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Changes since Pike 8.0.438 (releas 9) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New Features 
------------ 
 
o Concurrent 
 
  The Concurrent module simplify asynchronous code by synchronizing 
  events in different ways. As an example the connection() function 
  shown will repond with Concurrent.Promise object that at some point 
  will represent either a connected socket or a failure. 
 
    Concurrent.Promise connection(string host, int port) 
    { 
      Stdio.File con = Stdio.File(); 
      Concurrent.Promise p = Concurrent.Promise(); 
      if( !con->async_connect(host, port, lambda(int success) 
        { 
          if(success) 
            p->success(con); 
          else 
            p->failure("Failed to connect to "+host+":"+port+"\n"); 
        })) 
      { 
        p->failure("Failed to open socket.\n"); 
      } 
      return p; 
    } 
 
  The returned promise could the be used in various ways. 
 
    // On success, call make_request(con, query). On failure call 
    // werror(msg). 
    connection(host, port) 
      ->on_failure(werror) 
      ->on_success(make_request, query); 
 
    // On success, call make_request(con, query1) followed by 
    // make_request(resp, query2), where resp is the return value from 
    // make_reqest. 
    connection(host, port) 
      ->then(make_request, werror, query1) 
      ->then(make_request, werror, query2); 
 
    // Call bridge_ports(con1, con2) when both connections are 
    // established. 
    Concurrent.all(connection(host1, port1), connection(host2, port2)) 
      ->then(bridge_ports, failure); 
 
    // Call make_request(con) once either of the connections are 
    // established. 
    Concurrent.race(connection(host1, port1), connection(host2, port2)) 
      ->then(make_requet, query); 
 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o Search 
 
  Fixed a race condition when updating the database. 
 
o Parser.HTML 
 
  Fixed a condition where Pike would run out of stack space for large 
  documents. 
 
o ADT.Heap 
 
  Fixed heap corruption when the same object is pushed more than 
  once. It will now be considered as calling adjust(). 
 
o Inotify 
 
  - Addressed an issue where the backend might be stuck in pending 
    indefinitely. 
 
  - EventStreamMonitor now works with other backends. 
 
o Standards.BSON 
 
  Fixed incorrect encoding/decoding of Binary data. 
 
o Stdio.Buffer 
 
  Fixed a crash when attempting to create a rewind key on a buffer 
  returned by read_buffer(). 
 
o mappings 
 
  Fixed an off by one error in random(mapping) that randomly caused 
  values of type PIKE_T_FREE from the freelist to be exposed to Pike. 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.404 (release 8) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New Features 
------------ 
 
o Calendar 
 
  Updated Calendar to use timezonedata from tzdata2017a. 
 
o GL & GLUT 
 
  Prefer Quartz implementation on systems that have it (OS X). 
 
o GTK2 
 
  - Add -x objective-c for Darwin. 
 
  - Support linking against other implementations than X11. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP 
 
  Connecting to HTTP proxies over HTTPS is now supported. 
 
o Web.decode_jwk() 
 
  Support decoding of symmetric (ie HMAC) keys. 
 
o Web.encode_jws() and Web.decode_jws() 
 
  Added simplified API for dealing with JSON Web Signature values. 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o Runtime 
 
  - Variant dispatcher 
 
    Improved string range checking. 
 
    Fixes mismatches due to te lazy string range (ed string(8bit)) 
    exceeding the typed string range (eg string(7bit)) for narrow strings. 
 
o mkpackage 
 
  Support multiple sub-packages with the same name. 
 
  Gnu-tar doesn't like being asked to extract the same file multiple 
  times from the same tar-file. It claims that the second file doesn't 
  exist in the archive. 
 
  This can happen when a sub-package has been replaced with a fixed version. 
 
o smartlink 
 
  Don't override MACOS_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET if it's been specified. 
 
  This should prevent "compiled against version x but linking against 
  version y" warnings. 
 
o Arg & ADT.Struct 
 
  Survive use by old (ie 8.0.232) pike binaries. 
 
  Roxen 6.0.130 uses a Pike 8.0.232 binary with current modules. 
 
o Backend.PollDeviceBackend 
 
  Make set_signal_event_callback() optional. 
 
  This fixes the warning "An expression of type function({ Backend = 
  object(implements _static_modules.Builtin()->defaultBackendClass) } : 
  void) cannot be assigned to a variable of type function({ Backend = 
  object(implements _static_modules.Builtin()->Backend) } : void).". 
 
o bool 
 
  Make sure that 0 is part of the range for the bool type. 
 
o Charset 
 
  Fixed encoding errors for two characters in the GSM-03.38 charset. 
 
o Debug 
 
  Fixed typo in mask in check_callback_chain(). 
 
  Fixes infinite loop in circularity detection. 
 
o Gdbm 
 
  Support building with gdbc 1.13. 
 
  Fixes obscure compilation error when building with gdbm 1.13 
  due to a symbol clash with the symbol "fatal" used as an argument 
  in the macro definition of gdbm_set_errno(). 
 
o Mapping 
 
  Removed extraneous and conflicting prototype. 
 
  Fixes linking issues on NT. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP 
 
  - Fixed do_async_proxied_method() losing the timeout during TLS 
    negotiation. 
 
  - Now fails immediately if Query is unable to open a socket, instead 
    of waiting 120 seconds for a time out. 
 
  - Allow connection reuse also when the server is a hostname. 
 
o Thread.Mutex 
 
  - Perform a thread yield on mutex onlock in an attempt to reduce 
    thread starvation. 
 
o Sql.pgsql 
 
  - Added an extra synchronisation condition, and increased parallelisation 
    to resolve all detected race conditions (which in rare circumstances 
    (many parallel queries on a single filedescriptor) could have resulted 
    in a deadlock). 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.388 (release 7) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New Features 
------------ 
 
o Mysql.SqlTable 
 
  sizeof() on an SqlTable now returns the number of rows in the table. 
 
o Web 
 
  - Updated {en,de}code_jwt() to support HMAC signatures. 
 
  - Added decode_jwk{,_set}(), which decode RFC 7515-style JOSE keys. 
 
Runtime 
------- 
 
o Stdio.Buffer & String.Buffer 
 
  Allocated constant program identifiers for both of the above. 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o Protocols.DNS 
 
  The size and precision fields of T_LOC records are now properly 
  decoded. 
 
o System.TM 
 
  When a System.TM object was created without any arguments some 
  operations would crash on Windows, and possibly other platforms. 
 
Building 
-------- 
 
o Configure 
 
  Fixed issues with the LDSHARED test on some BSD-derivatives. 
 
o Stdio 
 
  Fixed compilation issue on platforms without readdir_r(). 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.370 (release 6) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o Thread 
 
  _sprintf() improvements: Thread.Mutex now prints the ID of the thread 
  holding the lock, and thread IDs are shown as hexadecimal numbers. 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o String character range 
 
  Fixed a bug where a string could incorrectly have its character 
  range start point set to 0 when added with an empty string. This in 
  turn would incorrectly block the string from being used by functions 
  that require strings without null characters as argument or 
  incorrectly take optimization paths. 
 
o VCDiff 
 
  Fixed type of decode_chunk(). 
 
o Parser.XML 
 
  UTF-8 encoded documents with initial BOM were not decoded correctly. 
 
  Serializing Parser.XML.Tree objects will now entity escape 
  characters that can not be encoded in the selected output charset. 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.358 (release 5) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o Calendar 
 
  Updated Calendar to use timezonedata from tzdata2016j. 
 
o Nettle 
 
  Added version(). 
 
o Refdoc 
 
  Updated to new Pike site layout. 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o JSON 
 
  Fixed a bug in the unicode handling of Standards.JSON.decode(), which 
  treated codepoints slightly below the surrogate range as invalid. 
 
o pike -x pmar_install 
 
  Works again and properly verifies PMAR checksums. 
 
o ::_indices(), ::_values(), ::_types(), ::`->(), ::`->=() 
 
  Fixed several argument checking bugs in the magic_* functions. 
 
o Fixed some bugs in the pmar installer. 
 
o Msql 
 
  Fixed some compilation issues. 
 
o Sql.pgsql 
 
  Fixed broken reconnect behaviour when the database connection dies. 
 
Runtime 
------- 
 
o Added workaround for incompatibility in MS Windows 10's Linux 
  emulation layer. 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.276 (release 4) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o Calendar 
 
  Updated Calendar to use timezonedata from tzdata2016i. 
 
o Crypto.ECC 
 
  Zero-pad short signature integers. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP.Server.HeaderParser 
 
  It is now possible to enable non-normalization on the entire object, 
  and not just on a per call basis. It is also possible to disable 
  support for folded headers, as per IETFs latest specification. 
 
o CompilerEnvironment()->lock() 
 
  This is a class that exposes the compiler internal lock. 
 
o Gz.deflate()->clone() 
 
  This allows for testing compression. 
 
o gdb_backtraces() 
 
  gdb_backtraces() is now available even --without-debug. 
 
o ADT.Heap()->low_pop() 
 
  This function is analogous to low_peek(). 
 
o Protocols.WebSocket 
 
  Parse query variables in WebSocket Requests. 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o cpp 
 
  Fixed stringify operator on strings containing escaped double quotes. 
 
o mkpackage 
 
  Support $EXTRA_PLATFORM_TEST. 
 
o Threads.Condition 
 
  Fixed double free at cleanup on exit. 
 
o Fixed multiple issues with cleanup on exit. 
 
o Whitefish 
 
  Fixed wrong signedness. 
 
o Standards.EXIF 
 
  Improved robustness of the EXIF parser. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP.Session 
 
  Ignore malformed expiry dates in cookies. 
 
o Protocols.WebSocket 
 
  Fixed handling of truncated frames. 
 
o _Roxen 
 
  Backported multiple fixes from Pike 8.1. 
 
o Compiler 
 
  Fixed broken range optimization. 
 
  Removed optimization that considered the hostname() constant. 
 
  Don't reference count direct cyclic references via mixed variables. 
 
o MasterObject 
 
  Protect against the same file being compiled concurrently in 
  multiple threads. 
 
  Cast to program and cast to object should now be thread-safe. 
 
  Survive RESOLV_DEBUG being enabled. 
 
o Stdio.FakeFile 
 
  Improved sendfile compatibility. 
 
o Process.create_process 
 
  Improved behavior under high signal pressure. 
 
o Sql.pgsql 
 
  Improved robustness against stray destructs and exceptions. 
 
o Standards.BSON 
 
  Fixed circular dependency. 
 
o Mappings 
 
  Multiple optimizations in m_delete() and friends. 
 
  Added flag MAPPING_FLAG_NO_SHRINK. 
 
Building 
-------- 
 
o Nettle 
 
  Since there are distributions that have removed nettle_secp_192r1 
  and nettlesecp_224r1 from the nettle library, these curved are now 
  disabled by default. Enable them by compiling with 
  --with-weak-curves. 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.240 (release 3) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o Protocols.HTTP.Server.HeaderParser 
 
  feed() can now be forced not to normalize (ie lower_case) 
  the header names. 
 
o Protocols.WebSocket 
 
  Added client mode. 
 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o Documentation 
 
  Fixed some AutoDoc markup typos. 
 
o Fixed assertion failure in multiset handling. 
 
  Indexing of non-empty multisets containing no objects or functions, 
  with an object implementing lfun::`<() et al could cause assertion 
  failures. 
 
o Filesystem.Monitor 
 
  Fixed potential recursive mutex locks on destroy(). 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.182 (release 2) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o Roxen.http_decode_string() now decodes UTF-16 surrogate pairs. 
 
o Protocols.HTTP.Query now always sends a content-length header. 
 
o Report feature flags for System.FSEvents and System.Inotify. 
 
o Updated Calendar to use timezonedata from tzdata2016c 
 
o Added module Apple.Keychain that can extract certificates. 
 
o Made Standards.X509 aware of more OS specific ways of retriving certificates. 
 
o JOSE (JSON Object Signing and Encryption) 
 
  Some low-level API support has been added to the Crypto and Web 
  modules to support parts of RFC 7515 - 7520. 
 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o The machine code generator on ia32 now aligns the stack 
  on a 16 byte boundary. This makes it possible to call 
  code that uses SSE2 instructions. 
 
o Exceptions thrown in GTK signal handlers no longer cause 
  segfaults. 
 
o The SSL client code now interprets the RFCs more leniently to 
  address some interoperability issues. 
 
o Fixed bugs in cipher selection that prevented null-ciphers from 
  being negotiated by the SSL server (if allowed by the Context 
  object). 
 
o Multiple fixes for the handling of accelerated 
  Filesystem.Monitor monitors, which could sometimes 
  lose notifications. 
 
o Improved handling of response content-length in Protocols.HTTP.Query. 
 
o Fixed case where unfinished programs could lose their parents. 
 
o Fixed "Invalid service"-error from connect() on Fedora Core 4. 
 
o Fixed next_result() in Sql.sql_array_result. 
 
o Fixed sizeof() in Array.Iterator, Multiset.Iterator and 
  String.Iterator. 
 
 
Testing 
------- 
 
o Reduced the memory requirements of Tools.Shoot (pike -x benchmark) 
 
 
Building and installing 
----------------------- 
 
o Multiple fixes for building on Solaris. 
 
o Improved scanning for Odbc header files. 
 
o Fixed some issues with --with-abi flags not propagating 
  correctly to the modules. 
 
 
Changes since Pike 8.0.164 (release 1) 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o gc 
 
  It is now possible to run the gc in a quick mode to just cut 
  weak references from a specific container. 
 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o ADT.Heap 
 
  The Element class lost track of its position when remove() was used. 
 
o Filesystem.Monitor 
 
  * Improved thread safety and robustness 
 
  * Inotify-related fixes. 
 
o pgsql 
 
  The new driver in 8.0 suffered from filedescriptor leaks if the 
  database connections were not explicitly close()d. 
  Fixes have been applied which eliminate the filedescriptor leak and also 
  ensure that the filedescriptors are closed the instant the object 
  loses all references. 
 
o programs 
 
  The runtime now attempts to wait for any compilations in progress to 
  complete before complaining about cloning of unfinished programs. 
  This fixes a race-condition when the same program is compiled from 
  different threads. 
 
o Runtime 
 
  Fixed multiple potential NULL-dereferences. 
 
o SSL.File 
 
  Fixed breaking of circular references when the peer terminates 
  the connection. 
 
o Standards.URI 
 
  Support the userinfo field containing '@'. 
 
o Stdio.File 
 
  The second argument to set_buffer() should now work. 
 
o Testsuite 
 
  Updated the SHA3_* testvectors to FIPS 202. 
 
 
Building and installing 
----------------------- 
 
o Multiple fixes for building on Solaris 11. 
 
 
Pike 8: Changes since Pike 7.8 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
New language features 
--------------------- 
 
o The compiler now only blocks other threads attempting to use 
  the compiler instead of disabling all other threads. 
 
o Added a way to access the local, and not the overloaded, 
  implementation of a symbol. 
 
  As an example, given the classes: 
    | class Test 
    | { 
    |     int a( ) { return 1; } 
    |     int b( ) { return local::a(); }       // New 
    |     int c( ) { return a(); } 
    | } 
    | 
    | class Test2 
    | { 
    |    inherit Test; 
    |    int a() { return 42; } 
    | } 
 
  Both Test()->b() and Test2()->b() will return 1, but Test2()->a() 
  and Test2()->c() will return 42. 
 
o Added new syntax that can be used to return the current object as if 
  it was a class it is inheriting 
 
    The syntax is X::this, where X is the inherited class. 
 
    The returned object will not include any symbols not available in 
    the class X, but your overloaded methods (and other identifiers) 
    will be the ones returned when the object is indexed. 
 
o Added a way to easily inherit the implementation of a subclass in an 
  inheriting class. 
 
    | inherit ::this_program 
 
  The syntax refers to the previous definition of the current class in 
  the inherited class, and is typically used with inherit like: 
 
    | inherit Foo; 
    | 
    | // Override the Bar inherited from Foo. 
    | class Bar { 
    |    // The new Bar is based on the implementation of Bar in Foo. 
    |    inherit ::this_program; 
    |    // ... 
    | } 
 
o Added new syntax for referring to and naming inherits. 
 
    | inherit "foo.pike"; 
    | inherit "foo/bar/baz.pike" : "foo/bar"; 
    | // ... 
    |   "foo.pike"::foo(); 
    |   "foo/bar"::baz(); 
 
o Look up of named inherits now also looks in indirect inherits. 
 
    | class A { int fun() {} } 
    | class B { inherit A; } 
    | class C { 
    |   inherit B; 
    |   // ... 
    |     // The function fun may here be referred to as any of: 
    |     B::A::fun(); 
    |     B::fun(); 
    |     A::fun();     // New. 
 
o Implemented the variant keyword. 
 
  The keyword was present before, but did not actually do anything 
  useful. 
 
  This is used to do function overloading based on the argument types. 
 
  As an example: 
    | class Test1 { int b(); } 
    | class Test2 { int a(); } 
    | 
    | class Foo 
    | { 
    |     variant string foo( object q ){ return "Genericfoo"; } 
    |     variant string foo( Test1 x ) { return "Test 1"; } 
    |     variant string foo( Test2 x ) { return "Test 2"; } 
    | 
    |     variant string bar( int(0..0) s ) { return "0"; } 
    |     variant float bar( int(1..1) s ) { return 1.0; } 
    |     variant int bar( int(2..2) s ) { return 2; } 
    | } 
 
  A common use-case is functions that return different types depending 
  on the arguments, such as getenv: 
 
    |  string|mapping(string:string) getenv( string|void variable ); 
 
  can now be rewritten as 
 
    |  variant string getenv( string variable ); 
    |  variant mapping(string:string) getenv( ); 
 
  which gives significantly better type-checking. 
 
o The type-checker has been rewritten. 
 
  Mainly it is now much better at finding type errors, and most error 
  messages are more readable. 
 
o Allow '.' to be used as an index operator in the few places it did 
  not work before. 
 
o "Safe" index 
 
  Copied from a popular extension to other C-like languages. 
 
  X[?ind] is equivalent to ((auto _ = X),(_ && _[ind])) 
  while X?->ind is equivalent to ((auto _ = X),(_ && _->ind)) 
 
  The main use is 'deep indexing' where some elements can be 0: 
 
    | request_id?->user?->misc?->x 
 
  vs 
 
    | request_id && request_id->user && request_id->user->misc 
    |  && request_id->user->misc->x 
 
o Added the '?:' operator for compatibility with other C-like 
  languages. It is identical to '||' in Pike. 
 
o The && operator changed, when doing A && B, and A is false, keep A 
  instead of returning 0. 
 
  This is especially useful then A is not actually 0, but an object 
  that evaluates to false, or UNDEFINED. 
 
o Fixed symbol resolution with deep inherits and mixins. 
 
o Added multi-character character constants. 
 
  'ILBM' is equivalent to (('I'<<24)|('L'<<16)|('B'<<8)|'M'). 
 
  Unlike how it works in some C compilers the native byte order is 
  never relevant. 
 
o Added new syntax for literal-string constants 
 
  #{, #( and #[ starts a literal string, and it is ended by the 
  corresponding end marker: #}, #) and #] respectively. 
 
  No character is modified at all inside the literal string, including 
  newlines, \ " and '. 
 
  So, the string #["\n\'##] will be equivalent to "\"\\n\\'#". 
 
  The main use-case is to write code in code: 
 
  | string code = #[ 
  |  void main(int c, array v) { 
  |    string x = ""; 
  |    foreach( v[1..], string elm ) 
  |      x += reverse(elm)+","; 
  |    write("Testing: %s\n", reverse( x )); 
  | #]; 
 
  The three different start/end markers might be useful if you write 
  code in code in code, since there is no way to quote the start/end 
  markers. 
 
o Added a shorthand syntax for integer ranges: xbit, where x is a 
  number between 1 and 31. This can be used as an example to indicate 
  that a string is 8 bits wide only: string(8bit) 
 
  This is equivalent to the range (0..255) but can be easier to parse. 
 
  Similarly int(1bit) is an alias for 'bool', and int(12bit) is the 
  same as int(0..4095). 
 
o 'this::x' is now equivalent to 'this_program::x' -- access the 
   identifier x in the current object. 
 
o Weak references to stuff with a single reference are now 
  removed when the container is resized. 
 
  This means that weak references can be cut without having to 
  wait for the full gc to run. 
 
 
New preprocessor features 
------------------------- 
 
o Support for the ", ##__VA_ARGS__" cpp feature. 
 
  This makes the ‘##’ token paste operator have a special meaning when 
  placed between a comma and a variable argument. If you write 
 
    | #define err(format, ...) f(debug)werror("ERROR: "+format, ##__VA_ARGS__) 
 
  and the variable argument is left out when the err macro is used, 
  then the comma before the ‘##’ will be deleted. This does not happen 
  if you pass an empty argument, nor does it happen if the token 
  preceding ‘##’ is anything other than a comma. 
 
o The define __COUNTER__ has been added. It is a unique integer value, 
  the first time the macro is expanded it will be 1, the next time 2 
  etc. 
 
o The preprocessor can now be run with a cpp prefix feature. 
 
  This is currently used by the precompiler to run two levels of 
  preprocessing, one using "#cmod_" as the prefix and the other "#". 
 
o Dynamic macros 
 
  You can now add programmatic macros. There is currently no syntax 
  that can be used to define these while compiling code, but you can 
  add them from one program before compiling plug-ins/modules. 
 
  The main use is macros like DEBUG(...) and IFDEBUG() that would 
  expand to something if a debug setting is enabled in the module but 
  nothing otherwise, or, to take an actual example from the Opera Mini 
  source code: 
 
    | add_predefine( "METRIC()", 
    |     lambda( string name, string ... code ) 
    |     { 
    |         string type = type_of( code ); 
    |         string aggregate = aggregate_of( code ); 
    |         string format = format_of( code ); 
    |         code -= ({ 0 }); 
    |         return replace( base_metric_class, 
    |                     (["ID":(string)next_metric_id++, 
    |                       "NAME":stringify(name), 
    |                       "TYPE":type, 
    |                      "AGGREGATE":aggregate, 
    |                      "FORMAT":format, 
    |                       "CODE":make_value_function(code), 
    |                    ])); 
    |      }); 
 
 
  That is, a macro that needs to do some calculations, and rewrite the 
  code more than is possible in normal macros. 
 
  This one expands something along the lines of 
 
    | METRIC("requests", Summarize, PerSecond, 
    |        floating_average_diff(requests)); 
 
  into 
 
    | class Metric_requests_01 
    | { 
    |    inherit Server.Metric; 
    |    constant name = "transcoder:requests"; 
    |    constant type = Float; 
    |    constant format = PerSecond; 
    |    constant aggregate = Summarize; 
    | 
    |    float value() { 
    |       return floating_average_diff(requests); 
    |    } 
    | } 
 
o Dependency declarations 
 
  It is now possible to use the CPP directive #require to specify a 
  condition that must be true for the file to be seen by the resolver. 
  This would typically be the inherited C part of a module or a system 
  call. 
 
    | #require constant(__WebKit) 
    | inherit __WebKit; 
 
 
Optimizations 
------------- 
 
o New significantly faster block allocator 
 
  The free in the old one was O(n^2), which means that as an example 
  creating a lot of objects and then free:ing them mainly used CPU in 
  the block allocator. 
 
  This fix changed the ordo of one of the tests that did that very 
  thing (binarytrees) from O(n^2) to O(n), and as such is more than a 
  simple percentual speedup in some cases, but it always improves the 
  performance some since the base speed is also faster. 
 
o Power-of-two hashtables are now used for most hashtables 
 
  This speeds up mappings and other hashtables a few percent, and also 
  simplifies the code. 
 
o Significantly changed x86-32 and an entirely new AMD64/x86-64 
  machine-code compilation backend 
 
  The main feature with the x86-32 edition is that it is now using 
  normal function call mechanics, which means that it now works with 
  modern GCC:s. 
 
  The x86-64 backends has been rewritten so that it is easier to add 
  new instructions (x86-64) and opcodes (Pike) to it, and it is 
  significantly more complete than the x86-32 one. 
 
o Svalue type renumbering 
 
  PIKE_T_INT is now type #0, which makes certain things significantly 
  faster. 
 
  As an example, clearing of object variables is now done 
  automatically when the object is created since all object memory is 
  set to 0. 
 
  The same thing happens when clearing values on the stack. 
 
o Svalue type/subtype setting changed 
 
  This halves the number of instructions used to push a value on the 
  stack in most cases. 
 
  The speedup is not large, but noticeable. 
 
o And on a related note, we now lie to the compiler about the 
  const:ness of the Pike_interpreter_pointer variable. 
 
  This significantly simplifies the code generated by the C-compiler 
  for stack manipulation functions, the stack pointer is now only 
  loaded once per code block, instead of once per stack operation. 
 
  This saves a lot of code when using the stack multiple times in a 
  function, and should be safe enough, albeit somewhat unconventional. 
 
  If nothing else the binary size shrunk by about 5%. 
 
o string(x..y) (constant) types 
 
  The strings now keep track of the min/max values in addition to two 
  new flags: all-uppercase and all-lowercase. 
 
    | > typeof("foo"); 
    | (1) Result: string(102..111) 
 
  This is used to optimize certain operations, lower_case, upper_case, 
  search and string_has_null for now. It could be added to other 
  places in the future as well. 
 
  A fairly common case is where you are doing lower_case or upper_case 
  on an already lower or uppercased string. This is now significantly 
  faster. 
 
o Several other optimizations to execution speed has been done 
 
  + object indexing (cache, generic speedups) 
 
  + lower_apply, changes to apply in general 
 
    Taken together these individually small optimizations speeds up at 
    least pike -x benchmark more than 5%. 
 
  + A lot of opcodes implemented in machine-code for x86-64 
 
    This speed up the loop benchmarks close to a factor of 3. But then 
    again, most real code is nothing like that benchmark. 
 
  + Several new opcodes added 
 
    As an example an observation was that most branch_if_zero is 
    followed by an is_eq, is_lt or is_gt or similar. Those opcodes 
    always return 1 or 0. So, two new opcodes, quick_branch_if_zero 
    and quick_branch_if_non_zero were added that map directly to three 
    x86-64 opcodes, there is no need to check the types, do a real 
    pop_stack etc. 
 
  + Demacroified some code, resulting in smaller code-size 
 
    This makes things faster, it is often better to branch to a small 
    block of code than to have it inlined in a lot of different 
    locations on modern architectures. 
 
o Faster hash-function for strings 
 
  If your CPU has the crc32 instruction (modern x86 mainly) the 
  hashing is now an order of magnitude faster, albeit the risk of 
  attacks using known crc:s in things like http request headers (to 
  force long hashtable chains and slow things down) is greater, but: 
 
  + Also added siphash24, and use that when the string hash table 
    becomes inefficient. 
 
 
Deprecated features and modules 
------------------------------- 
 
o Tools.PEM and Tools.X409 deprecated 
 
  Use the corresponding modules in Standards. 
 
o The built in security sandbox is now deprecated 
 
  Unless somebody wants to take ownership of the feature and keep it 
  up to date the security system will be removed in the next stable 
  release. 
 
o The compiler now warns about switch statements where the cases 
  aren't enumerable, since these will generate random failures if the 
  code is read from a dump. 
 
o strlen() now only accepts strings 
 
o Gdbm.gdbm is now known as Gdbm.DB 
 
o Yabu.db and Yabu.table renamed to Yabu.DB and Yabu.Table 
 
o The keyword 'static' will now generate deprecation warnings. 
 
 
Removed features and modules 
---------------------------- 
 
o Removed facets 
 
  The optional (and not enabled by default) support for facet classes 
  has been removed, since it was only partially done and not really 
  used. 
 
o It is no longer possible to compile Pike without libgmp. 
 
  Bignums are now a required language feature 
 
o The old low-level 'files' module has been renamed to _Stdio 
 
o The old _PGsql helper module has been removed. 
 
o 'GTK' is now GTK2 if GTK2 support is available, earlier it defaulted 
  to GTK1 as a preference over GTK2. 
 
o Locale.Charset 
 
  The charset module is now available on the top level as 'Charset' 
 
o The ancient syntax for arrays (string * was an alias for 
  array(string)) has now been removed completely. 
 
o Compatibility for Pike versions before 7.6 is no longer available. 
 
o decode_value can no longer decode programs using the 'old style' 
  program encoding. 
 
  Since the format has been deprecated since feb 2003, and those 
  programs could not be decoded anyway due to other issues it is not 
  much of a loss. 
 
 
New modules 
----------- 
 
o Pike.Watchdog 
 
  A Watchdog that ensures that the process is not hung for an extended 
  period of time. The definition of 'hung' is: Has not used the 
  default backend. 
 
  To use it simply keep an instance of the watchdog around in your 
  application: 
 
    | Pike.Watchdog x = Pike.Watchdog( 5 ); // max 5s blocking 
 
  An important and useful side-effect of this class is that the 
  process will start to respond to kill -QUIT by printing a lot of 
  debug information to stderr, including memory usage, and if Pike is 
  compiled with profiling, the CPU used since the last time kill -QUIT 
  was called. 
 
o Crypto.Password 
 
  A module that can be used to verify and create passwd/ldap style 
  password hashes. 
 
  It tries to support most common password hashing schemes. 
 
o Debug.Profiling 
 
  Tools useful for collecting and format for output the profiling 
  information generated when Pike is compiled --with-profiling. 
 
o NetUtils 
 
  This module contains a lot of functions useful for the storage and 
  processing of network addresses, it supports IPv4 and IPv6. 
 
o ADT.CritBit 
 
  Mapping-like key-sorted data structures for string, int and 
  float-keys (ADT.CritBit.Tree, ADT.CritBit.IntTree, 
  ADT.CritBit.FloatTree). Implemented in C. 
 
o Standards.BSON 
 
  A module for working with BSON serialized data. See 
  http://bsonspec.org/ 
 
o Geography.GeoIP 
 
  Does geolocation of IPv4-numbers using databases from maxmind.com or 
  software77.net 
 
o Protocols.WebSocket 
 
  An implementation of the WebSocket (RFC 6455) standard, both server 
  and client 
 
o Image.WebP 
 
  Encoder and decoder for the WEBP image format. 
  More information about the format can be found on 
  https://developers.google.com/speed/webp/ 
 
  Requires libwebp. 
 
o Serializer 
 
  APIs useful to simplify serialization and deserialization of objects 
  Mainly it allows you to easily iterate over the object variables, 
  including the private ones. 
 
  + Serializer.Encodable 
    A class that can be inherited to make an object easily 
    serializable using encode_value. 
 
o Filesystem.Monitor (and the low level System.Inotify + 
   System.FSEvents) 
 
  Basic filesystem monitoring. 
 
  This module is intended to be used for incremental scanning of a 
  filesystem. 
 
  Supports FSEvents on MacOS X and Inotify on Linux to provide low 
  overhead monitoring; other systems currently use a less efficient 
  polling approach. 
 
o Mysql.SqlTable 
 
  This class provides some abstractions on top of an SQL table. 
 
  At the core it is generic and could work with any SQL database, but 
  the current implementation is MySQL specific on some points, notably 
  the semantics of AUTO_INCREMENT, the quoting method, knowledge about 
  column types, and some conversion functions. Hence the location in 
  the Mysql module. 
 
  Among other things, this class handles some convenient conversions 
  between SQL and Pike data types 
 
o Parser.CSV 
 
  This is a parser for line oriented data that is either comma, 
  semi-colon or tab separated. It extends the functionality of the 
  Parser.Tabular with some specific functionality related to a header 
  and record oriented parsing of huge datasets. 
 
o ZXID 
 
  ZXID is a library that implements SAML 2.0, Liberty ID-WSF 2.0 
  and XACML 2.0. Used for single sign-on. 
 
  This module implements a wrapper for ZXID. The interface is similar 
  to the C one, but using generally accepted Pike syntax. 
 
o Git 
 
  A module for interacting with the Git distributed version control 
  system. 
 
o Val 
 
  This module contains special values used by various modules, e.g. a 
  Val.null value used both by Sql and Standards.JSON. 
 
  In many ways these values should be considered constant, but it is 
  possible for a program to replace them with extended versions, 
  provided they don't break the behavior of the base classes defined 
  here. Since there is no good mechanism to handle such extending in 
  several steps, Pike libraries should preferably ensure that the base 
  classes defined here provide required functionality directly. 
 
o __builtin 
 
  The __builtin module is now a directory module, so that it can 
  provide a suitable namespace for code written in Pike intended for 
  being inherited from modules written in C (cf precompile). 
 
o Web.Auth 
 
  Support for federated authentication with OAuth (Web.Auth.OAuth and 
  Web.Auth.OAuth2). There are several ready to go modules for some big 
  OAuth authentication service providers: 
 
  + Web.Auth.Facebook 
  + Web.Auth.Github 
  + Web.Auth.Google 
  + Web.Auth.Instagram 
  + Web.Auth.Linkedin 
  + Web.Auth.Twitter 
 
o Web.Api 
 
  Modules and classes for communicating with various RESTful web 
  api's. Currently with ready to go modules for these services: 
 
  + Web.Api.Facebook 
  + Web.Api.Github 
  + Web.Api.Google.Analytics 
  + Web.Api.Google.Plus 
  + Web.Api.Instagram 
  + Web.Api.Linkedin 
  + Web.Api.Twitter 
 
o VCDiff 
 
  Glue for the open-vcdiff differential compression library. More 
  information can be found on http://code.google.com/p/open-vcdiff/ 
 
 
Incompatible changes 
-------------------- 
 
o Parser.XML.Tree: Fixed handling of namespaced attributes. 
 
  Attribute namespaces starting with "xml" (except for "xmlns") are 
  now handled just like any other attribute namespaces. This means 
  that eg the attribute "xml:lang" will be expanded to 
  "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespacelang" in the mapping returned 
  by get_attributes(), and not kept as "xml:lang" when namespace 
  handling is enabled. 
 
 
Extensions and new functions 
---------------------------- 
 
o Bz2.File added 
 
  It implements a Stdio.File like API, including support for the same 
  iterator API that Stdio.File has, allowing for convenient line 
  iterations over BZ2 compressed files. 
 
    | foreach( Bz2.File("log.bz2")->line_iterator(); int n; string line ) 
 
o Both sscanf and sprintf can now handle binary floats in little 
  endian format 
 
  %-8F would be a 64 bit IEEE float binary value in little endian 
  order. 
 
o Image.JPEG 
 
  + decode now supports basic CMYK/YCCK support 
 
  + exif_decode is a new function that will rotate the image according 
    to exif information 
 
o Image.BMP now supports some more BMP:s. 
 
  + Added support for vertical mirroring (images starting at the 
    bottom left) 
 
  + Added support for 32-bit (non-alpha) BMP:s. 
 
o String.Buffer 
 
  It is possible to add sprintf-formatted data to a String.Buffer 
  object by calling the sprintf() method. This function works just as 
  the normal sprintf(), but writes to the buffer instead. 
 
o String.range(str) 
 
  This returns the minimum and maximum character value in the string. 
 
  The precision is only 8 bits, so for wide strings only character 
  blocks are known. 
 
o String.filter_non_unicode(str) 
 
  This function replaces all non-unicode characters in a Pike string 
  with 0xfffd. 
 
o SDL.Music added to SDL. 
 
  Allows the playback of audio/music files. 
  Requires the SDL_mixed library. 
 
o System.TM 
 
  Low-level wrapper for struct tm. 
 
  This can be used to do (very) simple calendar operations. It is, as 
  it stands, not 100% correct unless the local time is set to GMT, and 
  does mirror functionality already available in gmtime() and 
  localtime() and friends, but in a (perhaps) easier to use API. 
 
o decode_value now throws the error object Error.DecodeError. 
 
  Useful to catch format errors in the decode string. 
 
o Process.daemon 
 
  The daemon() function is for programs wishing to detach themselves 
  from the controlling terminal and run in the background as system 
  daemons. 
 
o Debug.pp_object_usage() 
 
  Pretty-print debug information, useful to get debug information 
  about object counts and memory usage in Pike applications. 
 
  Uses the new _object_size lfun, if present in objects, to account 
  for RAM-usage in C-objects that allocate their own memory. 
 
o Mysql 
 
  + Added support more modern client libraries (incl. MariaDB) 
 
  + Mysql.mysql now has methods to query the id or SQLSTATE of the 
    last error. 
 
o pgsql 
 
  A complete rewrite of the existing driver. Changes in random order: 
  + Eliminates an obscure and rare Pike-internals corruption bug. 
  + Drops the _PGsql CMOD in favour of pure Pike using Stdio.Buffer. 
  + Fully threaded, event and callback driven operation. 
  + Allows for query setup and row fetches to be spread out over 
    an arbitrary number of threads. 
  + Maximum parallelism over a single filedescriptor (better than before). 
  + New interface: fetch_row_array() and callback driven. 
  + Less filling and faster than the existing driver. 
 
o Protocols.DNS 
 
  + Prevent endless loops in maliciously crafted domain names. 
 
  + Add QTYPE T_ANY to DNS enum EntryType in DNS.pmod. 
 
  + Handle truncated labels 
 
  + TCP client and server support 
 
o Thread no longer inherits Thread.Thread (aka thread_create) 
 
o Thread.Farm now might work 
 
o Cmod precompiler: 
 
  + You can now use #cmod_{define,if,ifdef,include} etc to do 
    preprocessing using CPP before the .cmod file is processed by the 
    precompiler. 
 
    This preprocessing is done with the Pike precompiler, while the 
    C-compiler preprocessor will then be used on the generated file 
    (like before) 
 
  + inherit "identifier" 
    -- inherit the program returned by calling master()->resolve() on 
       the specified identifier. Useful to inherit code written in Pike. 
 
  + Object types on return and argument types are now resolved 
    dynamically when needed. 
 
    This means that the typing information is significantly more 
    strict. 
 
    If you use classes that are not defined in the file (or 
    src/program_id.h) they will be resolved when your .so-file is 
    loaded. 
 
    Note: Circular dependencies do not work (currently, at least). 
 
    Also, the parser still often has problems with types containing 
    '.'. You can use object(X.Y) instead of X.Y. 
 
o String.levenshtein_distance() 
 
  The function calculates the Levenshtein distance between two 
  strings. The Levenshtein distance describes the minimum number of 
  edit operations (insert, delete or substitute a character) to get 
  from one string to the other. 
 
  This can be used in approximate string matching to find matches 
  for a short string in many longer texts, when a small number of 
  differences is expected. 
 
o System.sync() 
 
  Synchronizes the filesystem on systems where this is possible 
  (currently windows and UNIX-like systems). 
 
o System.getloadavg() 
 
  Return the current 1, 5 and 15 minute system load averages as an 
  array. 
 
o access() 
 
  Check if a file exist and can also return if it is readable and or 
  writeable for the current process. 
 
o glob() 
 
  The glob function has been extended to accept an array of globs as 
  the first (glob pattern) argument. 
 
  In this case, if any of the given patterns match the function will 
  return true, or, if the second argument is also an array, all 
  entries that match any glob in the first array. 
 
o Stdio.UDP(): 
 
  + added IPv6 multicast support 
 
  + added set_buffer 
 
o Stdio.Port():  
  + Added client and server support for TCP_FASTCONNECT 
 
    To connect using this TCP extension simply pass the data as the 
    fifth argument to connect. 
 
    The server support is automatically enabled if possible when a 
    Stdio.Port object is bound to a port. 
 
  + Added support for SO_REUSEPORT. In this mode multiple Stdio.Port 
    instances can bind to the same port (mainly used with the ports 
    being opened in different processes). 
 
    This allows automatic load sharing between the processes, incoming 
    connections will only be sent to one of them by the OS. 
 
    The presence of these features are indicated by constants in 
    Stdio.Port: Stdio.Port.SO_REUSEPORT_SUPPORT and 
    Stdio.Port.TCP_FASTOPEN_SUPPORT (although the same code should 
    work regardless of the existence of TCP fast open in both server 
    and client mode, it can be useful to know if support is available) 
 
  + Added a query_fd() method 
 
 
o Stdio.Buffer(): 
 
   This is a byte buffer (unlike String.Buffer which is a string 
   buffer, and thus contains unicode characters and not bytes) that is 
   optimized for both reading from it and adding data to it at the 
   same time. 
 
   The main intent of the class is buffering for binary and non-binary 
   protocol parsing and output, and also buffering when using 
   non-blocking I/O. 
 
o Stdio.File(): 
 
  + send_fd and receive_fd 
 
    These functions can be used to send and receive an open 
    file-descriptor over another file-descriptor. The functions are 
    only available on some systems, and they generally only work when 
    the file the descriptors are sent over is a UNIX domain socket or 
    a pipe. 
 
  + Changed internally to remove one level of indirection. 
 
    The Stdio.File object no longer has a _Stdio.Fd_ref in _fd. They 
    are instead directly inheriting _Stdio.FD. 
 
    _fd is still available for compatibility, but internally it is gone. 
 
  + The callbacks now get the file object as the first object if no 
    other id has been set. 
 
  + Added support for buffering via Stdio.Buffer. 
 
    This can be used to greatly simplify the writing of non-blocking 
    code. 
 
    - When read and/or write buffer is enabled the corresponding 
      callbacks get a buffer object as the second argument 
 
    - The only thing the callback has to do is add data to the buffer 
      or read from it, depending on what callback it is. 
 
    - The write callback will now only be called when the buffer 
      contains no more output, and data that is not read in one read 
      callback is kept for the next time data arrives. 
 
  + Fixed grantpt() on Solaris failing with EPERM. 
 
 
o Unicode databases updated to 7.0.0 from 5.1.0 
 
  This is the latest released Unicode database from unicode.org. 
 
o The Search search engine module has seen several fixes 
 
  + Added support for padded blobs. This improves performance when 
    incrementally growing blobs. This feature is only enabled if 
    Search.Process.Compactor says this is OK, see the documentation 
    for more information. 
 
  + Several locking optimizations, specifically, avoid locking and 
    unlocking for every single iteration when merging and syncing 
    blobs. 
 
  + Charset conversion fixes 
 
  + Fixes for queries where the same world occur multiple times 
    ('foo and bar and foo') 
 
o pike -x benchmark 
 
  + Output format changed 
 
  + Also added support for JSON output. 
 
  + The results should be more consistent. 
 
  + Added options to allow comparison with a previous run. 
 
o pike -x check_http 
 
  This new tool can be used to check http/https connectivity to a host. 
 
o New stand-alone tools added to make it possible to build 
  documentation without the Pike build tree 
 
  + autodoc_to_html 
    AutoDoc XML to HTML converter. 
 
  + autodoc_to_split_html 
    AutoDoc XML to splitted HTML converter. 
 
  + git_export_autodoc 
    Exports a stream of autodoc.xml suitable for git-fast-import. 
    Used on pike-librarian. 
 
o Readline tries to set the charset to the terminal charset 
 
  This makes it possible to write non-7bit characters on a terminal if 
  the terminal supports it. 
 
o Fixed units in pike --help=kladdkaka 
 
o Several changes has been done to the GTK2 module 
 
  + GTK2.DrawingArea no longer crash in draw_text if you pass odd 
    parameters. 
 
  + draw_pixbuf can now be passed width and height -1, which makes it 
    take the size from the passed image. 
 
  + GDKEvent no longer crash when you extract strings from them 
 
  + accelerators now work 
 
  + Fixed RadioToolButton 
 
  + signal_connect can now connect a signal in front of the list 
 
  + Several fixes to Tree related objects 
 
  + GTK2.SourceView added 
 
  + GTK2.Spinner added 
 
o A few issues were fixed that were found by Coverity 
 
  + Fixed memory leak in Math.Transform 
 
  + Fixed two compares that were written as assignments (errno checks 
    for EINTR for sockets) 
 
o System.get_home + System.get_user 
 
  (mostly) Cross-platform ways to get the user name and home 
  directory. 
 
o System.AllocConsole, System.FreeConsole and System.AttachConsole for 
  Windows NT 
 
  These are useful to create or close the console window that is shown 
  for Pike programs. 
 
o Process - forkd 
 
  Forkd can be used to more cheaply create new processes on UNIX like 
  systems. 
 
  This is done by first starting a sub-process that is then used to 
  create new processes. 
 
  If your main process is large, this is significantly faster than 
  using the normal create_process, and does not risk running out of 
  memory for the forked (temporary) copy of the main process that is 
  created. 
 
o MacOSX CoreFoundation support in the backend 
 
  This makes it somewhat more likely that native libraries can work 
  with Pike. 
 
o Better IPv6 support. 
 
  This includes detection of IPV6 mapped IPV4 addresses 
  (::FFFF:i.p.v.4) and full support for IPv6 in the UDP code. 
 
o Asynchronous Protocols.SNMP client 
 
o Fixes to Process.run, Process.spawn_pike and friends. 
 
  + Support OS/2 path conventions 
 
  + Fixed multiple issues with search_path()/locate_binary() 
    - locate_binary() is now more reliable on Windows 
    - Now invalidates the cached path is PATH is changed 
    - Uses locate_binary to scan the path 
    - spawn_pike() now uses search_path() 
 
  + You can now optionally have System.spawn_pike pass predefines, 
    program and include path to the spawned Pike, in addition to the 
    module path. 
 
o Lots of autodoc fixes 
 
  A lot more of the previously existing, but broken, documentation is 
  now readable. 
 
o predef::types 
 
  This is equivalent to values and indices, but instead gives the 
  types for each value. 
 
  Basically only useful for objects. 
 
o Builtin._get_setter 
 
  This function returns a setter for a variable in an object. The 
  setter, when called, will set the variable value to the passed 
  argument. 
 
o Parser.XML.Tree fixes 
 
  + Several namespace improvement and handling fixes 
 
o New charsets 
 
  A lot of ISO-IR charsets added: 
    9-1, 9-2, 31, 232, 234, 231 (aka ANSI/NISO Z39.46, aka ANSEL) 230 
    (aka TDS 565) 225 (SR 14111:1998), 197/209 (sami) 208 (IS 434:1997) 
    207 (IS 433:1996), 204,205 and 206 (aka 8859-1, 8859-4 and 8859-13 
    with euro) 201, 200, 138 (ECMA-121) 198 (ISO 8859-8:1999) 182, 181, 
    189 (TCVN 5712:1993, aka VSCII) 167, 166 (aka TIS 620-2533 (1990)), 
    164, 160, 151 (NC 99-10:81), 68 (APL), 59 (CODAR-U), 202 (KPS 
    9566-97). Fixed CSA_Z242.4 
 
o Several fixes to Protocols.HTTP 
 
  + Improved Protocols.HTTP.Query.PseudoFile 
    (significantly better Stdio.Stream simulation) 
 
  + Do not use hard coded Linux errno:s 
 
  + Case insensitive handling of header overrides in do_method 
 
  + Fixed broken check for URL passwords when querying 
 
  + Add more descriptive HTTP responses along with a mostly complete 
    list of codes 
 
  + Handle non-standards compliant relative redirects 
 
  + Cleaner handling of async DNS failures 
 
  + Handle chunked transfer encoding correctly when doing async 
    queries 
 
  + Fixes for the proxy client support 
 
  + Several keep-alive handling fixes 
 
  + Server: 
    - More forgiving MIME parsing for MSIE 
    - Fixed range header handling 
    - Fixed parsing of broken multipart/form-data data 
    - Added optional error_callback to attach_fd 
    - The response processor (response_and_finish) now treats the 
      reply mapping as read-only. 
    - Support if-none-match (etag:s) 
    - Ignore errors in close when destroying the object 
    - Fixed ordo of sending large chunks of data without using files 
 
o Multiple threads can now call the Backend `() function (the function 
  that waits for events). 
 
  The first thread will be the controlling thread, and all callbacks 
  will be called in it, the other threads will wake when the 
  controlling thread is done. 
 
o dtrace support (on MacOSX) 
 
  Pike now supports dtrace events on function enter and leaving (and 
  when stack frames are notionally popped, for functions doing 
  tailrecursion). 
 
o Standards.JSON.encode can now get the initial indentation level 
  specified. 
 
  This is rather useful for recursive calls encode in pretty print 
  mode (common for objects with encode_json methods). 
 
o Added Pike.identify_cycle(x) 
 
  Checks to see if x contains any circular structures. 
 
  This can be useful while optimizing to identify reference cycles in 
  Pike data structures, so that the need for garbage collection can be 
  reduced. 
 
o Most math functions (log, pow, exp sin, cos etc) can now take 
  integers as arguments in addition to a floating point number. 
 
  The result will still be a float, the argument will be converted. 
 
o The random(), random_string() and random_seed() might be more random 
 
  On computers with a hardware pseudo random generator random() can 
  return significantly more random numbers, however, this means that 
  random_seed is a no-op on those machines. 
 
  A side-effect of this is that random_string is now actually 
  significantly faster on at least x86 cpu:s with rdrnd. 
 
  Note: If you want cryptographically random data please use 
  Crypto.Random.random_string unless you know for sure the random data 
  returned by the RDRND instruction is random enough. 
 
 
SSL 
--- 
 
o SSL now supports TLS 1.0 (SSL 3.1), TLS 1.1 and TLS 1.2. 
 
o Several identifiers have changed names: 
 
  SSL.alert -> SSL.Alert 
  SSL.connection + SSL.handshake -> SSL.{Client,Server,}Connection 
  SSL.context -> SSL.Context 
  SSL.packet -> SSL.Packet 
  SSL.session -> SSL.Session 
  SSL.sslfile -> SSL.File 
  SSL.sslport -> SSL.Port 
  SSL.state -> SSL.State 
 
o SSL.File: Changed client/server selection API. 
 
  Client and server operation is now selected by calling either 
  connect() (client-side) or accept() (server-side) after creating the 
  SSL.File object. 
 
  Blocking handshaking mode is selected by calling set_blocking() 
  before either of the above. 
 
o SSL.File: Redesigned I/O state machine. 
 
  This reduces the complexity and risk of bugs in the I/O handling. 
 
o SSL support for lots of new cipher suites added: 
 
  + AEADs and modes: 
 
    - CCM and CCM-8 
 
    - GCM 
 
  + Certificates 
 
    - ECDSA 
 
  + Ciphers 
 
    - AES and AES-256 
 
    - CAMELLIA and CAMELLIA-256 
 
  + Key exchange methods 
 
    - DH and DHE 
 
    - ECDH and ECDHE 
 
  + All suites currently defined consisting of combinations of the 
    above (and earlier existing) have been added (~190 suites in 
    total). 
 
o TLS Extensions added: 
 
  + ALPN (Application Layer Protocol Negotiation) (RFC 7301). 
 
  + EC Point Formats (RFC 4492). 
 
  + Elliptic Curves (RFC 4492). 
 
  + Encrypt then MAC. 
 
  + Fallback SCSV. 
 
  + Heartbeat (RFC 6520). 
 
  + Max Fragment Length (RFC 6066). 
 
  + Padding. 
 
  + Renegotiation info (RFC 5746). 
 
  + Signature Algorithms (RFC 5246). 
 
  + SNI (Server Name Indicator) for both client and server (RFC 6066). 
 
  + Truncated HMAC (RFC 6066). 
 
o Improved protection against various SSL/TLS attacks: 
 
  + BEAST protection (aka 1/(n-1)). 
 
    Improve resilience against the BEAST client-side attack, by 
    splitting the first data packet into two, where the first only 
    contains a single byte of payload. 
 
  + Heartbleed protection. 
 
    The protocol code can probe the peer for the Heartbleed 
    vulnerability, and aborts the connection with 
    ALERT_insufficient_protection if so. 
 
  + Lucky 13 protection. 
 
    Attempts to have HMAC calculation take the same amount of time 
    regardless of padding size. 
 
o SSL.Context: Improved cipher suite selection: 
 
  + Filtering of weak cipher suites. 
 
  + Suite B (RFC 6460). 
 
o SSL.Context: Support multiple concurrent certificates. 
 
  This allows a server to eg have both an RSA and an ECDSA 
  certificate. 
 
 
Crypto and Nettle 
----------------- 
 
o Nettle refactored 
 
  CBC cipher mode is now twice as fast. 
 
o Nettle 3.0 supported. 
 
  The new APIs in Nettle 3.0 are now detected and utilized. 
 
o Crypto.GCM 
 
  GCM (Galois Counter Mode) cipher mode added. 
 
o Blowfish and Serpent support fixed in Nettle 
 
o Crypto.PGP 
 
  Added support for SHA256, SHA384 and SHA512 as hash functions. 
  Expose the used hash and key types in the out data 
 
o Crypto.Arctwo 
 
  The 1-128 bit cipher Arctwo is now provided as a block cipher in 
  Crypto. This cipher is only intended for compatibility with OLD 
  third party code, and should NOT be used for new development. 
 
o Crypto.Camellia 
 
  The 128/256 bit cipher Camellia is now available as block cipher in 
  Crypto. 
 
* Crypto.ECC 
 
  Elliptic Curve operations are now supported when compiled 
  with Nettle 3.0 or later. 
 
o Crypto.SALSA20 and Crypto.SALSA20R12 
 
  The 128/256 bit cipher SALSA20 is now available as a stream cipher 
  in Crypto. SALSA20R12 is SALSA20 reduced to just 12 rounds. 
 
o Crypto.SHA3_224, Crypto.SHA3_256, Crypto.SHA3_384 and Crypto.SHA3_512 
 
  The SHA-3 secure hash algorithm has been added in multiple variants. 
 
o Crypto.GOST94 and RIPEMD160 
 
  The lesser used hash functions GOST R 34.11-94 (RFC 4357) and 
  RIPEMD160 have been added. 
 
o Crypto.RSA and Crypto.DSA 
 
  The key generation for RSA and DSA are now done by Nettle. This 
  results in 90% faster key generation for RSA. Key generation for DSA 
  is 10 times slower, but produces better quality keys. 
 
o Crypto.Hash 
 
  Added support for pbkdf1 from PKCS#5v1.5 and pbkdf2 from PKCS#5v2.0. 
 
o Crypto.Random 
 
  The underlying algorithm for Crypto.Random has changed from a overly 
  cautious Yarrow implementation to Fortuna on top of system random 
  sources. About 7000x faster than before. 
 
o Standards.PEM 
 
  + Added some support for encrypted PEM files 
 
o Standards.X509 
 
  X509 was moved from Tools to Standards and has been refactored and 
  bug fixed. It is now possible to extend both validation and creation 
  of certificates with new cipher and hash algorithms. A range of new 
  algorithms are supported for both RSA and DSA: 
 
    RSA MD2 
    RSA MD5 
    RSA SHA-1 
    RSA SHA-2-256 
    RSA SHA-2-384 
    RSA SHA-2-512 
    DSA SHA-1 
    DSA SHA-2-224 
    DSA SHA-2-256 
 
  Note that the API has changed compared to Tools.X509 and there is 
  now a single make_selfsigned_certificate() method for both RSA and 
  DSA, though it takes the same arguments. In addition a hash function 
  and serial number can be supplied. The hash function defaults to 
  SHA-2-256. 
 
 
Incompatible C-level API changes 
-------------------------------- 
 
o New svalue layout 
 
  The most obvious change is that the macros TYPEOF() and SUBTYPEOF() 
  are now actually needed to directly access the type and subtype of 
  an svalue, the svalues no have 'type' and 'subtype' members. 
 
  There are also a few additional macros used to set both the type and 
  subtype of an svalue at the same time: 
 
    SVAL_SET_TYPE_SUBTYPE(sval,type,subtype) and 
    SVAL_SET_TYPE_DC(sval,type) 
 
  (these are only neede if you do not use the usual push_* macros) 
 
  They are useful because they (usually) compiles to significantly 
  more compact code, especially if the type and subtype are 
  compiletime constants. The _DC variant will either leave the subtype 
  unchanged or set it to 0, useful when you do not care about the 
  actual subtype (which is, really, most of the time). 
 
o get_storage() returns void* 
 
  There is no need for casts in non-C++ code. 
 
 
Building and installing 
----------------------- 
 
o -fvisibility=hidden is now the default 
 
  This means that PMOD_EXPORT is now actually needed on systems like 
  Linux and MacOSX. It also means that the binary is slightly smaller 
  and faster. 
 
o clang compilation fixes (bignum overflow checks, misc) 
 
  It is now possible to compile Pike using a modern clang compiler. 
 
o Removed bundles 
 
  Pike no longer comes with copies of some libraries, and the support 
  for that in the makefile has been removed. 
 
o Several OS/2 and windows compilation fixes 
 
o C89 assumed 
 
  The configure tests will not check for functions defined in C89 
  anymore. 
 
 
Lots of bug fixes 
----------------- 
 
o Fixed symbol resolution with deep inherits and mixins 
 
o Fixed PNG 4bpl indexed mode with alpha 
 
o The _sprintf LFUN now works with %F 
 
o foreach( arr[-two()..], string x), where two() returns 2 will no 
  longer iterate over the first element in the array three times or 
  crash. 
 
o Postgres.postgres_result now properly decodes binary blobs and 
  strips trailing spaces from CHAR columns. 
 
o Fixed a typo from 2001-05-05 that caused a lot of countries to 
  reside on the continent ',Europa' instead of "Europa" in 
  Geography.Countries. 
 
  Obviously the continent is not that often checked. 
 
o Fixed interesting bug in the constant number parsing for octal 
  numbers in escapes. 
 
  For whatever reason 8:s were accepted for every location except the 
  first in octal numbers, so 078 was considered an alias for 0100. 
 
  This could cause issues at times, and will result in string parsing 
  being somewhat different: 
 
  |  Pike v7.8 release 700 running Hilfe v3.5 (Incremental Pike Frontend) 
  |  > "\078"; 
  |  (1) Result: "@" 
  |  Pike v8.0 release 3 running Hilfe v3.5 (Incremental Pike Frontend) 
  |  > "\078"; 
  |  (1) Result: "\a8" 
 
o A lot more, see the (more or less) full changelog for more info: 
 
   http://pike-librarian.lysator.liu.se/index.xml?m=pike.git&start=forever&branch=7.9,8.0&template=logonly.inc