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# <pre> 
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15): 
# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see 
# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/"> 
# COMNAP - Stations and Bases 
# </a> 
# and 
# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm"> 
# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23) 
# </a> 
# for information. 
# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information. 
# 
# Except for the French entries, 
# I made up all time zone abbreviations mentioned here; corrections welcome! 
# FORMAT is 'zzz' and GMTOFF is 0 for locations while uninhabited. 
 
# These rules are stolen from the 'southamerica' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1988    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1988    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1990    only    -       Mar     18      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
# N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time, 
# which is used below in specifying the transition. 
Rule    ChileAQ 2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16 4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=23 3:00u   0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 2012    max     -       Sep     Sun>=2  4:00u   1:00    S 
 
# Argentina - year-round bases 
# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05 
# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17 
# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01 
# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29 
# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22 
# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21 
#       (except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21) 
 
# Australia - territories 
# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited) 
#       previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered 
#       <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html"> 
#       Margaret Turner reports 
#       </a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST; 
#       presumably this is when they have visitors. 
# 
# year-round bases 
# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, -6617+11032, since 1969 
# Davis, Vestfold Hills, -6835+07759, since 1957-01-13 
#       (except 1964-11 - 1969-02) 
# Mawson, Holme Bay, -6736+06253, since 1954-02-13 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-11): 
# Three Australian stations in Antarctica have changed their time zone: 
# Casey moved from UTC+8 to UTC+11 
# Davis moved from UTC+7 to UTC+5 
# Mawson moved from UTC+6 to UTC+5 
# The changes occurred on 2009-10-18 at 02:00 (local times). 
# 
# Government source: (Australian Antarctic Division) 
# <a href="http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079"> 
# http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079 
# </a> 
# 
# We have more background information here: 
# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html"> 
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html 
# </a> 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10): 
# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division: ... 
# 
# - Casey station reverted to its normal time of UTC+8 on 5 March 2010. 
# The change to UTC+11 is being considered as a regular summer thing but 
# has not been decided yet. 
# 
# - Davis station will revert to its normal time of UTC+7 at 10 March 2010 
# 20:00 UTC. 
# 
# - Mawson station stays on UTC+5. 
# 
# Background: 
# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html"> 
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html 
# </a> 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Casey   0       -       zzz     1969 
                        8:00    -       WST     2009 Oct 18 2:00 
                                                # Western (Aus) Standard Time 
                        11:00   -       CAST    2010 Mar 5 2:00 
                                                # Casey Time 
                        8:00    -       WST     2011 Oct 28 2:00 
                        11:00   -       CAST    2012 Feb 21 17:00u 
                        8:00    -       WST 
Zone Antarctica/Davis   0       -       zzz     1957 Jan 13 
                        7:00    -       DAVT    1964 Nov # Davis Time 
                        0       -       zzz     1969 Feb 
                        7:00    -       DAVT    2009 Oct 18 2:00 
                        5:00    -       DAVT    2010 Mar 10 20:00u 
                        7:00    -       DAVT    2011 Oct 28 2:00 
                        5:00    -       DAVT    2012 Feb 21 20:00u 
                        7:00    -       DAVT 
Zone Antarctica/Mawson  0       -       zzz     1954 Feb 13 
                        6:00    -       MAWT    2009 Oct 18 2:00 
                                                # Mawson Time 
                        5:00    -       MAWT 
# References: 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html"> 
# Casey Weather (1998-02-26) 
# </a> 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html"> 
# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26) 
# </a> 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html"> 
# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25) 
# </a> 
 
# Brazil - year-round base 
# Comandante Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4 
 
# Chile - year-round bases and towns 
# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994 
# Presidente Eduadro Frei, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07 
# General Bernardo O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02 
# Capitan Arturo Prat, -6230-05941 
# Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09 
# These locations have always used Santiago time; use TZ='America/Santiago'. 
 
# China - year-round bases 
# Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20 
# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26 
 
# France - year-round bases 
# 
# From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20): 
# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP 
# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology). 
# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases 
# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came 
# from Tasmania. 
# 
# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants 
# 
# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950 
# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964 
# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951; 
#       whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956 
# 
# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited 
#       fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Kerguelen   0       -       zzz     1950    # Port-aux-Francais 
                        5:00    -       TFT     # ISO code TF Time 
# 
# year-round base in the main continent 
# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11 
# 
# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947. 
# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 -      zzz     1947 
                        10:00   -       PMT     1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time 
                        0       -       zzz     1956 Nov 
                        10:00   -       DDUT    # Dumont-d'Urville Time 
# Reference: 
# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station"> 
# Dumont d'Urville Station (2005-12-05) 
# </a> 
 
# Germany - year-round base 
# Georg von Neumayer, -7039-00815 
 
# India - year-round base 
# Dakshin Gangotri, -7005+01200 
 
# Japan - year-round bases 
# Dome Fuji, -7719+03942 
# Syowa, -690022+0393524 
# 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06): 
# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time. 
# 
# Syowa station, which is the first antarctic station of Japan, 
# was established on 1957-01-29.  Since Syowa station is still the main 
# station of Japan, it's appropriate for the principal location. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Syowa   0       -       zzz     1957 Jan 29 
                        3:00    -       SYOT    # Syowa Time 
# See: 
# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html"> 
# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17) 
# </a> 
 
# S Korea - year-round base 
# King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988 
 
# New Zealand - claims 
# Balleny Islands (never inhabited) 
# Scott Island (never inhabited) 
# 
# year-round base 
# Scott Base, Ross Island, since 1957-01. 
# See Pacific/Auckland. 
# 
# These rules for New Zealand are stolen from the 'australasia' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NZAQ    1974    only    -       Nov      3      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1989    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZAQ    1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZAQ    1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZAQ    2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
 
# Norway - territories 
# Bouvet (never inhabited) 
# 
# claims 
# Peter I Island (never inhabited) 
 
# Poland - year-round base 
# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977 
 
# Russia - year-round bases 
# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22 
# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02 
# Molodezhnaya, Alasheyev Bay, -6740+04551, 
#       year-round from 1962-02 to 1999-07-01 
# Novolazarevskaya, Queen Maud Land, -7046+01150, 
#       year-round from 1960/61 to 1992 
 
# Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11 
# <a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP"> 
# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)</a>: 
# Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same 
# time as Moscow, Russia. 
# 
# From Lee Hotz (2001-03-08): 
# I queried the folks at Columbia who spent the summer at Vostok and this is 
# what they had to say about time there: 
# "in the US Camp (East Camp) we have been on New Zealand (McMurdo) 
# time, which is 12 hours ahead of GMT. The Russian Station Vostok was 
# 6 hours behind that (although only 2 miles away, i.e. 6 hours ahead 
# of GMT). This is a time zone I think two hours east of Moscow. The 
# natural time zone is in between the two: 8 hours ahead of GMT." 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04): 
# This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it 
# in person.  He said that some Antartic locations set their local 
# time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this 
# changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean 
# solar noon.  So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks 
# happened to be during their visit.  So we still don't really know what time 
# it is at Vostok.  But we'll guess UTC+6. 
# 
Zone Antarctica/Vostok  0       -       zzz     1957 Dec 16 
                        6:00    -       VOST    # Vostok time 
 
# S Africa - year-round bases 
# Marion Island, -4653+03752 
# Sanae, -7141-00250 
 
# UK 
# 
# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims 
# South Orkney Islands 
#       scientific station from 1903 
#       whaling station at Signy I 1920/1926 
# South Shetland Islands 
# 
# year-round bases 
# Bird Island, South Georgia, -5400-03803, since 1983 
# Deception Island, -6259-06034, whaling station 1912/1931, 
#       scientific station 1943/1967, 
#       previously sealers and a scientific expedition wintered by accident, 
#       and a garrison was deployed briefly 
# Halley, Coates Land, -7535-02604, since 1956-01-06 
#       Halley is on a moving ice shelf and is periodically relocated 
#       so that it is never more than 10km from its nominal location. 
# Rothera, Adelaide Island, -6734-6808, since 1976-12-01 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-22) 
# <http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html> says Rothera is -03 all year. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Rothera 0       -       zzz     1976 Dec  1 
                        -3:00   -       ROTT    # Rothera time 
 
# Uruguay - year round base 
# Artigas, King George Island, -621104-0585107 
 
# USA - year-round bases 
# 
# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968) 
# 
# From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06): 
# It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us 
# and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line.... 
# I verified with someone who was there that since 1980, 
# Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War, 
# Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       zzz     1965 
                        -4:00   ArgAQ   AR%sT   1969 Oct 5 
                        -3:00   ArgAQ   AR%sT   1982 May 
                        -4:00   ChileAQ CL%sT 
# 
# 
# McMurdo Station, Ross Island, since 1955-12 
# Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, continuously occupied since 1956-11-20 
# 
# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-27): 
# Siple, the first commander of the South Pole station, 
# stated that he would have liked to have kept GMT at the station, 
# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12 
# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound, 
# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year 
# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.) 
# 
# From Susan Smith 
# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html 
# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available): 
# We use the same time as McMurdo does. 
# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does.... 
# One last quirk about South Pole time. 
# All the electric clocks are usually wrong. 
# Something about the generators running at 60.1hertz or something 
# makes all of the clocks run fast.  So every couple of days, 
# we have to go around and set them back 5 minutes or so. 
# Maybe if we let them run fast all of the time, we'd get to leave here sooner!! 
# 
# See 'australasia' for Antarctica/McMurdo.