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# @(#)antarctica        7.18 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15): 
# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see 
# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/"> 
# COMNAP - Stations and Bases 
# </a> 
# and 
# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm"> 
# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23) 
# </a> 
# for information. 
# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information. 
# 
# Except for the French entries, 
# I made up all time zone abbreviations mentioned here; corrections welcome! 
# FORMAT is `___' and GMTOFF is 0 for locations while uninhabited. 
 
# These rules are stolen from the `southamerica' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1967    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun<=7  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun<=7  0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ArgAQ   1974    1976    -       Oct     Sun<=7  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ArgAQ   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun<=7  0:00    0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1969    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1970    1998    -       Mar     Sun>=9  0:00    0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1998    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 1999    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       - 
Rule    ChileAQ 1999    max     -       Oct     Sun>=9  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    ChileAQ 2000    max     -       Mar     Sun>=9  0:00    0       - 
 
 
# Argentina - year-round bases 
# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05 
# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17 
# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01 
# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29 
# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22 
# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21 
#       (except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21) 
 
# Australia - territories 
# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited) 
#       previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered 
#       <a href="http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html"> 
#       Margaret Turner reports 
#       </a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST; 
#       presumably this is when they have visitors. 
# 
# year-round bases 
# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, -6617+11032, since 1969 
# Davis, Vestfold Hills, -6835+07759, since 1957-01-13 
#       (except 1964-11 - 1969-02) 
# Mawson, Holme Bay, -6736+06253, since 1954-02-13 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Casey   0       -       ___     1969 
                        8:00    -       WST     # Western (Aus) Standard Time 
Zone Antarctica/Davis   0       -       ___     1957 Jan 13 
                        7:00    -       DAVT    1964 Nov # Davis Time 
                        0       -       ___     1969 Feb 
                        7:00    -       DAVT 
Zone Antarctica/Mawson  0       -       ___     1954 Feb 13 
                        6:00    -       MAWT    # Mawson Time 
# References: 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html"> 
# Casey Weather (1998-02-26) 
# </a> 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html"> 
# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26) 
# </a> 
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html"> 
# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25) 
# </a> 
 
# Brazil - year-round base 
# Ferraz, King George Island, since 1983/4 
 
# Chile - year-round bases 
# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994 
# Frei, King George Is, -6214-05848, since 1969 
# O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02 
# Prat, -6230-05941 
 
# China - year-round bases 
# Great Wall, King George Island, since 1985-02-20 
# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, since 1989-02-26 
 
# France - year-round bases 
# 
# From Antoine Leca <Antoine.Leca@Renault.FR> (1997-01-20): 
# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP 
# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology). 
# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases 
# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came 
# from Tasmania. 
# 
# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants 
# 
# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950 
# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964 
# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951; 
#       whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956 
# 
# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited 
#       fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Kerguelen   0       -       ___     1950    # Port-aux-Francais 
                        5:00    -       TFT     # ISO code TF Time 
# 
# year-round base in the main continent 
# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11 
# 
# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947. 
# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 -      ___     1947 
                        10:00   -       PMT     1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time 
                        0       -       ___     1956 Nov 
                        10:00   -       DDUT    # Dumont-d'Urville Time 
# Reference: 
# <a href="http://www.icair.iac.org.nz/science/reports/fr/IFRTP.html"> 
# Support and Development of Polar Research and Technology (1997-02-03) 
# </a> 
 
 
# Germany - year-round base 
# Georg von Neumayer 
 
# India - year-round base 
# Dakshin Gangotri 
 
# Japan - year-round bases 
# Dome Fuji 
# Syowa 
# 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06): 
# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.  [See] 
# <a href="http://www.crl.go.jp/uk/uk201/basyo.htm">[reference in Japanese]</a> 
# and information from KAMO Hiroyasu <wd@ics.nara-wu.ac.jp>. 
# 
# Syowa station, which is the first antarctic station of Japan, 
# was established on 1957-01-29.  Since Syowa station is still the main 
# station of Japan, it's appropriate for the principal location. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Syowa   0       -       ___     1957 Jan 29 
                        3:00    -       SYOT    # Syowa Time 
# See: 
# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html"> 
# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17) 
# </a> 
 
# S Korea - year-round base 
# King Sejong, King George Island, since 1988 
 
# New Zealand - claims 
# Balleny Islands (never inhabited) 
# Scott Island (never inhabited) 
# 
# year-round base 
# Scott, Ross Island, since 1957-01, is like Antarctica/McMurdo. 
# 
# These rules for New Zealand are stolen from the `australasia' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NZAQ    1974    only    -       Nov      3      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1989    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1990    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZAQ    1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZAQ    1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZAQ    1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
 
# Norway - territories 
# Bouvet (never inhabited) 
# 
# claims 
# Peter I Island (never inhabited) 
 
# Poland - year-round base 
# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977 
 
# Russia - year-round bases 
# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22 
# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02 
# Molodezhnaya 
# Novolazarevskaya 
# Vostok 
 
# S Africa - year-round bases 
# Marion Island 
# Sanae 
 
# UK 
# 
# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims 
# South Orkney Islands 
#       scientific station from 1903 
#       whaling station at Signy I 1920/1926 
# South Shetland Islands 
#       whaling station at Deception I 1912/1931 
#       scientific station from 1943; 
#       previously sealers and a scientific expedition wintered by accident, 
#       and a garrison was deployed briefly 
# 
# year-round bases 
# Bird Island, South Georgia, -5400-03803, since 1983 
# Halley, Coates Land, -7535-2619, since 1956-01-06 
# Rothera, Adelaide Island, -6734-6808, since 1976-12-01 
 
# Uruguay - year round base 
# Artigas, King George Island, -621104-0585107 
 
# USA - year-round bases 
# 
# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968) 
# 
# From Ethan Dicks <erd@mcmsun5.mcmurdo.gov> (1996-10-06): 
# It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us 
# and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line.... 
# I verified with someone who was there that since 1980, 
# Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War, 
# Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       ___     1965 
                        -4:00   ArgAQ   AR%sT   1969 Oct 5 
                        -3:00   ArgAQ   AR%sT   1982 May 
                        -4:00   ChileAQ CL%sT 
# 
# 
# McMurdo, Ross Island, since 1956 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/McMurdo 0       -       ___     1956 
                        12:00   NZAQ    NZ%sT 
# 
# Amundsen-Scott, South Pole, since 1957-01-23 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): 
# Normally it wouldn't have a separate entry, since it's like the 
# larger Antarctica/McMurdo since 1970, but it's too famous to omit. 
# 
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-27): 
# Siple, the first commander of the South Pole station, 
# stated that he would have liked to have kept GMT at the station, 
# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12 
# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound, 
# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year 
# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.) 
# 
# From Susan Smith 
# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html 
# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available): 
# We use the same time as McMurdo does. 
# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does.... 
# One last quirk about South Pole time. 
# All the electric clocks are usually wrong. 
# Something about the generators running at 60.1hertz or something 
# makes all of the clocks run fast.  So every couple of days, 
# we have to go around and set them back 5 minutes or so. 
# Maybe if we let them run fast all of the time, we'd get to leave here sooner!! 
# 
Link    Antarctica/McMurdo      Antarctica/South_Pole