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# @(#)africa    8.10 
# <pre> 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# 
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for 
# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT 
# for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively, 
# but Mark R V Murray reports that 
# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa, 
# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and 
# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for 
# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''. 
# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference. 
# 
# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago; 
# I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00, 
# and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00. 
# This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African 
# mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara. 
# 
# To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency: 
#       -1:00   WAT     West Africa Time (no longer used) 
#        0:00   GMT     Greenwich Mean Time 
#        2:00   CAT     Central Africa Time 
#        2:00   SAST    South Africa Standard Time 
# and Murray suggests the following abbreviation: 
#        1:00   WAT     West Africa Time 
# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00 
# for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of 
# until we get more information. 
# 
# I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome! 
#        2:00   WAST    West Africa Summer Time 
#        2:30   BEAT    British East Africa Time (no longer used) 
#        2:44:45 BEAUT  British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used) 
#        3:00   CAST    Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
#        3:00   SAST    South Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
#        3:00   EAT     East Africa Time 
#        4:00   EAST    East Africa Summer Time (no longer used) 
 
# Algeria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Algeria 1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's 
# more precise 0:09:21. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15 0:01 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25 2:00 
                        1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7 
                        0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29 
                        1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21 
                        1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26 
                        0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May 
                        1:00    -       CET 
 
# Angola 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Luanda   0:52:56 -       LMT     1892 
                        0:52:04 -       AOT     1911 May 26 # Angola Time 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Benin 
# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Porto-Novo  0:10:28 -       LMT     1912 
                        0:00    -       GMT     1934 Feb 26 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Botswana 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Gaborone 1:43:40 -       LMT     1885 
                        2:00    -       CAT     1943 Sep 19 2:00 
                        2:00    1:00    CAST    1944 Mar 19 2:00 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Burkina Faso 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Ouagadougou -0:06:04 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Burundi 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Bujumbura   1:57:28 -       LMT     1890 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Cameroon 
# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Douala   0:38:48 -       LMT     1912 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Cape Verde 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1907                    # Praia 
                        -2:00   -       CVT     1942 Sep 
                        -2:00   1:00    CVST    1945 Oct 15 
                        -2:00   -       CVT     1975 Nov 25 2:00 
                        -1:00   -       CVT 
 
# Central African Republic 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Bangui   1:14:20 -       LMT     1912 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Chad 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912 
                        1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14 
                        1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Comoros 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Comoro   2:53:04 -       LMT     1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Democratic Republic of Congo 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Kinshasa    1:01:12 -       LMT     1897 Nov 9 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
Zone Africa/Lubumbashi  1:49:52 -       LMT     1897 Nov 9 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Republic of the Congo 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Brazzaville 1:01:08 -       LMT     1912 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Cote D'Ivoire 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Djibouti 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Djibouti 2:52:36 -       LMT     1911 Jul 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Egypt 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1942    1944    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1942    only    -       Oct     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1943    1945    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1959    1981    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1966    1994    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Egypt   1982    only    -       Jul     25      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1983    only    -       Jul     12      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1984    1988    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1989    only    -       May      6      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1990    1994    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00. 
# Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29. 
Rule    Egypt   1995    max     -       Apr     lastFri  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Egypt   1995    2005    -       Sep     lastThu 23:00s  0       - 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19): 
# The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports: 
# Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday 
# after observing the daylight saving time since May. 
# http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf 
Rule    Egypt   2006    only    -       Sep     21      23:00s  0       - 
# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14): 
# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight 
# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07. 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:] 
# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm  
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...: 
# http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm 
Rule    Egypt   2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=1  23:00s  0       - 
# From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06): 
# Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter 
# than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each 
# year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite 
# hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by 
# shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently, 
# unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008. 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17): 
# For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August. 
Rule    Egypt   2008    max     -       Aug     lastThu 23:00s  0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:00 -       LMT     1900 Oct 
                        2:00    Egypt   EE%sT 
 
# Equatorial Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Malabo   0:35:08 -       LMT     1912 
                        0:00    -       GMT     1963 Dec 15 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Eritrea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Asmara   2:35:32 -       LMT     1870 
                        2:35:32 -       AMT     1890          # Asmara Mean Time 
                        2:35:20 -       ADMT    1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Ethiopia 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones 
# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890. 
# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 -       LMT     1870 
                        2:35:20 -       ADMT    1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Gabon 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Libreville  0:37:48 -       LMT     1912 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Gambia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Banjul   -1:06:36 -      LMT     1912 
                        -1:06:36 -      BMT     1935    # Banjul Mean Time 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1964 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Ghana 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present''; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Ghana   1936    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    GHST 
Rule    Ghana   1936    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       GMT 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918 
                         0:00   Ghana   %s 
 
# Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Conakry  -0:54:52 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1960 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Guinea-Bissau 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1911 May 26 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1975 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Kenya 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1930 
                        2:30    -       BEAT    1940 
                        2:44:45 -       BEAUT   1960 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Lesotho 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Maseru   1:50:00 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       SAST    1943 Sep 19 2:00 
                        2:00    1:00    SAST    1944 Mar 19 2:00 
                        2:00    -       SAST 
 
# Liberia 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch 
# from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes. 
# Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday. 
# Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and 
# Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882 
                        -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time 
                        -0:44:30 -      LRT     1972 May # Liberia Time 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Libya 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959 
                        2:00    -       EET     1982 
                        1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4 
# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger; 
# the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors. 
                        2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30 
                        1:00    -       CET     1997 Apr  4 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1997 Oct  4 
                        2:00    -       EET 
 
# Madagascar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 -      LMT     1911 Jul 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1954 Feb 27 23:00s 
                        3:00    1:00    EAST    1954 May 29 23:00s 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Malawi 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Blantyre 2:20:00 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Mali 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Bamako   -0:32:00 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1960 Jun 20 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Mauritania 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Nouakchott  -1:03:48 -      LMT     1912 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1960 Nov 28 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Mauritius 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907            # Port Louis 
                        4:00    -       MUT     # Mauritius Time 
# Agalega Is, Rodriguez 
# no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius 
 
# Mayotte 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Mayotte  3:00:56 -       LMT     1911 Jul        # Mamoutzou 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Morocco 
# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta). 
# RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26 
                         0:00   Morocco WE%sT   1984 Mar 16 
                         1:00   -       CET     1986 
                         0:00   -       WET 
# Western Sahara 
Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1976 Apr 14 
                         0:00   -       WET 
 
# Mozambique 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Namibia 
# The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA. 
 
# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in 
# <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>: 
# While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other 
# settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there 
# rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of 
# Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of 
# the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest 
# of the country. 
#  
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31): 
# Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but 
# we have no details.  In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone. 
 
# RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Namibia 1994    max     -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Namibia 1995    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8 
                        1:30    -       SWAT    1903 Mar        # SW Africa Time 
                        2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20 2:00 
                        2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21 2:00 
                        2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence 
                        2:00    -       CAT     1994 Apr  3 
                        1:00    Namibia WA%sT 
 
# Niger 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Niamey    0:08:28 -      LMT     1912 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1934 Feb 26 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1960 
                         1:00   -       WAT 
 
# Nigeria 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep 
                        1:00    -       WAT 
 
# Reunion 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun        # Saint-Denis 
                        4:00    -       RET     # Reunion Time 
# 
# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows. 
# The following information about them is taken from 
# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French; 
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17). 
# We have no info about their time zone histories. 
# 
# Bassas da India - uninhabited 
# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families 
# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958 
# Juan de Nova - uninhabited 
# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958 
 
# Rwanda 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Kigali   2:00:16 -       LMT     1935 Jun 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# St Helena 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/St_Helena -0:22:48 -      LMT     1890            # Jamestown 
                        -0:22:48 -      JMT     1951    # Jamestown Mean Time 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar: 
#       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA 
#       Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA 
#       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously): 
#               on GMT, says the CIA 
#       Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT 
 
# Sao Tome and Principe 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884 
                        -0:36:32 -      LMT     1912    # Lisbon Mean Time 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Senegal 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Dakar    -1:09:44 -      LMT     1912 
                        -1:00   -       WAT     1941 Jun 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Seychelles 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun        # Victoria 
                        4:00    -       SCT     # Seychelles Time 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30): 
# Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the 
# Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory 
# in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know 
# whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now. 
# Possibly the islands were uninhabited. 
 
# Sierra Leone 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    SL      1935    1942    -       Jun      1      0:00    0:40    SLST 
Rule    SL      1935    1942    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       WAT 
Rule    SL      1957    1962    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    SLST 
Rule    SL      1957    1962    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       GMT 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Freetown -0:53:00 -      LMT     1882 
                        -0:53:00 -      FMT     1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time 
                        -1:00   SL      %s      1957 
                         0:00   SL      %s 
 
# Somalia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Mogadishu   3:01:28 -       LMT     1893 Nov 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1931 
                        2:30    -       BEAT    1957 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# South Africa 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8 
                        1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar 
                        2:00    SA      SAST 
# Marion and Prince Edward Is 
# scientific station since 1947 
# no information 
 
# Sudan 
# 
# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html"> 
# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13) 
# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen: 
# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon 
# Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for 
# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931 
                        2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Swaziland 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Mbabane  2:04:24 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       SAST 
 
# Tanzania 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 -     LMT     1931 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1948 
                        2:44:45 -       BEAUT   1961 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Togo 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Lome     0:04:52 -       LMT     1893 
                        0:00    -       GMT 
 
# Tunisia 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30): 
# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST, 
# this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News 
# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP 
# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by 
# one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be 
# UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next 
# Saturday."  (My translation) 
# 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02): 
# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ... 
# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html> 
# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30, 
# 1h standard time. 
# 
# From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28): 
# The daylight saving time will be the same each year: 
# Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ... 
# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1940    only    -       Feb     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     17       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     25       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Tunisia 2006    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Tunisia 2006    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's 
# more precise 0:09:21. 
# Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time 
                        1:00    Tunisia CE%sT 
 
# Uganda 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Kampala  2:09:40 -       LMT     1928 Jul 
                        3:00    -       EAT     1930 
                        2:30    -       BEAT    1948 
                        2:44:45 -       BEAUT   1957 
                        3:00    -       EAT 
 
# Zambia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Lusaka   1:53:08 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       CAT 
 
# Zimbabwe 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Africa/Harare   2:04:12 -       LMT     1903 Mar 
                        2:00    -       CAT