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Pike 8.1: Changes since Pike 8.0 (scratch area for future release notes) 
------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 
New language features 
--------------------- 
 
o Unlimited character constant size. 
 
  There is no longer any limit to the size of character constants, 
  e.g. 'acdefghijk' creates the bignum 0x61636465666768696a6b. 
 
o 'auto' type added. 
 
  This is much like a strict typed mixed. The actual type is deduced 
  compile-time. 
 
  Typical use is as the type for variables in foreach when looping over 
  complexly typed values, or as the type in macro-defined functions and 
  similar. 
 
  auto can be used as return type for a function, it will be the 
  type-union of all the types of the return statements in the 
  function. 
 
o typeof(X) can now be used as a type. 
 
  The main use case is in macros, but it might be useful for other 
  things as well (as an example in a typedef). 
 
  typedef typeof(Val.true)|typeof(Val.false) bool; 
 
  typeof, when used like this, behaves very much like the C++ 
  decltype() expression. 
 
o ** operator added. It's exponentiation and works with most 
  combination of numerical types (int,float,Gmp.mpq,Gmp.mpf,Gmp.mpz) 
 
  `** and ``** operator overloading functions added. 
 
  This introduces one incompatible change: Previously the "pow" 
  function called a "_pow" function in the first argument if it was an 
  object. It has now been changed to also use `** (or, rather, pow() 
  is now implemented using predef::`**()). 
 
o #pragma disassemble 
 
  This directive is now available even in pikes compiled --without-debug. 
 
  The byte code output is now interleaved with the generated machine code 
  on selected architectures. 
 
o Complain about redundant backslash escapes. 
 
o '__weak__' modifier added. 
 
  It is now possible to declare object variables to have weak references. 
 
o Support for arguments to implicit lambdas added. 
 
  Implicit lambdas now behave as if they were declared as 
  lambda(mixed ... __ARGS__). 
 
o Function local function declarations are now statements 
  (and not expressions). This means that there is no longer 
  any need to terminate them with a semicolon. 
 
o Anonymous class definitions are now always expressions. 
 
o Function local class definitions are now statements 
  (and not expressions). This means that there is no longer 
  any need to terminate them with a semicolon. 
 
o Complain about shadowed variant functions. 
 
o Machine code support for more architectures. 
 
  There's now machine code support for arm32 and arm64. 
 
o Fixed multiple integer over- and underflow bugs. 
 
o Extended sscanf %O 
 
  sscanf() is now able to parse all base types that sprintf %O can 
  output. It can now also parse most literal constants pike accepts, 
  including integers prefixed with 0x and 0b, and floating point 
  numbers in scientific notation. 
 
o Returning void 
 
  It is now possible to return void responses from void functions. 
 
    void a() { return; } 
    void b() { return a(); } 
 
o Abbreviated function declarations 
 
  Functions containing only a single return statement can now be 
  defined with an abbreviated syntax: 
 
    int add(int a, int b) = a + b; 
 
 
Bug fixes 
--------- 
 
o Operator functions 
 
  Calling operator functions with more than two arguments will now 
  work correctly for objects, where previously only the first two 
  objects where added. 
 
  When adding arrays, multisets and mappings, UNDEFINED will now 
  always be ignored. Previously it was only ignored when first in the 
  argument list, otherwise an exception would be thrown. 
 
  The LFUNs will now be called with a consistent number of 
  arguments. Pike implementations rarely implemented varargs on 
  operator LFUNs, so this change should address many potential hidden 
  errors. 
 
 
Incompatible changes 
-------------------- 
 
o Sql.Sql is no longer a wrapper class, but a function. 
 
  The wrapper class has been obsoleted by introduction of the 
  new base class __builtin.Sql.Connection. Note that it is 
  still possible to use Sql.Sql as the type of connection objects. 
 
o Gz.crc32 and Nettle.crc32c now only return positive results. 
 
o glob() has changed. 
 
  The main incompatibilities are that [ and \ are now special 
  characters in the pattern, and if you check the return value against 
  1 instead of checking if it's true, and use an array as the first 
  argument you will have to change your code. 
 
  This is in order to extend the glob function to cover what 
  'standard' glob functions do: 
 
  glob() now accepts quotes (\* to match a single *, as an example) 
  and handles ranges ([abc] for a, b or c, [a-z0-9] for a single 
  character between a and z or 0-9 
 
  You can also negate a range using ^ or ! ([^a-zA-Z] as an example). 
 
  When the first argument (the pattern) to glob is an array, glob now 
  returns which pattern in the array matched. 
 
o hash() has been changed to use siphash. The old hash function is 
  available under the name hash_8_0(). Note that this is not a 
  cryptographic hash function. 
 
o Stdio.UDP()->send() no longer throws errors on EMSGSIZE and EWOULDBLOCK. 
 
o If a thread exits with by throwing, the thrown value is propagated to wait(). 
 
o String.trim_all_whites() renamed String.trim(). 
 
o Floats are no longer by default sorted before added. This may reduce 
  the precision but increases the speed of adding large number of 
  floats by a factor of 500. Applications handling floats with large 
  differences in magnitude need to apply the appropritate sorting 
  before arithmetics. As `+ was the only operator that performed 
  sorting, and functions like Array.sum did not, this was already a 
  concern. 
 
o Returning UNDEFINED from `+ and ``+ is not allowed and will cause an 
  exception. 
 
 
New modules 
----------- 
 
o ADT.Scheduler & ADT.TreeScheduler 
 
  These are variants of ADT.Heap where elements typically aren't 
  removed from the heap. 
 
o Apple.Keychain 
 
  Parser for Apple Keychain format files (like the ones in 
  /System/Library/Keychains/). 
 
o __builtin.Sql 
 
  Generic base classes for Sql API modules. 
 
o Filesystem.Zip 
o Function.bind() 
 
  Partially evaluate a function. Similar to Function.curry, but with 
  better granularity. 
 
o Standards.HPack (RFC 7541) 
o Stdio.FakePipe 
 
  A simulated Stdio.Pipe. 
 
o Parser.Markdown 
 
o Crypto.Checksum 
 
  This module collect non-cryptographic checksums. Support for crc32, 
  adler32 and Castagnoli CRC (CRC32C). 
 
  NB: In the future these may be amended to support the Crypto.Hash API. 
 
o Web.EngineIO & Web.SocketIO 
o Protocols.HTTP2 
o Bittorrent.DHT 
o Standards.MsgPack 
o Web.Auth & Web.Api 
 
 
New features 
------------ 
 
o predef::gc() 
 
  gc() called with a weak mapping as argument now removes weak references 
  that are only held by that mapping. 
 
o ADT.Heap 
 
  - An indirection object ADT.Heap.Element has been added to make it 
    possible to optimize several heap operations. 
 
  - Added low_pop(). 
 
o Crypto & Nettle 
 
  - Added Curve25519 and EdDSA25519. 
 
o Filesystem.Monitor 
 
  The filesystem monitoring system now uses accelleration via 
  Inotify et al. 
 
o Gmp 
 
  - mpf is now implemented using gmpf if the library is available. 
 
  - Improved support for GMP 5.0 and later. 
 
o GTK2 
 
  Multiple runtime fixes. 
 
o JOSE (JSON Object Signing and Encryption) 
 
  Some low-level API support has been added to the Crypto and Web 
  modules to support parts of RFC 7515 - 7520. 
 
o MasterObject 
 
  - Protect against the same file being compiled concurrently 
    in multiple threads. 
 
  - cast_to_program() and cast_to_object() should now be thread safe. 
 
o CompilerEnvironment()->lock() 
 
  Access to the compiler lock. 
 
o Crypto.ECC.Curve.Point 
 
  A point on an ECC curve. 
 
o Parser.Pike 
 
  Support new language features. 
 
o Protocols.DNS.server 
 
  Derived classes can now override report_decode_error() and 
  handle_decode_error() to change how errors while decoding a DNS 
  packet are reported and handled. 
 
o Protocols.WebSocket 
 
  Multiple API changes. 
 
o Random rewrite 
 
  The random functions have been rewritten to ensure security by 
  default. random_string() and random() now get their data directly 
  from the operating system random generator, i.e. /dev/urandom on 
  most unixen. This is about half the speed compared with the 
  random_string function in Pike 8.0, but is now as secure as the 
  system random generator. 
 
  For consumers of random data that have additional requirements, 
  different random generators are exposed in the new module 
  Random. The module has the following generators: 
 
  - Random.Interface 
 
    This is not actually a generator, but an interface class that is 
    inherited into all the other generators. It contains code that can 
    turn the output from the random_string method into random numbers 
    with different limits without introducing bias. It also contains 
    code for all the different variants of random() on different 
    types. This is currently not possible to implement in Pike code, 
    as the typing is too complicated and it is not possible to access 
    private/protected _random methods in objects. 
 
  - Random.System 
 
    This generator maps directly on top of the system random 
    generator. This is the default generator used for random() and 
    random_string(). 
 
  - Random.Deterministic 
 
    This generator creates the same sequence of random numbers for a 
    given seed, with good pseudo random properties. 
 
  - Random.Hardware 
 
    This generator accesses the hardware random generator, when 
    available. 
 
  - Random.Fast 
 
    This generator takes entropy from the Random.System, but feeds 
    it into a cryptographic pseudo random number generator to be 
    able to output data fast. This is not the default random number 
    generator to avoid loading crypto code on every startup. 
 
  Comparing the different generators with each other gives the 
  following approximate speeds on a Linux system with hardware 
  random support: 
 
    Random.System           1.0 
    Pike 8.0 random_string  0.45 
    Random.Hardware         0.25 
    Random.Fast             0.20 
    Random.Deterministic    0.20 
 
  Objects implementing the _random lfun now get two arguments, the 
  current random_string() and random() functions. This is convenient 
  for C-level functions that doesn't have to look up functions 
  themselves. Note that it is possible for a user to replace these 
  with non-conforming functions (returning values of the wrong type, 
  strings of the wrong length or shift size, and values outside the 
  given range) or even non-functions. 
 
  All code in Pike that uses random now uses the current random 
  functions (though in some cases fixed at object creation). This 
  allows for repeatable results if the random functions are replaced 
  with a deterministic random generator, such as 
  Random.Deterministic. Example: 
 
    Random.Deterministic rnd = Random.Deterministic( seed ); 
    add_constant( "random_string", rnd->random_string ); 
    add_constant( "random", rnd->random ); 
 
o Sql 
 
  - Most Sql C-modules converted to cmod. 
 
  - Added next_result(). 
 
  - ODBC & tds: Support more datatypes. 
 
  - ODBC: Support big_typed_query(). 
 
  - pgsql: Lots of changes and fixes. 
 
o SSL 
 
  - Support session tickets. 
 
  - Support Negotiated FF-DHE. 
 
  - Support client certificates. 
 
  - Support ALPN. 
 
  - Prefer AEAD suites to CBC suites. 
 
  - SSL.File supports set_buffer_mode(). 
 
o Standards.PKCS 
 
  Support PKCS#8 private keys. 
 
o String.Buffer & Stdio.Buffer 
 
  Added _search(). 
 
o The self testing framework now supports *.test-files. 
 
o Thread 
 
  _sprintf() improvements: Thread.Mutex now prints the ID of the thread 
  holding the lock, and thread IDs are shown as hexadecimal numbers. 
 
o sprintf %x 
 
  %X and %x can now be used on 8-bit wide strings to get a hexadecimal 
  representation of their contents. Just calling sprintf("%x",data) is 
  the same as calling String.string2hex(data). 
 
o Unicode 10.0.0. 
 
o Unicode.is_whitespace() 
 
  This new function returns if a unicode character is a whitespace 
  characer or not. 
 
 
Deprecated symbols and modules 
------------------------------ 
 
o Sql.mysql_result and Sql.mysqls_result have been deprecated. 
  Use Sql.Result instead. 
 
o call_function() has been deprecated. Use `()() instead. 
 
 
Removed features and modules 
---------------------------- 
 
o Compatibility for Pike versions before 7.8 is no longer available. 
 
o GTK1 library is deprecated, so glue code is removed. 
 
 
C-level API changes 
------------------- 
 
o The contract for functions is now changed so that a function is no 
  longer required to clean the stack. The topmost value of the stack 
  will be regarded as the return value and the rest of the items on 
  the stack, compared to before the function arguments were pushed, 
  will be popped and discarded. Efuns still have to clean their stack 
  as previously. 
 
o Removed add_function, pike_add_function, pike_add_function2, 
  simple_add_variable, map_variable and MAP_VARIABLE. This removes the 
  remaining few API:s where text types were used. Use ADD_FUNCTION and 
  PIKE_MAP_VARIABLE instead. 
 
o Removed the functions my_rand and my_srand. Use the random functions 
  on the stack for _random lfuns, the push_random_string or look up 
  the random function from get_builtin_constants(). For deterministic 
  pseudo random, create a private Random.Deterministic object. 
 
o The preprocessor has been converted into a cmod, and been modified 
  to use more standard Pike datatypes. 
 
o The preprocessor-specific hashtable implementation has been removed. 
 
o The gdb_backtraces() function is now available also --without-debug. 
 
o There's now support to block mapping hashtables from being shrunk 
  on map_delete(). 
 
 
Documentation 
------------- 
 
o RFC references added. 
 
o Character encoding issues fixed. 
 
o Added @enum/@endenum markup. 
 
o Support undocumented enums with documented constants. 
 
 
Building and installing 
----------------------- 
 
o GMP 4.1 or later is now required. 
 
o C99 assumed 
 
  The configure tests will not check for functions defined in C99 
  anymore and C99 compiler support is assumed.