    in an implicit lambda that will save the matrix before execution 
    and restore it afterwards: 
 
       void PushPop( function f ) 
       { 
         glPushMatrix(); 
         mixed err = catch(f()); 
         glPopMatrix(); 
         if (err) throw(err); 
       } 
 
       void do_something() 
       { 
         PushPop() { 
           glTranslate( (1.0-0.08)/2, 0.0, 0.0 ); 
           draw_stuff(); 
         }; 
       } 
 
    Note that although useful, this feature has important 
    disadvantages and will probably be obsoleted by a better 
    alternative in the future. The problem is that the inner brace 
    block becomes a completely separate function instead of remaining a 
    block. The difference (apart from being slower) is shown by this 
    example: 
 
       void do_something() 
       { 
         PushPop() { 
           if (glError()) return; 
           glTranslate( (1.0-0.08)/2, 0.0, 0.0 ); 
           draw_stuff(); 
         }; 
         draw_more_stuff(); 
       } 
 
    Since the inner block is a separate function, the return statement 
    doesn't exit do_something() as one might expect, causing 
    draw_more_stuff() to be called even when there's a GL error. 
    Another effect is that break and continue can't be associated with 
    statements outside the implicit lambda block. 
 
    Another method that overcomes these problems will likely be 
    implemented. The problem is that it can give compatibility 
    problems to change old code that uses implicit lambdas to that 
    one, since e.g. return will work differently without giving any 
    sort of error. 
 
o Access to hidden variables in surrounding scopes 
    Include the names of the surrounding classes themselves in the lookup for 
    Foo::, to make it possible to address hidden variables in the scopes of 
    surrounding classes, e.g: 
 
       class Foo { 
         int i; 
         void create (int i) {Foo::i = i;} 
       } 
 
o global:: 
    Added new keyword global to be able to access identifiers on the 
    top level of the compilation unit using global::foo. 
 
o global. 
    All top level modules (and other identifiers in that scope) can now 
    be accessed with a "global." prefix. This is useful in cases where 
    local identifiers overshadow the top level, for instance in the Image 
    module, where the Image.Image class can occasionally block your view. 
 
o this 
    Added a magic identifier "this" that can be used instead of 
    this_object(). Like this_program, it only exists when there's no 
    other identifier with that name. The primary reason for adding 
    this magic identifier is to make it possible to address the object 
    of a surrounding class with Foo::this. 
 
o The program type can be specialized 
    It's possible to specialize a program variable by adding a program 
    identifier, much like an object variable can be specialized. E.g: 
 
       program(Stdio.File) fd_prog = Stdio.File; 
 
o ::_indices(), ::_values(). 
    There are now two "magic" functions ::_indices() and ::_values() 
    that can be used by an object to list all identifiers and their 
    values in itself. They are primarily intended for use when the 
    _indices() and _values() lfuns have been defined, to get the default 
    implementations. This is to complement the "magic" ::`->() and 
    ::`->=() functions that exist in earlier releases. 
 
o UNDEFINED 
    To generate a 0 (zero) with a zero_type(var) == 1, you previously 
    had to use constructs like ([])[0]. This is now available as the 
    globally available symbol UNDEFINED. 
 
o _m_delete 
    A class can now define a function mixed _m_delete(mixed index) to 
    make the objects work like mappings with respect to m_delete(). 
    (This feature has been added to later 7.2 releases too.) 
 
o Constant objects 
    An object can now be constant, allowing for better performance 
    and better dumping. Used for example with Gmp.Bignum, Math.Matrix 
    and Image.Color. 
 
 
New modules / classes / methods added: 
-------------------------------------- 
 
o ADT.History 
    ADT implementation of a "leaking stack". Hilfe example: 
      > object h=ADT.History(3); 
      > for(int i=17; i<22; i++) h->push(i); 
      Ok. 
      > h->get_first_entry_num(); 
      (1) Result: 3 
      > h[3]; 
      (2) Result: 19 
 
o ADT.Relation.Binary 
    Handles binary relations. Hilfe example: 
      > object r=ADT.Relation.Binary("test"); 
      > r->add(1,2)->add(2,3)->add(3,5)->add(1,4)->add(4,5); 
      (1) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->find_shortest_path(1,5); 
      (2) Result: ({ /* 3 elements */ 
                      1, 
                      4, 
                      5 
                  }) 
      > r->remove(1,4); 
      (3) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->add(5,1); 
      (4) Result: ADT.Relation.Binary("test") 
      > r->find_shortest_path(1,5); 
      (5) Result: ({ /* 4 elements */ 
                      1, 
                      2, 
                      3, 
                      5 
                  }) 
 
o Audio.Codec and Audio.Format 
    Contain decoders/encoders and format parsers for audio using 
    Ffmpeg library. Currently WAV and MP3. 
    Note: The API remains marked "unstable". 
 
o Crypto.md4 
    Hash used for NT Lanmanager passwords. 
 
o Crypto.crypt_md5 
    Convenience function to produce crypted $1$ style crypted 
    passwords (commonly called MD5 passwords). 
 
o Debug 
    Many top level debug functions have been moved into the Debug module 
    to keep the amount of top level functions less intimidating to new 
    users and to make the debug functions easier to find. 
 
o Debug.Tracer 
    A class that when instantiated will turn on trace, and when 
    destroyed will turn it off again. 
 
o Debug.Subject 
    This is a probe subject which you can send in somewhere to get 
    probed (not to be confused with a probe object, which does some 
    active probing). All calls to LFUNs will be printed to stderr. 
 
o DVB 
    Access to DVB (digital sat) resources. Controls tuner, MP2 audio 
    and video decoders. Allows extract multiple channels at once. 
    Note: Only old 0.9.4 DVB API is supported. 
 
o Gmp.mpq and Gmp.mpf 
    Support for GMP multi-precision fractions and multi-precision 
    floats. Hilfe example: 
      > Gmp.mpq(5,3);           
      (1) Result: 5/3 
      > _->invert(); 
      (2) Result: 3/5 
      > (float)_; 
      (3) Result: 0.600000 
      > Gmp.mpq(5,3)+Gmp.mpq(1,2); 
      (4) Result: 13/6 
 
o Gz.File 
    Pike can now compress and decompress the Gzip file format. 
    This is still a bit experimental but the basic functions 
    should work just fine. 
 
o HTTP.Server 
    A simple HTTP Server. 
 
o Image.filled_circle() Image.filled_circle_layer() 
    Return an Image/Layer object with a filled circle. 
 
o Image.Dims 
    Can extract the dimensions of an image with a minimal amount of 
    data loading. Currently handles JPEG, GIF and PNG images. Hilfe 
    example: 
      > Image.Dims.get(Stdio.File("test.gif")); 
      (1) Result: ({ /* 2 elements */ 
                      1412, 
                      1120 
                  }) 
 
o Image.DWG 
    Decodes the thumbnail images embedded in AutoCAD drawings. 
 
o Image.Fonts 
    High level API for font handling. Should be used instead of 
    accessing the FreeType, TTF and Image.Font modules directly. 
 
o Image.Image  
    Added two new methods, blur() and grey_blur(), which are hard 
    coded, MMX optimized versions of these common matrix operations. 
 
o Image.JPEG 
    Support for lossless transforms, such as rotating and rescaling 
    the image, and handling of metadata. 
 
o Image.PVR 
    VQ compression/decompression added. 
 
o Image.SVG 
    Support for Structured Vector Graphics through the Gnome SVG 
    library. Requires Gnome 2. 
 
o Local 
    All Pike modules and classes found in the directory hierarchies 
    /usr/local/pike_modules, /opt/pike_modules, /opt/share/pike_modules, 
    /usr/local/share/pike_modules, $HOME/pike_modules, and 
    $PIKE_LOCAL_PATH (a :-separated list of directories) are available 
    with the prefix "Local.". Local.add_path() and Local.remove_path() 
    respectively adds and removes entries from the list of paths to 
    inspect when resolving Local.* symbols. 
 
o Locale.Language 
    Support for time formatting, counting and more for various 
    languages. Currently supported languages are Catalan, Croatian, Czech, 
    Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, 
    Japanese, Maori, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, 
    Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish. 
 
o Math.Matrix 
    Methods sum(), max(), min(), convolve() and dot_product() added. 
     
o Math.Transforms 
    Glue for supporting FFT and iFFT via libfftw and librfftw. 
 
o Math 
    Added the IEEE float constants inf and nan. 
 
o MIME 
    Added method ext_to_media_type, which returns the MIME media type for 
    a given extension. The module currently knows of 469 different file 
    extensions.The MIME.Message class has also been extended with a "guess" 
    mode that parses input more forgivingly. 
 
o Oracle 
    The Oracle database glue now supports CLOBs and BLOBs. 
 
o Parser 
    Added a few methods: get_xml_parser(), which returns a Parser.HTML 
    set up to parse XML, parse_html_entities() and 
    decode_numeric_xml_entity(), which decode XML and HTML entities 
    respectively. 
 
    Examples: 
      Parser.decode_numeric_xml_entity("#x7a") => "z" 
      Parser.parse_html_entities("&gt;")       => ">" 
 
o Parser.Python 
    Splits Python source code into text tokens. 
 
o Parser.RCS 
    Extracts data from RCS or CVS repositories. 
 
o Parser.XML.NSTree 
    This is an extended version of Parser.XML.Tree that can handle 
    namespaces according to the W3C namespace specification. 
 
o Pike.Backend and Pike.DefaultBackend 
    It is now possible to start several backends, and to start the 
    default backend without having to return negative from main(). 
 
    Example: 
      while(things_to_do) { 
        mixed err; 
        if (err = catch{ 
          while(things_to_do) { 
            Pike.DefaultBackend(3600.0); 
          } }) { 
          master()->handle_error(err); 
        } 
      } 
 
o Protocols.XMLRPC 
    Implements most features of the XML-RPC standard. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP 
    All methods in Protocols.HTTP that take a header mapping can now 
    handle array values (signifying multiple headers of that type). 
 
o SDL 
    Wrapper for a subset of Simple DirectMedia Layer 
    functionality. Useful for writing games, movie players and other 
    graphically intensive applications. 
 
o Shuffler 
    The shuffler module is what in aspect oriented and component based 
    programming is called a connector. This connector provides an easy 
    way to connect a data source to a file socket and transfer data 
    between them until the data source runs dry, at which point the 
    connection will be closed. The transfer can be throttled according 
    to arbitrarily complex rules. All this with a minimum of attention. 
    Currently the shuffler can use ordinary 8-bit wide strings, 
    System.Memory objects, normal files, network sockets, named pipes, 
    stdin and pike objects adhering to the Stdio.File API as connector 
    sources. 
 
o Standards.CIFF 
    Experimental module to read Canon Camera Image File Format data. 
 
o Standards.EXIF 
    Support for the EXchangeable Image file Format for digital still 
    cameras version 2.2. Support for maker notes for cameras from 
    Nikon, Canon, Fuji Film, Olympus, Sanyo and Casio. 
 
o Standards.FIPS10_4 
    "The Federal Information Processing Standard for Countries, 
    Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and their Principal 
    Administrative Divisions" = american standard for countries and 
    country division codes. 
 
o Standards.ID3 
    ID3 tag decoder/encoder. Supports versions: 1.0, 1.1, 2.2-2.4. 
    Frequently used in MP3 files for encapsulating metadata. 
 
o Standards.ISO639_2 
    This module has been updated with the map_to_639_1() method to 
    convert from ISO 639-2/T to ISO 639-1. With the new methods 
    convert_b_to_t() and convert_t_to_b() it is possible to convert 
    between ISO 639-2/T and ISO 639-2/B. 
 
o Standards.RDF 
    Represents an RDF domain and allows you to perform searches in its 
    relations. Currently only serializes/deserializes to N-triple 
    format. 
 
o Stdio 
    Two higher order filesystem methods has been added to Stdio, 
    simplify_path() and file_equal(). The first returns a canonic 
    representation of its argument without "/./", "/../", "//" and 
    similar path segments. The second is a speedy way to compare if 
    two files have identical content. 
 
    Finally the get_all_active_fd() function has been moved from 
    spider to Stdio in our strive to deprecate the spider module. 
 
o Stdio.FakeFile 
    Wraps a string in an object that exports a Stdio.File interface. 
 
o Stdio.File 
    This object has received a few additions; With the sync() method 
    the file object can be synchronized with the disk. line_iterator() 
    returns an iterator object that iterates over the lines in the 
    file. It is now possible to open UNIX domain sockets with the 
    connect_unix() method. Finally grantpt() can allocate a VTY on 
    systems with /dev/ptmx support. 
 
    Minimal example: 
      fd = Stdio.File("/dev/ptmx", "rw" ); 
      Stdio.File fd2 = Stdio.File( fd->grantpt(), "rw" ); 
      Process.create_process( ({ "/bin/bash" }), ([ 
        "stdin":fd2,  "stdout":fd2, "stderr":fd2, "setsid":fd2,  
      ]) ); 
 
o Stdio.FILE.set_charset() 
    It is possible to set the charset of a FILE object to get 
    streaming and transparent charset conversion of data to and from 
    the object. 
 
o String 
    Added a few new methods: int2char(), int2hex(), int2roman(), int2size(), 
    which convert integers into different string representations, and 
    expand_tabs(), which converts tabs to spaces. 
 
    Examples: 
      String.int2char(42)   => "*" 
      String.int2hex(42)    => "2a" 
      String.int2roman(42)  => "XLII" 
      String.int2size(4200) => "4.1 kb" 
 
   A soundex() method has also been added, which normalizes names according 
   to the soundex algorithm. The algorithm in itself is not very useful, 
   but some databases support it. 
 
o String.Elite 
    Contains methods that transfer ordinary readable text into 
    leet-speak. A fairly good argument could be laid out for putting this 
    in Crypto as a one way cipher... 
 
o String.Buffer 
    A buffer used for building strings very fast. 
 
o String.HTML 
    Contains methods that help in generating HTML. 
 
o System 
    The following methods have been added: normalize_path(), which works 
    on NT style paths. get_netinfo_property(), which queries a NetInfo 
    server on MacOS X. gettimeofday(), which uses the system gettimeofday 
    to retrieve the time. 
 
o System.Time 
    Used to get the current time with sub-second precision. 
 
o System.Timer 
    Measures the time between two calls. 
 
o System.Memory  
    Handles read/write from mmap'ed or allocated memory. 
 
o Tools.PV 
    Convenience tool that sets up a canvas with GTK, presents a 
    picture on it and delivers a number of image inspection and 
    manipulation options. This is a great tool for image work in 
    Hilfe. 
 
      > object i=Image.Image(32,32)->random(); 
      > Tools.PV(i); 
 
    The Pike Viewer tool is also accessible via "pike -x pv". 
 
o Web.Crawler 
    A generic asynchronus web crawler that supports the /robots.txt 
    standard. 
 
 
Optimizations: 
-------------- 
 
Several general optimizations and tuning of algorithms and 
implementations in Pike have been done since Pike 7.2. Much of the work 
has been to get a general speed up in the compiler and interpreter, 
but some targeted work has also been done to make common code 
constructions execute faster. A comparison between Pike 7.2.440 and 
Pike 7.4.1 done on an IA32 machine running Red Hat Linux: 
 
              Pike 7.2.440  Pike 7.4.1 
   ackermann:         5.98        4.96 
        ary3:        10.60        6.53 
        fibo:         8.64        6.58 
        hash:         5.93        5.13 
    heapsort:        10.88        6.65 
       lists:         7.12        6.20 
    methcall:         8.23        8.45 
  nestedloop:        52.75       11.24 
     objinst:         6.39        5.27 
      random:         7.47        4.64 
       sieve:        10.63        6.72 
      strcat:         3.22        2.25 
 
These tests use standard tests straight from The Great Computer Language 
Shootout. If the lists test and the strcat tests are slightly modified 
to use arrays in the first case and normal strings in the second case, 
Pike will yield an even better result. 
 
o Machine code generation 
    On systems with IA32, SPARC or PPC32 processors Pike can use 
    native machine code as byte code. This byte code can then be 
    executed directly outside the virtual machine and give a ~30% 
    performance boost compared to the old byte code. 
 
o Improved module dumping 
    More modules than ever can now be dumped successfully into object 
    files, making the Pike startup time less than ever. 
 
o Deferred backtraces 
    Most of the information in backtraces is now calculated on demand 
    for the backtrace information and not when the backtrace is 
    generated. This improves the performance of catched errors. 
 
 
Compatibility changes: 
---------------------- 
 
The following changes are known to break compatibility. The old 
behavior is emulated in the compatibility layer that is activated by 
adding the preprocessor directive "#pike 7.2" to your program or by 
giving the argument "-V7.2" to the pike executable. 
 
o "global" has become a reserved keyword. 
 
o Changed lookup rule for ::. 
    Previously the identifier in front of :: was only looked up among 
    the preceding inherits. Now the lookup additionally includes the 
    names of the surrounding classes. The inherits inside a class 
    still take precedence over the name of the class, though. 
 
o Using local:: on variables is an error. 
    Previously the construct local::foo could be used to access the 
    identifier "foo" in the class scope if it had been overridden by 
    an argument or function variable. That is however only a 
    side-effect of the real use for local::, namely to bind the 
    identifier statically at that point only, to avoid getting an 
    overridden version. In the case of variables this leads to 
    questionable semantics, which is the reason it's been made an 
    error in this version. Pike 7.2 didn't implement it correctly; 
    there local:: on variables had only the effect to access the class 
    scope. Now a proper way to access shadowed identifiers has been 
    added, so all such uses of local:: should be replaced with 
    this_program::. 
 
o Identifier lookup 
    The search algorithm for finding identifiers from inherited classes 
    has been changed to look for the most recent definition in the most 
    recent inherit. In Pike 7.2 and prior, it looked up the last 
    definition regardless of inherit depth, unless there was a 
    definition in the current program. (This actually changed more than 
    once during 7.3 - between 7.3.23 and 7.3.32, it looked up the most 
    recent definition with the least inherit depth.) This example shows 
    what the lookup strategies would find: 
 
    class A { 
      int foo() {} 
    } 
 
    class B { 
      int foo() {} 
      inherit A; 
    } 
 
    class C { 
      inherit B; 
    } 
 
    class D { 
      inherit B; 
      inherit C; 
    } 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in D(): 
 
    D-+-B-+-foo          (Pike 7.3.23 --- Pike 7.3.32) 
      |   | 
      |   +-A---foo 
      | 
      +-C---B-+-foo      Pike 7.3.33 --- (present day) 
              | 
              +-A---foo              --- Pike 7.3.22 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in C(): 
 
    C---B-+-foo          Pike 7.3.23 --- (present day) 
          | 
          +-A---foo                  --- Pike 7.3.22 
 
    Lookup of identifier "foo" in B(): 
 
    B-+-foo              All versions of Pike 
      | 
      +-A---foo 
 
o Individual parent object pointers are now only kept when needed 
    In Pike 7.0 and 7.2 all objects kept a pointer to the surrounding 
    object. This led to an excess of circular datastructures, which 
    ment that the garbage collector had to kick in more often. In Pike 
    7.4 parent object pointers are only kept if the object actually 
    refers to identifiers in the parent. This change however affects 
    the behaviour of object_program() and function_object(). 
 
o __pragma_save_parent__ 
    To change the default parent object pointer behaviour to the 
    Pike 7.0/7.2 default it is possible to 
    add_constant("__pragma_save_parent__", 1). 
 
o #pragma save_parent 
    To get the Pike 7.0/7.2 parent object pointer behaviour for a 
    single compilation unit use the #pragma save_parent. 
 
o #pragma dont_save_parent 
    To restore the default Pike 7.4 parent object pointer behaviour from 
    #pragma save_parent or __pragma_save_parent__ for a single compilation 
    unit use the #pragma dont_save_parent. 
 
o Thread.Condition()->wait() 
    This function takes a mutex lock to unlock while it waits on the 
    condition. That argument was previously optional, but not any 
    more. The reason is that any code that leaves it out will always 
    contain a race; it doesn't work to e.g. rely on the internal 
    interpreter lock in this case. 
 
o Protocols.LDAP.client() 
    The return code from all methods has been changed to follow Pike's 
    logic better. 0 is now a failure. The old behavior is emulated in 
    a compatibility layer. 
 
o Protocols.SNMP 
    Support for SNMP v1 and v2c, including a simple SNMP agent with 
    support for Get requests. 
 
o Protocols.X 
    Support for the X11 XTEST extension has been added. 
 
o dirname() 
    Now correctly returns a directory instead of just stripping the 
    part after the nearest directory separator. 
 
o default_yp_domain() 
    The EFUN default_yp_domain() is now only available as 
    Yp.default_domain(). 
 
o clone()/new() 
    The functions clone() and new() have been removed. Instead of doing 
    clone(x) or new(x), now do x() if x is a program and ((program)x)() 
    if x is a string. 
 
o LR 
    The LR module has been moved to Parser.LR and the API has been changed 
    slightly to conform to current API practices, e.g. regarding casing 
    of symbols. 
 
o wmml documentation removed 
    Use the documentation in the refdoc directory instead. 
 
o .build_lobotomize_crypto removed 
    Use the Makefile target lobotomize_crypto to lobotomize Pike. 
    Should preferably be executed in an unused tree straight from CVS. 
 
 
Compatibility changes without backward compatibility: 
----------------------------------------------------- 
 
The following changes were considered bugfixes and have no backwards 
compatibility layer. 
 
o enum and typedef have implicit local binding 
    Symbols defined by enum and typedef now always have static binding. 
    In 7.2 they could sometimes be dynamically bound. 
 
o Image.Layer modes modified 
    Alpha channel handling for modes add, subtract, multiply, divide, 
    modulo, invsubtract, invdivide, invmodulo, difference, max, min, 
    bitwise_and, bitwise_or, bitwise_xor, screen and overlay modified so 
    that the source layer alpha channel copied to the destination layer 
    alpha channel rather then mixed with the current layer alpha channel: 
 
    aD=aS 
 
    rather then the behavior before: 
 
    aD=(aL+(1-aL)*aS) 
 
    (which is the behavior of the 'normal' mode.) 
 
    Bug fixes in the above modes so that alpha r,g,b channels 
    are handled properly (separately). 
 
    Bug fixes in equal, not_equal, less, more, less_or_equal, and 
    more_or_equal modes so that the alpha channel is handled as 
    documented (which is, in fact, as above; aD=aS). 
 
    Bug fix in divide and invdivide to actually do what the modes are 
    supposed to do (rather then just black the layer). 
 
    And while on it, adding some modes: 
 
    'imultiply'  - D=(1-L)*S 
    'idivide'    - D=S/(1-L) 
    'invidivide' - D=L/(1-S) 
 
    'value_mul' - multiplying the source layer value 
    (as in h,s,v) with the current layer value to the destination 
    layer ("true burn"). 
 
 
C level/development changes: 
---------------------------- 
 
o Some global symbols have been renamed to avoid name clashes. 
    sp -> Pike_sp 
    fp -> Pike_fp 
    fatal -> Pike_fatal 
    empty_string -> empty_pike_string 
 
o --with-internal-profiling 
    FIXME: Expand on this. 
 
o C-module symbols not available from other modules. 
    To avoid clashes between modules the symbols of dynamically loaded 
    modules are now no longer available to eachother. 
    FIXME: How to do now? 
 
o Pike valgrinded 
    Pike has been the subject to some Valgrind scrutiny. Some specific 
    Valgrind enhancements have been made to Pike to improve markup of 
    forbidden memory areas. While all Valgrind issues are not yet 
    resolved, partially due to Valgrind breakage, our confidence in 
    the quality of Pike has been reassured. 
 
 
Bugs fixed: 
----------- 
 
To browse all bug tickets, visit http://pike.ida.liu.se/development/bugs/ 
 
o Reworked trampolines to cause less circular references. (solves 1937) 
 
o It is now possible to inherit Pike programs from C programs. 
 
o Now supports Autoconf 2.50 & Autoconf 2.52 
 
 
Uncategorized misc changes: 
--------------------------- 
 
o it is possible to change predefines without forking a new pike 
  add_predefine()/remove_predefine() 
 
o dont_dump_module *FIXME: grubba* 
 
System.usleep()/nanosleep() 
   FIXME: per? 
 
master.pike 
- Improved handling of module cross dependencies. 
 
Multiset 
 
Pike.Security 
Pike.BacktraceFrame 
Pike.WEAK_INDICES, WEAK_VALUES, WEAK 
 
o String.SplitIterator 
    FIXME: grubba 
 
o String.Replace, String.SingleReplace 
    FIXME 
 
Array.common_prefix 
Array.count 
Array.greedy_diff 
Array.oid_sort_func 
Array.arrayify 
Array.uniq2 
Array.sum