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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-01-13): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# For data circa 1899, a common source is: 
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. 
# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359 
# 
# For Russian data circa 1919, a source is: 
# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. 
# (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.) 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables: 
#            std  dst 
#            LMT        Local Mean Time 
#       2:00 EET  EEST  Eastern European Time 
#       2:00 IST  IDT   Israel 
#       5:30 IST        India 
#       7:00 WIB        west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat) 
#       8:00 WITA       central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah) 
#       8:00 CST        China 
#       8:30 KST  KDT   Korea when at +0830 
#       9:00 WIT        east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur) 
#       9:00 JST  JDT   Japan 
#       9:00 KST  KDT   Korea when at +09 
#       9:30 ACST       Australian Central Standard Time 
# Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03 
# and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier 
# editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every 
# offset, this did not reflect common practice. 
# 
# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia. 
 
# From Guy Harris: 
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as 
# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental 
# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide - 
# Worldwide Edition). 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    - 
Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# Afghanistan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890 
                        4:00    -       +04     1945 
                        4:30    -       +0430 
 
# Armenia 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST) 
# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then 
# readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even 
# when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz 
# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST 
# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that 
# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991, 
# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15): 
# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to 
# follow Russia's "old" rules. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10): 
# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012, 
# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html 
# 
# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the 
# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of 
# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time. 
# or 
# (brief) 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    - 
Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24  2:00s 
                        4:00    -       +04     1997 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2011 
                        4:00    Armenia +04/+05 
 
# Azerbaijan 
 
# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23): 
# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17). 
# http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17): 
# ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to 
# daylight saving time.... 
# https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html 
# http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html 
# http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s 
                        4:00    -       +04     1996 
                        4:00    EUAsia  +04/+05 1997 
                        4:00    Azer    +04/+05 
 
# Bahrain 
# See Asia/Qatar. 
 
# Bangladesh 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13): 
# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce 
# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30 
# 
# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16 
# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html 
# 
# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from 
# June 
# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with 
# crippling power crisis. " 
# 
# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if 
# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02): 
# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between 
# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet. 
# 
# Some sources: 
# https://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601 
# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2 
# 
# Our wrap-up: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html 
 
# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15): 
# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start 
# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh 
# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission). 
# 
# No DST end date has been announced yet. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25): 
# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009, 
# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision. 
# 
# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday": 
# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1" 
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13): 
# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports: 
# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make 
# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would 
# "continue for an indefinite period." 
# 
# One of many places where it is published: 
# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24): 
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star," 
# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009. 
# 
# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night. 
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html 
# 
# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour 
# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31, 
# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime 
# Minister's Office last night..." 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22): 
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star," 
# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time 
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890 
                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time? 
                        6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 15 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep 
                        6:30    -       +0630   1951 Sep 30 
                        6:00    -       +06     2009 
                        6:00    Dhaka   +06/+07 
 
# Bhutan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1987 Oct 
                        6:00    -       +06 
 
# British Indian Ocean Territory 
# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the 
# 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996. 
# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced; 
# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which 
# then contained the Chagos Archipelago). 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907 
                        5:00    -       +05     1996 
                        6:00    -       +06 
 
# Brunei 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1933 
                        8:00    -       +08 
 
# Burma / Myanmar 
 
# Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20): 
# Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is 
# used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead 
# of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630, 
# a transition for which Shanks is the only source. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Yangon     6:24:47 -       LMT     1880        # or Rangoon 
                        6:24:47 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon local time 
                        6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 May  3 
                        6:30    -       +0630 
 
# Cambodia 
# See Asia/Bangkok. 
 
 
# China 
 
# From Guy Harris: 
# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone. 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though 
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the 
# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China 
# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of 
# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it. 
# 
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too 
# painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for 
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP): 
# 
#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14 
#     1987 mid-April - ?? 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN 
# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11): 
# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight 
# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began 
# observing daylight saving time in 1986. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): 
# Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but 
# this doesn't seem to be correct.  They also write that China observed summer 
# DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so 
# go with them for DST rules as follows: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Shang   1940    1941    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11 0:00    0       S 
Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=10 0:00    1:00    D 
 
# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20): 
# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five 
# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official 
# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949). 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14): 
# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the 
# https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county 
# boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two 
# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border, 
# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are 
# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege 
# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6 
# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two 
# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05): 
# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources: 
# 
# (1) 
# Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) 
# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC 
# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology 
# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003) 
# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was 
# officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the 
# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not 
# been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar 
# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued 
# to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the 
# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it 
# could well have ignored any such mandate. 
# 
# (2) 
# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) 
# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China 
# [undated and unknown publication location] 
# It says several things: 
#   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China. 
#   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective 
#     the official calendar book of 1914. 
#   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in 
#     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei) 
#     Observatory and set to local mean time. 
#   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8. 
#   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers) 
#     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it 
#     became used by railways as well. 
#   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into 
#     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on 
#     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8. 
#   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice 
#     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in 
#     Japanese-occupied territory. 
#   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time. 
#   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into 
#     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear 
#     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control. 
#   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war. 
# 
# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the 
# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is 
# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour 
# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the 
# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT +08. 
# 
# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but 
# this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger. 
# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and 
# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility. 
# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice 
# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were: 
# 
# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT +08:30 
# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here. 
# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin 
# 
# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT +08 
# Now part of Asia/Shanghai. 
# most of China 
# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest. 
# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT +08 "from the end of the 19th century". 
# 
# Long-shu Time (probably as Long and Shu were two names of the area) UT +07 
# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here. 
# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan; 
# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; east Qinghai; and the Guangdong 
# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing, 
# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu. 
# 
# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT +06 
# This region is now part of either Asia/Urumqi or Asia/Shanghai with 
# current boundaries uncertain; times before 1970 for areas that 
# disagree with Ürümqi or Shanghai are not recorded here. 
# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai; 
# the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang, 
# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi; 
# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi; 
# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe, 
# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin, 
# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami, 
# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan. 
# 
# Kunlun Time UT +05:30 
# This region is now in the same status as Xin-zang Time (see above). 
# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule; 
# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke, 
# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding, 
# and Yarkand. 
 
# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17): 
# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in 
# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time, 
# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on 
# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese 
# they implicitly use Beijing time. 
# 
# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the 
# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two 
# hours behind Beijing time, or UT +06. The government of the Xinjiang 
# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as 
# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in 
# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as 
# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language 
# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time. 
# 
# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its 
# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in 
# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.) 
# 
# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990 
# or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with 
# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same 
# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and 
# others moving their clocks ahead.) 
 
# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19): 
# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common 
# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols): 
# 
# 1. Wulumuqi... 
# 2. Kashi... 
# 3. Urumqi... 
# 4. Kashgar... 
# ... 
# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the 
# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding 
# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child. 
# 
# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any 
# start date for Xinjiang time. 
# 
# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally 
# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur 
# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also 
# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.) 
 
# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26): 
# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986: 
# https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html 
 
# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22): 
# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from 
# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's 
# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David 
# Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially 
# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least 
# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time; 
# and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers 
# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some 
# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only 
# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as 
# having the same time as Beijing. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): 
# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT +06) 
# but this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun, 
# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN 
# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x. 
# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone. 
# 
# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see 
# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government" 
# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22). 
# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986. 
# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty, 
# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan 
# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of 
# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be 
# quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to 
# UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren, 
# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a 
# guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before 
# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and 
# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the 
# +08 mandate back then. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai. 
Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901 
                        8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi 
# / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.) 
Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928 
                        6:00    -       +06 
 
 
# Hong Kong (Xianggang) 
 
# Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this. 
 
# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24): 
# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong 
# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually, 
# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK, 
# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing 
# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I 
# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be 
# obtained from 
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28): 
# Here are the dates given at 
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm 
# as of 2009-10-28: 
# Year        Period 
# 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep 
# 1942        Whole year 
# 1943        Whole year 
# 1944        Whole year 
# 1945        Whole year 
# 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec 
# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec 
# 1948        2 May to 31 Oct 
# 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct 
# 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct 
# 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct 
# 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct 
# 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov 
# 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct 
# 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov 
# 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov 
# 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov 
# 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov 
# 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov 
# 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov 
# 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov 
# 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov 
# 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov 
# 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov 
# 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct 
# 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct 
# 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct 
# 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct 
# 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct 
# 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct 
# 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct 
# 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct 
# 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct 
# 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74 
# 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct 
# 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct 
# 1977        Nil 
# 1978        Nil 
# 1979        13 May to 21 Oct 
# 1980 to Now Nil 
# The page does not give start or end times of day. 
# The page does not give a start date for 1942. 
# The page does not givw an end date for 1945. 
# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25. 
# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15. 
# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8  3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30 
                        8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15 
                        8:00    HK      HK%sT 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Taiwan 
 
# From smallufo (2010-04-03): 
# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau], 
# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm 
# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30. 
 
# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): 
# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of 
# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that 
# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands 
# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on 
# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be 
# found on Wikisource: 
# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) 
# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because 
# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone 
# declared officially. 
# 
# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa 
# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of 
# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard 
# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in 
# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan 
# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time 
# (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can 
# be found on Wikisource: 
# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件 
# 
# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UT+9 on Oct 1, 1937. 
 
# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): 
# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UT+9 
# back to UT+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document 
# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time 
# zone back to Western Standard Time (UT+8) on Sep 21.  And in another 
# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a 
# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two 
# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And 
# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald" 
# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact 
# that: 
# 
# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using 
# the time at 135E (GMT+9) 
# 
# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan 
# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands, 
# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called 
# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8. 
# 
# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the 
# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard 
# Time. 
# 
# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan: 
# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037 
# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site: 
# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm 
# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475: 
# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf 
 
# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03): 
# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to 
# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General 
# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ... 
# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local 
# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on 
# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more 
# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the 
# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this 
# would be a good one. 
# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945: 
# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener 
 
# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): 
# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from 
# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct. 
# 
# Original Bulletin: 
# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF 
# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.) 
# 
# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that 
# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government: 
# 
# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431 
# 
# Here is a brief translation: 
# 
#   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20 
#   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time 
#   adoption till Oct 31 midnight. 
# 
# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can 
# be found from historical government announcement database. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03): 
# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT +09 from 1937-10-01 
# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei 
Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1 
                        8:00    -       CST     1937 Oct  1 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00 
                        8:00    Taiwan  C%sT 
 
# Macau (Macao, Aomen) 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Macau   1961    1962    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1961    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       S 
Rule    Macau   1963    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1964    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Oct     31      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       S 
Rule    Macau   1972    1974    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1972    1973    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Macau   1974    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=15 3:30    0       S 
Rule    Macau   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=15 3:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       S 
# See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:20 -       LMT     1911 Dec 31 16:00u 
                        8:00    Macau   C%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Cyprus 
 
# Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT. 
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09): 
# Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's 
# lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round. 
# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/ 
# 
# From Even Scharning (2016-10-31): 
# Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night. 
# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/ 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): 
# Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus 
# staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A. 
# Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17. 
# https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/ 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14 
                        2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep 
                        2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT 
Zone    Asia/Famagusta  2:15:48 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14 
                        2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep 
                        2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT   2016 Sep  8 
                        3:00    -       +03     2017 Oct 29 1:00u 
                        2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT 
 
# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72. 
# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe. 
Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia 
 
# Georgia 
# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19): 
# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward 
# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze, 
# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it! 
# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall. 
# 
# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04): 
# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia 
# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy, 
# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday. 
# 
# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27): 
# 
# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet 
# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it 
# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours 
# ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia, 
# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process 
# of integration into Europe. 
 
# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07): 
# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on 
# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years. 
# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT 
# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document 
# about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document, 
# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time.... 
# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our 
# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month. 
 
# Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7. 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11. 
# Go with Byalokoz. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time 
                        3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 
                        3:00 E-EurAsia  +03/+04 1994 Sep lastSun 
                        4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 1996 Oct lastSun 
                        4:00    1:00    +05     1997 Mar lastSun 
                        4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 2004 Jun 27 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 2005 Mar lastSun  2:00 
                        4:00    -       +04 
 
# East Timor 
 
# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition. 
 
# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in 
# East Timor may be late for its millennium 
# <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31): 
# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun 
# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the 
# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it 
# conflicts with their way of life. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# We don't have any record of the above attempt. 
# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data. 
 
# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General 
# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html 
# (2000-08-16): 
# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided 
# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change, 
# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at 
# midnight on Saturday, September 16. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1 
                        8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00 
                        9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3 
                        8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00 
                        9:00    -       +09 
 
# India 
 
# From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic 
# https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/ 
# (2015-12-22): 
# In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the 
# outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of 
# local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this 
# dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20): 
# Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India. 
# "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic 
# measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras 
# (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time, 
# and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time: 
# 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19. 
# "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present 
# standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of 
# Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of 
# his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat 
# of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change 
# the time they are using, for that of what they regard as a benighted 
# Presidency; while Madras, having for long given the standard time to the 
# rest of India, would resist the adoption of any other Indian standard in its 
# place." -- Oldham RD. On Time in India: a suggestion for its improvement. 
# Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (April 1899), 49-55. 
# 
# "In 1870 ... Madras time - 'now used by the telegraph and regulated from the 
# only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time, 
# first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR).... 
# Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their 
# local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and 
# Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145. 
# 
# Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8. 
# https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212 
# This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on 
# 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some 
# municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta 
# continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at 
# government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or 
# at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more 
# appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do 
# elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was 
# consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway 
# time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the 
# 1941-1945 data. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata 
                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1870        # Howrah Mean Time? 
                        5:21:10 -       MMT     1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time 
                        5:30    -       IST     1941 Oct 
                        5:30    1:00    +0630   1942 May 15 
                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15 
                        5:30    -       IST 
# Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata: 
#       Andaman Is 
#       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is) 
#       Nicobar Is 
 
# Indonesia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06): 
# The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia 
# civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta. 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger: 
# http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime 
# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some 
# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat 
# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10): 
# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger. 
# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in 
# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and 
# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus 
# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore. 
# These would be the earliest possible times for a change. 
# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions 
# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched 
# from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura 
# (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura 
# switched on 1945-09-23. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11): 
# Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in 
# Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even 
# when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language 
# summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the 
# Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology, 
# Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29). 
# The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are: 
# 
# WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time) 
# WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time) 
# WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time) 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Java, Sumatra 
Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10 
# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13, 
# but this must be a typo. 
                        7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia 
                        7:20    -       +0720   1932 Nov 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1942 Mar 23 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1948 May 
                        8:00    -       +08     1950 May 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1964 
                        7:00    -       WIB 
# west and central Borneo 
Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May 
                        7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1942 Jan 29 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1948 May 
                        8:00    -       +08     1950 May 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1964 
                        8:00    -       WITA    1988 Jan  1 
                        7:00    -       WIB 
# Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo 
Zone Asia/Makassar      7:57:36 -       LMT     1920 
                        7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT 
                        8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb  9 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23 
                        8:00    -       WITA 
# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua 
Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov 
                        9:00    -       +09     1944 Sep  1 
                        9:30    -       +0930   1964 
                        9:00    -       WIT 
 
# Iran 
 
# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15): 
# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian). 
# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine: 
# 
#       Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16] 
#       No. 16760/T233 H                                1370/6/10 [1991-09-01] 
# 
#       The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country 
# 
#       The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14], 
#       based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13] 
#       of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs, 
#       and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers 
#       and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and 
#       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that: 
# 
#       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour 
#       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return 
#       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of 
#       Shahrivar. 
# 
#       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi 
# 
# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed 
# for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the 
# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last 
# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates.... 
# 
# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05): 
# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions 
# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic 
# leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious 
# plan to change that law.... 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter. 
# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates, 
# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow. 
# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar 
# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand. 
# 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future 
# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar: 
# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for 
# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local 
# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be 
# known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer: 
# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give 
# no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant 
# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between 
# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058: 
# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of 
# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date 
# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical). 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22): 
# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore: 
# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm 
# 
# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen: 
# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce 
# daylight saving time ... 
# https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916 
# 
# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05): 
# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of 
# Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24 
# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:... 
# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour 
# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will 
# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the 
# thirtieth day of Shahrivar. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
# 
# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038. 
# These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the 
# restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format. 
# At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite 
# possibly Iran will change the rules first. 
Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916 
                        3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time 
                        3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov 
                        4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979 
                        3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430 
 
 
# Iraq 
# 
# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12): 
# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in 
# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph: 
# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and 
# are an hour ahead of Baghdad." 
# 
# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows: 
# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi 
# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred 
# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone 
# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq. 
# 
# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10): 
# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following 
# news sources (in Arabic): 
# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html 
# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10 
# 
# We have published a short article in English about the change: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    - 
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo. 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this. 
# 
Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890 
                        2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time? 
                        3:00    -       +03     1982 May 
                        3:00    Iraq    +03/+04 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Israel 
 
# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11): 
# 
# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three 
# different abbreviations in use: 
# 
# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University] 
# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion] 
# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else] 
# 
# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities, 
# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe, 
# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with 
# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go 
# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone 
# settings in Israeli computers. 
# 
# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India, 
# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's 
# family is from India). 
 
# From Shanks & Pottenger: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD 
Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
 
# From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05): 
# I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the 
# [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath 
# ends and changes to Sunday. 
Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S 
 
# From Ephraim Silverberg 
# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22, 
# and 2005-02-17): 
 
# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of 
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes. 
# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150 
# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to 
# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to 
# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a 
# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard 
# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard 
# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid 
# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to 
# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from 
# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time 
# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for 
# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was 
# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it 
# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all 
# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no 
# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date 
# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve 
# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date 
# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement] 
# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar). 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
 
# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the 
# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by 
# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
 
# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the 
# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998 
# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at: 
# 
#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz 
# 
# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa. 
# 
# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at: 
# 
#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz 
# 
#       where YYYY is the relevant year. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S 
 
# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for 
# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the 
# years 2001-2004 as well. 
# 
# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at: 
# 
#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz 
# 
# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates 
# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at: 
# 
#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S 
 
# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on 
# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the 
# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April 
# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday 
# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur. 
# 
# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at: 
# 
#       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26): 
# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program 
# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20) 
# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4, 
# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012. 
# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.) 
# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule: 
# 
# Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D 
# 
# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support 
# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the 
# springtime transitions explicitly. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S 
 
# From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27): 
# On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the 
# Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading 
# in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third 
# (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013. 
# 
# As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday 
# in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time? 
                        2:00    Zion    I%sT 
 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Japan 
 
# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06): 
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had 
# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued 
# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours." 
 
# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times: 
# http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm 
# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on 
# [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of 
# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated 
# deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to 
# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San 
# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53% 
# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who 
# wanted to keep it.) 
 
# From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19): 
# The source of information is Japanese law. 
# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm 
# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm 
# ... In summary, it is written as follows.  From 24:00 on the first Saturday 
# in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D 
Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=9   0:00   0       S 
Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D 
Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D 
 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09): 
# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical 
# Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N. 
# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996' 
# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.... 
# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST). 
# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07. 
 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16): 
# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan, 
# which stands for the time on 135° E. 
# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central 
# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard 
# time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard 
# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No. 
# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is 
# standard.... 
# 
# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate. 
# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor. 
 
# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): 
# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause 
# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. 
# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) 
# 
# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which 
# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan 
# Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. 
# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u 
                        9:00    Japan   J%sT 
# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo. 
 
# Jordan 
# 
# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html> 
# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): 
# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight, 
# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time 
# all year round. 
# 
# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html> 
# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09): 
# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back 
# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final! 
# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in 
# government's departments from six to seven hours. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22): 
# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23): 
# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year 
# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi: 
# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm 
# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27". 
# 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02): 
# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic): 
# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279 
# 
# Google's translation: 
# 
# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely 
# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday 
# > of the month of March of each year. 
# 
# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06): 
# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25): 
# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not 
# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST 
# until about the same time next year (at least). 
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11): 
# Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to 
# UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight: 
# http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime 
# Official, in Arabic: 
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14 
# ... Our background/permalink about it 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html 
# ... 
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P 
# ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future 
# (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11): 
# As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931 
                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT 
 
 
# Kazakhstan 
 
# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11 
# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21): 
# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing 
# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health 
# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity. 
# 
# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28): 
# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone 
# was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has 
# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone 
# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the 
# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū, 
# Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses 
# everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones 
# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively. 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27): 
# Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/ 
# produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan: 
# 
# 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR 
# from 1991-02-04 No. 20 
# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545 
# removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR 
# starting with the last Sunday of March 1991. 
# It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR, 
# Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time. 
# 
# The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers 
# of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet 
# of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its 
# text. 
# 
# According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20 
# (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via 
# http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during 
# transition to "summer" time: 
# Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova, 
# Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug 
# were to move clocks 1 hour forward. 
# Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik 
# SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts 
# of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards. 
# Other territories were to not move clocks. 
# When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be 
# moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding 
# Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan. 
# 
# Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170 
# was one of such changes. 
# 
# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время 
# claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that 
# Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast) 
# were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks 
# forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards. 
# (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an 
# article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not 
# move clocks.) 
# 
# This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while 
# the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06 
# to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth 
# time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ... 
# 
# 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 1992-01-13 No. 28 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_ 
# (text includes modification from the 1996 act) 
# introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian 
# 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated 
# according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks 
# on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at 
# 2:00, specified DST rules.  It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was 
# located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the 
# border between them to be located east of Qostanay and Aktyubinsk 
# oblasts (notably including Turgai and Qyzylorda oblasts into the fifth 
# time belt). 
# 
# This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for 
# Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyraū and Qostanay oblasts; from 
# +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk).... 
# 
# 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 1992-03-27 No. 284 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_ 
# cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Qyzylorda oblasts 
# since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth 
# and the fifth time belts respectively. 
# 
# 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 1994-09-23 No. 384 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_ 
# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangghystaū 
# oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on 
# the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a 
# result).... 
# 
# 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 1996-05-08 No. 575 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_ 
# amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead 
# of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act. 
# 
# 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 1999-03-26 No. 305 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_ 
# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyraū oblast since the 
# last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth 
# time belt. 
# 
# This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05.... 
# 
# 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 2000-11-23 No. 1749 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000 
# replaces the previous five documents. 
# 
# The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the 
# fourth and the fifth time belts.  They account for changes in spelling 
# and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997 
# probably changed time in territories incorporated into Qostanay oblast 
# (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Qyzylorda oblast 
# from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the 
# fourth time belt (no change in practice). 
# 
# 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 2003-12-29 No. 1342 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_ 
# modified the 2000-11-23 act.  No relevant changes, apparently. 
# 
# 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 2004-07-20 No. 775 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004 
# modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Qostanay and Qyzylorda oblasts into 
# the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not 
# using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time 
# zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07).  The changes were to be implemented 
# during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically 
# amended before implementation happened. 
# 
# 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 2004-09-15 No. 1059 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_ 
# modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time" 
# (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the 
# 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyraū, West Kazakhstan, 
# Qostanay, Qyzylorda and Mangghystaū oblasts by not moving clocks 
# during the 2004 transition to "winter" time. 
# 
# This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyraū oblast (no 
# zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to 
# +06/+07 for Qostanay oblast (Qostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently) 
# and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00.... 
# 
# 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
# from 2005-03-15 No. 231 
# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_ 
# removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the 
# (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15 
# acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication. 
# The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer 
# time. 
# 
# Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation 
# No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details]. 
# Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27 
# act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992. 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08): 
# Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay 
# oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone. 
# (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations 
# according to wikipedia.) 
# 
# [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/ 
# suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on 
# 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand 
# how that could happen.... 
# 
# [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree 
# (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html 
# and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in 
# the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): 
# The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# 
# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan 
# This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA, 
# KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ. 
Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata 
                        5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        6:00    -       +06 
# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY) 
# This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS); 
# see comments below. 
Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1 
                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        6:00    -       +06 
# The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one 
# hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29.  The 1991/2 rules for 
# Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai 
# reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now. 
#Zone   Asia/Qostanay   4:14:20 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
#                       4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
#                       5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1 
#                       5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1 
#                       6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
#                       4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
#                       6:00    -       +06 
# 
# Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT) 
Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1 
                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        5:00    -       +05 
# Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN) 
# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region, 
# so include time stamps before 1963. 
Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        5:00    -       +05 
# Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from 
# +04/+05 to +05/+06 in spring 1999, not fall 1994. 
Zone    Asia/Atyrau     3:27:44 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        3:00    -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1999 Mar 28  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        5:00    -       +05 
# West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP) 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
Zone    Asia/Oral       3:25:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk 
                        3:00    -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1 
                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s 
                        5:00    -       +05 
 
# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan) 
# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15): 
# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway 
# http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml 
# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article 
# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC. 
# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21): 
# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005. 
# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7  0:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    - 
Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31  2:00 
                        5:00    Kyrgyz  +05/+06 2005 Aug 12 
                        6:00    -       +06 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Korea (North and South) 
 
# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10): 
# http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012 
# Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it 
# during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced 
# between 1987 and 1988 ... 
 
# From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29): 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html 
# According to the Korean Wikipedia 
# https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시 
# [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC] 
# DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old 
# newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia. 
# For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST 
# started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in 
# 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18 0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8  3:00    0       S 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23): 
# The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets: 
# 
# 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5) 
# 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367 
#       (Announcement No. 338) 
# 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17) 
# 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07) 
# 
# (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30 
# edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.) 
# 
# I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same 
# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST 
# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII. 
# 
# For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we 
# have no information otherwise. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07): 
# According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to 
# the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example: 
# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15): 
# Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See: 
# Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time' 
# http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html 
# There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone. 
# Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK. 
 
# From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29): 
# North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang 
# Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time). 
# 
# From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30): 
# Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan. 
# https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf 
# ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree 
# No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's 
# Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun. 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29): 
# It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1 
                        8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8 
                        9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21 
                        8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10 
                        9:00    ROK     K%sT 
Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1 
                        8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24 
                        9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00 
                        8:30    -       KST     2018 May  5 
                        9:00    -       KST 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Kuwait 
# See Asia/Riyadh. 
 
# Laos 
# See Asia/Bangkok. 
 
 
# Lebanon 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:00    Lebanon EE%sT 
 
# Malaysia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    - 
Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       - 
# 
# peninsular Malaysia 
# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) 
# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1 
                        6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T. 
                        7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1 
                        7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1 
                        7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1 
                        8:00    -       +08 
# Sabah & Sarawak 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12): 
# The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 
# and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1933 
                        8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12 
                        8:00    -       +08 
 
# Maldives 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Malé 
                        4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Malé Mean Time 
                        5:00    -       +05 
 
# Mongolia 
 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but 
# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World 
# (2005-03) both say that it has just one. 
 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11): 
# General Information Mongolia 
# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09) 
# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of 
# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and 
# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus 
# eight hours." 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13): 
# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998 
# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am 
# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time 
# of implementation may have been different.... 
# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time 
# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod, 
# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15): 
# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia. 
# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone; 
# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us, 
# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd 
# is good enough for our purposes. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13): 
# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier 
# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28), 
# there are three time zones. 
# 
# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai 
# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv, 
#       Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi 
# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar 
# 
# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.] 
 
# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17): 
# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March. 
# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of 
# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17): 
# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs 
# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26): 
# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones. 
# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says 
# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft 
# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that 
# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UT +07, +08) with no DST. 
# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in 
# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed. 
# He also found 
# http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1& 
# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius" 
# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones. 
# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT 
# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT. 
# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the 
# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session." 
# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation. 
 
# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26): 
# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February. 
# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time.... 
# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742 
 
# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30): 
# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for 
# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT 
# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz 
# database on this, e.g.: 
# 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026 
# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx 
# 
# both say GMT+08:00. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31): 
# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight 
# schedule here: 
# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112 
# (click the English flag for English) 
# 
# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive 
# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the 
# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern 
# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are 
# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and 
# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed). 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19): 
# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00. 
# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition 
# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report); 
# this is almost surely wrong. 
 
# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10): 
# It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use 
# daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of 
# March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of 
# September daylight saving time ends.  Source: 
# http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mongol  1983    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Mongol  1983    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00, 
# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM 
# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998. 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches 
# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place 
# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of 
# the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their 
# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly 
# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now. 
 
# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09): 
# Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight 
# saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192 
 
Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST. 
Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta 
Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug 
                        6:00    -       +06     1978 
                        7:00    Mongol  +07/+08 
# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga 
Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug 
                        7:00    -       +07     1978 
                        8:00    Mongol  +08/+09 
# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan, 
# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan 
Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug 
                        7:00    -       +07     1978 
                        8:00    -       +08     1983 Apr 
                        9:00    Mongol  +09/+10 2008 Mar 31 
                        8:00    Mongol  +08/+09 
 
# Nepal 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1986 
                        5:45    -       +0545 
 
# Oman 
# See Asia/Dubai. 
 
# Pakistan 
 
# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13): 
# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a 
# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002 
# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was 
# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the 
# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15): 
# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL: 
# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm 
# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to 
# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first 
# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on 
# 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00, 
# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like 
# it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday 
# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the 
# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): 
# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05 
# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14): 
# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm 
# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year: 
# 
# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh 
# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous 
# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by 
# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy. 
# 
# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather 
# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity. 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15): 
# 
# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time 
# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months. 
# 
# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to 
# help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 
# 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...." 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html 
# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19): 
# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28): 
# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced 
# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31 
# instead of August 31. 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html 
# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08): 
# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to 
# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance 
# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in 
# official working." 
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280 
# 
# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to 
# introduce DST from April 15, 2009 
# 
# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan 
# April 08, 2009 
# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15 
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html 
# 
# .... 
# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to 
# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to 
# conserve energy" 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17): 
# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal 
# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the 
# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to 
# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in 
# this regard." 
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28): 
# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that 
# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from 
# October 1, 2009. 
# 
# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct" 
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29): 
# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date: 
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742 
# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1. 
# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on 
# Monday." 
# 
# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year: 
# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour 
# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without 
# obtaining prior approval, the officials added." 
# 
# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of 
# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html 
 
# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01): 
# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan 
# will go back to standard time on 1st of November. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26): 
# Steffen Thorsen wrote: 
# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in 
# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01. 
# > 
# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the 
# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time 
# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but 
# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15. 
# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final: 
# 
# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks" 
# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041 
# 
# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST" 
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       - 
Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1951 Sep 30 
                        5:00    -       +05     1971 Mar 26 
                        5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time 
 
# Palestine 
 
# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15): 
# 
# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now 
# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule. 
# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too... 
# 
# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05 
# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no 
# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt, 
# though. 
# 
# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally 
# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from 
# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the 
# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major 
# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and 
# East Jerusalem. 
# 
# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except 
# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might 
# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware 
# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer 
# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected). 
# 
# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most 
# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to 
# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to 
# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't 
# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the 
# Jordanian one). 
# 
# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that: 
# 
# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996- 
# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------- 
# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion 
# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan 
# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan 
# 
# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they 
# have one). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go 
# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947, 
# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996. 
# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since 
# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about 
# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970. 
# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries 
# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules 
# to Palestine's rules. 
 
# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time, 
# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg: 
# 
# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time 
# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks 
# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule, 
# the PA has decided to implement DST in April. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): 
# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc 
# http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html 
# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that 
# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15. 
# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source). 
# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00, 
# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22): 
# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23): 
# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of 
# the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think 
# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks 
# earlier - the same goes for Jordan. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17): 
# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the 
# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I 
# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not 
# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if 
# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as 
# the West Bank. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26): 
# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19): 
# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5 
# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule 
# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn 
# > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week. 
# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well, 
# because of the Ramadan. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18): 
# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the 
# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20): 
# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when 
# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit 
# surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree. 
# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be 
# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28): 
# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan. 
# 
# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while 
# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008). 
# 
# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001 
# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26): 
# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian 
# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March 
# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009. 
# 
# (in Arabic) 
# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850 
# 
# (English translation) 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31): 
# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to 
# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04. 
# 
# One news source: 
# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158 
# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic), 
# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah 
# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of 
# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty 
# minutes per hour as of Friday morning." 
# 
# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different 
# end date, we will keep this page updated: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02): 
# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank. 
# 
# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan 
# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009. 
# 
# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza" 
# (from Palestinian National Authority): 
# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19): 
# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March 
# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri 
# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?) 
# 
# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697 
# (in Arabic) 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24): 
# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will 
# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or 
# noon though: 
# 
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178 
# (Ma'an News Agency) 
# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to 
# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning." 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11): 
# According to several sources, including 
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795 
# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in 
# Gaza and the West Bank. 
# Some more background info: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26): 
# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of 
# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30 
# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of 
# Ramadan. 
# 
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217 
# Additional info: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27): 
# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post: 
# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to 
# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the 
# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back. 
# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after 
# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..." 
# ... 
# https://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html 
# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30): 
# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30 
# 00:00). 
# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again. 
# 
# Many sources, including: 
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26): 
# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST 
# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00). 
# Some of many sources in Arabic: 
# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638 
# 
# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html 
# 
# Our brief summary: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26): 
# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving 
# time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated). 
# [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.] 
# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120 
# http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24): 
# The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight 
# (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...). 
# This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect 
# at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip": 
# http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246 
# official source...: 
# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03): 
# Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257 
# and https://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will 
# start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03): 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014 
# says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00. 
 
# From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09): 
# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728 
# [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight 
# saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning, 
# 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead." 
 
# From Sharef Mustafa (2016-10-19): 
# [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on 
# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf 
# states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00. 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19): 
# Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on. 
# This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring 
# predictions. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19): 
# It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron 
 
# From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16): 
# Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the 
# clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on 
# the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact 
# time of the time shift. 
# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-03-16): 
# For 2016 on, predict spring transitions on March's fourth Saturday at 01:00. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       - 
Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       - 
 
Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8  2:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1  1:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21 0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2014    2015    -       Oct     Fri>=21 0:00    0       - 
Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Mar     Sat>=22 1:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Oct     lastSat 1:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct 
                        2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15 
                        2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5 
                        2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996 
                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010 
                        2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1 
                        2:00    -       EET     2012 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT 
 
Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct 
                        2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15 
                        2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5 
                        2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996 
                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT 
 
# Paracel Is 
# no information 
 
# Philippines 
# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the 
# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to 
# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's 
# History of the International Date Line 
# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm 
# The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26): 
# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990: 
# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/ 
# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires, 
# but no details] 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14): 
# The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again 
# March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed 
# during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details. 
# Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time. 
# Philippine Star 2014-08-05 
# http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31 
                        8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11 
                        8:00    Phil    +08/+09 1942 May 
                        9:00    -       +09     1944 Nov 
                        8:00    Phil    +08/+09 
 
# Qatar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha 
                        4:00    -       +04     1972 Jun 
                        3:00    -       +03 
Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain 
 
# Saudi Arabia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): 
# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not 
# standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it 
# has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to 
# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines 
# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar 
# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12 
# o'clock for "Arab" time). 
# 
# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best 
# we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics 
# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated 
# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and 
# Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the 
# earlier date. 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two 
# time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of 
# the country.  Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14 
                        3:00    -       +03 
Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen 
Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait 
 
# Singapore 
# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) 
# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1 
                        6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T. 
                        7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1 
                        7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1 
                        7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12 
                        7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1 
                        8:00    -       +08 
 
# Spratly Is 
# no information 
 
# Sri Lanka 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): 
# Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo 
# mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably 
# from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with 
# Shanks and Pottenger. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): 
# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout" 
# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24, 
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17) 
# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at 
# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'." 
# 
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted 
# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section 
# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26): 
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996 
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online 
# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13): 
# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes) 
# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006). 
 
# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in: 
# http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML 
# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply 
# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean 
# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India. 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18): 
# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'], 
# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970. 
 
# From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19): 
# According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units, 
# Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka 
# standard time is SLST. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18): 
# "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time 
# zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of 
# it in the International Business Times of India in February and 
# March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing 
# since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in 
# other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is 
# even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can 
# switch to "SLST" if it catches on. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880 
                        5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1942 Jan  5 
                        5:30    0:30    +06     1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 16  2:00 
                        5:30    -       +0530   1996 May 25  0:00 
                        6:30    -       +0630   1996 Oct 26  0:30 
                        6:00    -       +06     2006 Apr 15  0:30 
                        5:30    -       +0530 
 
# Syria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02; 
# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02, 
# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31; 
# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22; 
# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger, 
# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan). 
Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1994    2005    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1999    2006    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18): 
# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC] 
# this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt. 
Rule    Syria   2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29): 
# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday." 
# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php 
Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S 
# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27): 
# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will 
# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or 
# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than 
# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the 
# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now 
# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend... 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27): 
# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote: 
# 
# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1 
# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour." 
# 
# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic): 
# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247 
# 
# which using Google's translate tools says: 
# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on 
# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th 
# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007. 
Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Nov      Fri>=1 0:00    0       - 
 
# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17): 
# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for 
# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so.... 
# Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST 
# Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date 
# Variation 
# Syrian Arab 
# Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300 
#                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300 
#                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17): 
# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News 
# Agency (SANA)... 
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm 
# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the 
# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April 
# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd." 
# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times 
# shown above match up with midnight in Syria. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): 
# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1"; 
# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone 
# compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel). 
# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07): 
# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year, 
# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA). 
# 
# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to 
# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting 
# clocks back 60 minutes). 
# 
# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19): 
# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources, 
# two examples: 
# 
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm 
# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency) 
# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209 
# (Arabic, gov-site) 
# 
# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year. 
# 
# Our summary 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27): 
# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will 
# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday 
# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30: 
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic) 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28): 
# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last 
# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or 
# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17): 
# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of 
# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday 
# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday): 
# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic) 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26): 
# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday 
# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years. 
# 
# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic: 
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm 
# 
# Our brief summary: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27): 
# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX. 
 
Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq 
                        2:00    Syria   EE%sT 
 
# Tajikistan 
# From Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        5:00    1:00    +05/+06 1991 Sep  9  2:00s 
                        5:00    -       +05 
 
# Thailand 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880 
                        6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time 
                        7:00    -       +07 
Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia 
Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos 
 
# Turkmenistan 
# From Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad 
                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00 
                        5:00    -       +05 
 
# United Arab Emirates 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920 
                        4:00    -       +04 
Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman 
 
# Uzbekistan 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1 
                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 
                        5:00    -       +05 
# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest. 
Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 
                        5:00    -       +05 
 
# Vietnam 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04): 
# Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being 
# used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways 
# from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks 
# and Pottenger for LMT before 1906. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): 
# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh 
# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân: 
# Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)" 
# (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50, 
# is quoted verbatim in: 
# http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01 
# is translated by Brian Inglis in: 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html 
# and is the basis for the information below. 
# 
# The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to 
# Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104° 17' 17" east of Paris. 
# It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or 
# the Paris Meridian (2° 20' 14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333... 
# and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30, 
# which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory 
# is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT. 
# 
# The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954) 
# and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954): 
# To 07:00 on 1911-05-01. 
# To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00. 
# To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00. 
# To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam. 
# To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina. 
# To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam. 
# To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam. 
# To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam. 
# 
# Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above. 
# 
# Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội, 
# No. 9, Paris, February 1982. 
# 
# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)", 
# NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000. 
# 
# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu", 
# NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1 
                        7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT 
                        7:00    -       +07     1942 Dec 31 23:00 
                        8:00    -       +08     1945 Mar 14 23:00 
                        9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep  2 
                        7:00    -       +07     1947 Apr  1 
                        8:00    -       +08     1955 Jul  1 
                        7:00    -       +07     1959 Dec 31 23:00 
                        8:00    -       +08     1975 Jun 13 
                        7:00    -       +07 
 
# Yemen 
# See Asia/Riyadh.