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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# For data circa 1899, a common source is: 
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. 
# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# European-style abbreviations are commonly used along the Mediterranean. 
# For sub-Saharan Africa abbreviations were less standardized. 
# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT 
# for UT +00 through +03, respectively, 
# but in 1997 Mark R V Murray reported that 
# 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +02 in the country of South Africa, 
# 'CAT' is commonly used for +02 in countries north of South Africa, and 
# 'WAT' is probably the best name for +01, as the common phrase for 
# the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa". 
# 
# To summarize, the following abbreviations seemed to have some currency: 
#        +00    GMT     Greenwich Mean Time 
#        +02    CAT     Central Africa Time 
#        +02    SAST    South Africa Standard Time 
# and Murray suggested the following abbreviation: 
#        +01    WAT     West Africa Time 
# Murray's suggestion seems to have caught on in news reports and the like. 
# I vaguely recall 'WAT' also being used for -01 in the past but 
# cannot now come up with solid citations. 
# 
# I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome! 
#        +02    WAST    West Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
#        +03    CAST    Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
#        +03    SAST    South Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
#        +03    EAT     East Africa Time 
# 'EAT' also seems to have caught on; the others are rare but are paired 
# with better-attested non-DST abbreviations. 
 
# Algeria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Algeria 1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's 
# more precise 0:09:21. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25  2:00 
                        1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7 
                        0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29 
                        1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21 
                        1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May 
                        1:00    -       CET 
 
# Angola 
# Benin 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Botswana 
# See Africa/Maputo. 
 
# Burkina Faso 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Burundi 
# See Africa/Maputo. 
 
# Cameroon 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Cape Verde / Cabo Verde 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16): 
# Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02. 
# For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree 
# (see Europe/Lisbon). 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1912 Jan 01  2:00u # Praia 
                        -2:00   -       -02     1942 Sep 
                        -2:00   1:00    -01     1945 Oct 15 
                        -2:00   -       -02     1975 Nov 25  2:00 
                        -1:00   -       -01 
 
# Central African Republic 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Chad 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912        # N'Djamena 
                        1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14 
                        1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Comoros 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Democratic Republic of the Congo 
# See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern. 
 
# Republic of the Congo 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako       # Mali 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul       # Gambia 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry      # Guinea 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar        # Senegal 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown     # Sierra Leone 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome         # Togo 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott   # Mauritania 
Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou  # Burkina Faso 
Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena  # St Helena 
 
# Djibouti 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Egypt 
 
# Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh 
# observatory; round to nearest.  Milne also says that the official time for 
# Egypt was mean noon at the Great Pyramid, 2:04:30.5, but apparently this 
# did not apply to Cairo, Alexandria, or Port Said. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1942    1944    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1942    only    -       Oct     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1943    1945    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1959    1981    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1966    1994    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1982    only    -       Jul     25      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1983    only    -       Jul     12      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1984    1988    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1989    only    -       May      6      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1990    1994    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00. 
# Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20): 
# "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight 
# saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of 
# Egyptians would approve the cancellation." 
# 
# Egypt to cancel daylight saving time 
# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168 
# or 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html 
Rule    Egypt   1995    2010    -       Apr     lastFri  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1995    2005    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       - 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19): 
# The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports: 
# Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday 
# after observing the daylight saving time since May. 
# http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf 
Rule    Egypt   2006    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       - 
# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14): 
# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight 
# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07. 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:] 
# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...: 
# http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm 
Rule    Egypt   2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=1  24:00   0       - 
# From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06): 
# Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter 
# than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each 
# year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite 
# hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by 
# shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently, 
# unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008. 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17): 
# For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August. 
 
# From Petr Machata (2009-04-06): 
# The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited): 
# 
# > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009 
# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu = 
# Apr 23 
# > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200 
# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri = 
# Apr 24 
# > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800 
# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu = 
# Aug 27 
# > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800 
# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu = 
# Aug 27 
# > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200 
# 
# > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59= 
# :59) 
# > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/ 
# 
# timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that. 
# 
# [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263 
# [2] https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53 
# [3] https://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/ 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20): 
# In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth 
# Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday 
# in September. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11): 
# We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet 
# Information and Decision Support Center: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html 
# 
# The Middle East News Agency 
# https://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx 
# also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21" 
# today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT." 
# Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service, 
# and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine 
# (at least today). 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20): 
# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has 
# decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during 
# Ramadan. 
# 
# Arabic translation: 
# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again" 
# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html 
 
# From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07): 
# Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15 
# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/100735/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-government-to-reapply-daylight-saving-time-.aspx 
 
# From Gunther Vermier (2014-05-13): 
# our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00) 
 
# From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04): 
# We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes 
# in Egypt.  The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at 
# http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ... 
# [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ... 
# translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to 
# take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014, 
# to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014, 
# and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve 
# o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014."  This statement has been 
# reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]... 
# http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04): 
# Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says 
# the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited 
# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  There is 
# no information about when DST will end this fall.  See: 
# http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-04-08): 
# Egypt will start DST on midnight after Thursday, April 30, 2015. 
# This is based on a law (no 35) from May 15, 2014 saying it starts the last 
# Thursday of April....  Clocks will still be turned back for Ramadan, but 
# dates not yet announced.... 
# http://almogaz.com/news/weird-news/2015/04/05/1947105 ... 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-starts-dst-2015.html 
 
# From Ahmed Nazmy (2015-04-20): 
# Egypt's ministers cabinet just announced ... that it will cancel DST at 
# least for 2015. 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2015-04-20): 
# http://english.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/NewsContentP/1/128195/Egypt/No-daylight-saving-this-summer-Egypts-prime-minist.aspx 
# "Egypt's cabinet agreed on Monday not to switch clocks for daylight saving 
# time this summer, and carry out studies on the possibility of canceling the 
# practice altogether in future years." 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-04-24): 
# Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his 
# decision to abandon DST permanently.  See Ahram Online 2015-04-24. 
# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29): 
# Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October.... 
# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx 
# From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04): 
# Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST, 
 
Rule    Egypt   2008    only    -       Aug     lastThu 24:00   0       - 
Rule    Egypt   2009    only    -       Aug     20      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Aug     10      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep      9      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       - 
Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       May     15      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jun     26      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jul     31      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:09 -       LMT     1900 Oct 
                        2:00    Egypt   EE%sT 
 
# Equatorial Guinea 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Eritrea 
# Ethiopia 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Gabon 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Gambia 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Ghana 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30): 
# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present"; 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942 with 20 minutes of DST, 
# with transitions on 09-01 and 12-31 at 00:00. 
# Page 33 of Parish GCB, Colonial Reports - Annual. No. 1066. Gold 
# Coast. Report for 1919. (March 1921), OCLC 784024077 
# http://libsysdigi.library.illinois.edu/ilharvest/africana/books2011-05/5530214/5530214_1919/5530214_1919_opt.pdf 
# lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18, 
# "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes 
# during the last four months of each year; the object in view being 
# to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available 
# for evening recreation after office hours." 
# Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33, 
# writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich 
# time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of 
# UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists 
# the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24. 
# The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government 
# intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T. 
# The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced." 
# These sources are incomplete and contradictory.  Possibly what is 
# now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years.  For 
# lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a 
# typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    - 
Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918 
                         0:00   Ghana   GMT/+0020 
 
# Guinea 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Guinea-Bissau 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16): 
# Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT, 
# evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree 
# (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u 
                        -1:00   -       -01     1975 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Kenya 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1930 
                        2:30    -       +0230   1940 
                        2:45    -       +0245   1960 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa   # Ethiopia 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara        # Eritrea 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala       # Uganda 
Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu     # Somalia 
Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo  # Madagascar 
Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro 
Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte 
 
# Lesotho 
# See Africa/Johannesburg. 
 
# Liberia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02): 
# 
# The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30. 
# 
# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset 
# that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.  The 1972 change was on 
# 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of: 
# Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of 
# President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972. 
# Monrovia: Executive Mansion. 
# 
# Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric 
# abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882 
                        -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time 
                        -0:44:30 -      MMT     1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Libya 
 
# From Even Scharning (2012-11-10): 
# Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10. 
# https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/ 
# Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc 
# 
# Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11): 
# Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1. 
# The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe 
# (either two days before them or five days after them, so as to fall on 
# lastFri instead of lastSun). 
 
# From Even Scharning (2013-10-25): 
# The scheduled end of DST in Libya on Friday, October 25, 2013 was 
# cancelled yesterday.... 
# https://www.libyaherald.com/2013/10/24/correction-no-time-change-tomorrow/ 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-10-25): 
# For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Mar     lastFri 1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Oct     lastFri 2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959 
                        2:00    -       EET     1982 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4 
# The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger; 
# the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors. 
                        2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1997 Oct  4 
                        2:00    -       EET     2012 Nov 10  2:00 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   2013 Oct 25  2:00 
                        2:00    -       EET 
 
# Madagascar 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Malawi 
# See Africa/Maputo. 
 
# Mali 
# Mauritania 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Mauritius 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25): 
# Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial 
# basis.... 
# It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to 
# 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful.... 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25): 
# http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30): 
# The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A 
# final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving 
# would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30): 
# Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10): 
# According to 
# http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216 
# (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier 
# than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start 
# date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time 
# given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time). 
# 
# A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date 
# to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date, 
# but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in 
# USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder 
# why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which 
# changes two days later. 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11): 
# Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving 
# time: Energy conservation?"- No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally 
# published on Monday, June 30, 2008... 
# 
# I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction 
# de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26 
# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.... 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html 
 
# From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03): 
# The Government of Mauritius weblink 
# http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD 
# Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows: 
# 
# 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly 
# of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in 
# Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of 
# the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United 
# States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the 
# last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on 
# the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the 
# year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008 
# and end on 29 March 2009. 
 
# From Ed Maste (2008-10-07): 
# THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the 
# beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the 
# morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March. 
# http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05): 
# According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe 
# DST the coming summer... 
# 
# Some sources, in French: 
# http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB 
# http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints- 
# 
# Our wrap-up: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11): 
# The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this: 
# "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour 
# at 2am (or 02:00) local time..." 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule Mauritius  1982    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule Mauritius  1983    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule Mauritius  2008    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule Mauritius  2009    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907 # Port Louis 
                        4:00 Mauritius  +04/+05 
# Agalega Is, Rodriguez 
# no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius 
 
# Mayotte 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Morocco 
# See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta). 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09): 
# Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between 
# 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008. 
# 
# "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will 
# be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to 
# Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...." 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html 
# http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09): 
# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe 
# Presse: 
# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view 
# 
# Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt. 
# spokesman. 
 
# From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09): 
# According to this article: 
# https://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html 
# (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>) 
# the changes occur at midnight: 
# 
# Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be 
# interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday) 
# Sunday night the 28th at midnight 
# 
# Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say 
# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and 
# Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive 
# June 1st to Sept 27th. 
# 
# The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree 
# published on the web. 
# 
# It's also confirmed here: 
# http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm 
# on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet 
# posted in English). 
# 
# The following Google query will generate many relevant hits: 
# https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27): 
# Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31 
# and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end 
# of September: 
# 
# One article about it (in French): 
# http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default 
# 
# We have some further details posted here: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17): 
# Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according 
# to many sources, such as 
# http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html 
# http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312 
# (French) 
# 
# Our summary: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17): 
# Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre, 
# Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics 
# 
# Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 June 1967) 
# concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of 
# Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be 
# advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight. 
# 
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13): 
# Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization 
# of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from 
# 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08. 
# 
# Example: 
# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html 
# (French) 
# Our page: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html 
 
# From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30): 
# ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format) 
# The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00 
# The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00 
# ...Official links of change in morocco 
# The change was broadcast on the FM Radio 
# I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at 
# +212.537.71.84.00 
# http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/ 
# They said that 
# http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view 
# is the official publication to look at. 
# They said that the decision was already taken. 
# 
# More articles in the press 
# https://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html 
# http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923 
# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim 
 
# From Petr Machata (2011-03-30): 
# They have it written in English here: 
# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view 
# 
# It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31, 
# 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of 
# wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has 
# also been like that in the past. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09): 
# According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma), 
# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale: 
# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été 
# http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9 
# Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on 
# the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on 
# last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012) 
# except the month of Ramadan. 
# or (brief) 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10): 
# The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in 
# effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day; 
# it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX. 
# Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about 
# start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX. 
 
# From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16): 
# Seen Morocco change again: 
# http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php 
# "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars, 
# comme annoncé précédemment." 
 
# From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17): 
# The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government: 
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French] 
# 
# Google translation, lightly edited: 
# Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT) 
# Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18, 
# 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the 
# Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry 
# of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return 
# of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until 
# Monday, August 20, 2012.  So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from 
# 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes 
# August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-03-06): 
# Morocco's daylight-saving transitions due to Ramadan seem to be 
# announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government 
# announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be 
# 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see 
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 
 
# From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02): 
# Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings 
# transitions would be 2013-07-07 and 2013-08-10; see: 
# http://www.maroc.ma/en/news/morocco-suspends-daylight-saving-time-july-7-aug10 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-28): 
# Morocco extends DST by one month, on very short notice, just 1 day 
# before it was going to end.  There is a new decree (2.13.781) for 
# this, where DST from now on goes from last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# to last Sunday of October at 03:00, similar to EU rules.  Official 
# source (French): 
# http://www.maroc.gov.ma/fr/actualites/lhoraire-dete-gmt1-maintenu-jusquau-27-octobre-2013 
# Another source (specifying the time for start and end in the decree): 
# http://www.lemag.ma/Heure-d-ete-au-Maroc-jusqu-au-27-octobre_a75620.html 
 
# From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18): 
# http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp 
 
# From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05): 
# The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return 
# to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time....  DST 
# will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014.... 
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586 
 
# From Milamber (2015-06-08): 
# (Google Translation) The hour will thus be delayed 60 minutes 
# Sunday, June 14 at 3:00, the ministry said in a statement, adding 
# that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19, 
# 2015 at 2:00.  The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I 
# 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of 
# 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015). 
# Source (french): 
# https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/ 
# 
# From Milamber (2015-06-09): 
# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863 
# 
# From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09): 
# [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go 
# from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch.... 
# I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in 
# <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees 
# with the patch. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-06-08): 
# For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use 2015's rules, 
# and guess that Morocco will switch to standard time at 03:00 the last 
# Sunday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 02:00 the first Sunday after 
# Ramadan.  To implement this, transition dates for 2016 through 2037 were 
# determined by running the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the 
# results integrated by hand into the table below. 
# (let ((islamic-year 1437)) 
#   (require 'cal-islam) 
#   (while (< islamic-year 1460) 
#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year))) 
#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year))) 
#           (sunday 0)) 
#       (while (/= sunday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7))) 
#       (while (/= sunday (mod b 7)) 
#         (setq b (1+ b))) 
#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a)) 
#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b)) 
#       (insert 
#        (format 
#         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n" 
#                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n") 
#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a)) 
#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b))))) 
#     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year)))) 
 
# RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
 
Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Aug     21       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       May      2       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       Aug      8       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Jul     31       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2012    2013    -       Apr     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Jul     20       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Aug     20       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Jul      7       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Aug     10       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2014    2021    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jun     28       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Aug      2       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jun     14       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jul     19       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jun      5       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jul     10       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       May     21       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       Jul      2       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       May     13       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       Jun     17       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       May      5       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       Jun      9       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       Apr     19       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       May     24       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       Apr     11       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       May     16       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       May      8       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2023    only    -       Apr     23       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2024    only    -       Apr     14       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2025    only    -       Apr      6       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2026    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 2036    only    -       Oct     19       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 2037    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26 
                         0:00   Morocco WE%sT   1984 Mar 16 
                         1:00   -       CET     1986 
                         0:00   Morocco WE%sT 
 
# Western Sahara 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22): 
# A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters 
# ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as 
# Morocco does. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23): 
# Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT, 
# since most of it was then controlled by Morocco. 
 
Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan # El Aaiún 
                        -1:00   -       -01     1976 Apr 14 
                         0:00   Morocco WE%sT 
 
# Mozambique 
# 
# Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT. 
# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree 
# https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf 
# merely made it official? 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre      # Malawi 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura     # Burundi 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone      # Botswana 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare        # Zimbabwe 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali        # Rwanda 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi    # E Dem. Rep. of Congo 
Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka        # Zambia 
 
 
# Namibia 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09): 
# The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at 
# www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf 
# and includes this nugget: 
# Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the 
# first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall 
# commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on 
# Sunday 4 September 1994. 
 
# From Michael Deckers (2017-04-06): 
# ... both summer and winter time are called "standard" 
# (which differs from the use in Ireland) ... 
 
# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30): 
# http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html 
# While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other 
# settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there 
# rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of 
# Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of 
# the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest 
# of the country. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22): 
# Although the Zambezi Region (formerly known as Caprivi) informally 
# observes Botswana time, we have no details about historical practice. 
# In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone. 
# See: Immanuel S. The Namibian. 2017-02-23. 
# https://www.namibian.com.na/51480/read/Time-change-divides-lawmakers 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09): 
# Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST: 
# https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/ 
# This video is from the government decision: 
# https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665 
# We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at 
# the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09): 
# Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally. 
# However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST.  See, e.g.: 
# http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706 
# https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia 
# https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/ 
# Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible 
# with Namibia's neighbors. 
 
# RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. 
Rule    Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    -1:00   WAT 
Rule    Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    0       CAT 
Rule    Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    -1:00   WAT 
# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. 
#Rule   Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       WAT 
#Rule   Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    CAT 
#Rule   Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       WAT 
# End of rearguard section. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8 
                        1:30    -       +0130   1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20  2:00 
                        2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21  2:00 
                        2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence 
# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. 
                        2:00    Namibia %s 
# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. 
#                       2:00    -       CAT     1994 Mar 21  0:00 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07): 
# The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See: 
# http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf 
#                       1:00    Namibia %s      2017 Oct 24 
#                       2:00    -       CAT 
# End of rearguard section. 
 
# Niger 
# See Africa/Lagos. 
 
# Nigeria 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui      # Central African Republic 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala      # Cameroon 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west) 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda      # Angola 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo      # Equatorial Guinea 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey      # Niger 
Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin 
 
# Réunion 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun # Saint-Denis 
                        4:00    -       +04 
# 
# Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file. 
# 
# Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows. 
# The following information about them is taken from 
# Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22, 
# in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17). 
# We have no info about their time zone histories. 
# 
# Bassas da India - uninhabited 
# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families 
# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958 
# Juan de Nova - uninhabited 
# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958 
 
# Rwanda 
# See Africa/Maputo. 
 
# St Helena 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar: 
#       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA 
#       Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA 
#       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously): 
#               on GMT, says the CIA 
#       Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited 
 
# São Tomé and Príncipe 
 
# See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08): 
# Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as 
# they entered the year 2018. 
# From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08): 
# the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017] 
# http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017 
 
Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884 
                        -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 00:00u # Lisbon MT 
                         0:00   -       GMT     2018 Jan  1 01:00 
                         1:00   -       WAT 
 
# Senegal 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Seychelles 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun # Victoria 
                        4:00    -       +04 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30): 
# Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the 
# Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory 
# in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know 
# whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now. 
# Possibly the islands were uninhabited. 
 
# Sierra Leone 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Somalia 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# South Africa 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8 
                        1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar 
                        2:00    SA      SAST 
Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru     # Lesotho 
Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane    # Swaziland 
# 
# Marion and Prince Edward Is 
# scientific station since 1947 
# no information 
 
# Sudan 
 
# From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html> 
# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13), 
# also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen: 
# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon 
# Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for 
# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin. 
 
# From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17): 
# ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00) 
# to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): 
# A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the 
# year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia 
# Abdalla of NTC, archived at: 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931 
                        2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00 
                        3:00    -       EAT     2017 Nov  1 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# South Sudan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Juba     2:06:28 -       LMT     1931 
                        2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Swaziland 
# See Africa/Johannesburg. 
 
# Tanzania 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Togo 
# See Africa/Abidjan. 
 
# Tunisia 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30): 
# My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST, 
# this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News 
# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP 
# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by 
# one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be 
# UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next 
# Saturday."  (My translation) 
# 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02): 
# La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ... 
# http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html 
# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30, 
# 1h standard time. 
# 
# From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28): 
# The daylight saving time will be the same each year: 
# Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ... 
# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16): 
# According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year. 
# (Arabic) 
# http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546 
# https://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp 
# 
# We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia. 
# We have a wrap-up about this on the following page: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17): 
# Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency 
# 
# Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn): 
# 
# (in English) 
# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157 
# 
# (in Arabic) 
# http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18): 
# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is 
# due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period 
# concerned by summer time.  Therefore, the standard time will be kept 
# unchanged the whole year long."  So foregoing DST seems to be an exception 
# (albeit one that may be repeated in the future). 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27): 
# According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010 
# 
# (translation): 
# "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on 
# Sunday... 
# Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also 
# coincided with the month of Ramadan..." 
# 
# (in Arabic) 
# http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1 
# http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1940    only    -       Feb     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     17       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     25       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's 
# more precise 0:09:21. 
# Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time 
                        1:00    Tunisia CE%sT 
 
# Uganda 
# See Africa/Nairobi. 
 
# Zambia 
# Zimbabwe 
# See Africa/Maputo.