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# @(#)asia      7.56 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-03-22): 
# 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). 
# 
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990, 
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; 
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. 
# Corrections are welcome! 
#               std dst 
#               LMT     Local Mean Time 
#       2:00    EET EEST Eastern European Time 
#       2:00    IST IDT Israel 
#       3:00    AST ADT Arabia* 
#       4:00    GST     Gulf* 
#       5:30    IST     India 
#       7:00    ICT     Indochina* 
#       8:00    CST     China 
#       9:00    CJT     Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)* 
#       9:00    JST     Japan 
#       9:00    KST     Korea 
#       9:30    CST     (Australian) Central Standard Time 
# 
# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia. 
 
# From Guy Harris: 
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as 
# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental 
# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide - 
# Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S 
Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    S 
Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat 23:00   1:00    S 
Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat 23:00   0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule RussiaAsia 1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule RussiaAsia 1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# Afghanistan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890 
                        4:00    -       AFT     1945 
                        4:30    -       AFT 
 
# Armenia 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): 
# Shanks has Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST) in spring 1991, 
# then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then readopting Russian DST in 1997. 
# Go with Shanks, even when he disagrees with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz 
# <edd@AIC.NET> reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST 
# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that 
# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991, 
# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        3:00    -       YERT    1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        3:00    1:00    YERST   1991 Sep 23 # independence 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   1995 Sep 24 2:00s 
                        4:00    -       AMT     1997 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT                    
 
# Azerbaijan 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        3:00    -       BAKT    1957 Mar    # Baku Time 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        3:00    1:00    BAKST   1991 Aug 30 # independence 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT   1992 Sep lastSun 2:00s 
                        4:00    -       AZT     1996 # Azerbaijan time 
                        4:00    EUAsia  AZ%sT   1997 
                        4:00    Azer    AZ%sT 
 
# Bahrain 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Bahrain    3:22:20 -       LMT     1920            # Al-Manamah 
                        4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun 
                        3:00    -       AST 
 
# Bangladesh 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dacca      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890 
                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time? 
                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time 
                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep 
                        6:30    -       BURT    1951 Sep 30 
                        6:00    -       DACT    1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time 
                        6:00    -       BDT     # Bangladesh Time 
 
# Bhutan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Thimbu     5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 
                        5:30    -       IST     1987 Oct 
                        6:00    -       BTT     # Bhutan Time 
 
# British Indian Ocean Territory 
# From Whitman: 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Chagos   5:00    -       IOT     # BIOT Time 
 
# Brunei 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan 
                        7:30    -       BNT     1933 
                        8:00    -       BNT 
 
# Burma / Myanmar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Rangoon    6:24:40 -       LMT     1880            # or Yangon 
                        6:24:36 -       RMT     1920       # Rangoon Mean Time? 
                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May   # Burma Time 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 May 3 
                        6:30    -       MMT                # Myanmar Time 
 
# Cambodia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9 
                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? 
                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May 
                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May 
                        7:00    -       ICT 
 
# China 
 
# From Guy Harris: 
# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone. 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though 
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the 
# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China 
# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of 
# the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it. 
# 
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too 
# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for 
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP): 
# 
#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14 
#     1987 mid-April - ?? 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN 
# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19): 
# Shanks writes that China has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, 
# observing summer DST from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's 
# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986. 
# Go with Shanks for now.  I made up names for the other pre-1980 time zones. 
 
# From Shanks: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Shang   1940    1941    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    PRC     1949    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11 0:00    0       S 
Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=10 0:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Harbin     8:26:44 -       LMT     1928 
                        8:30    -       HART    1932 Mar # Harbin Time 
                        8:00    -       CST     1940 
                        9:00    -       HART    1966 May 
                        8:30    -       HART    1980 May 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:52 -       LMT     1928 
                        8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
Zone    Asia/Chungking  7:06:20 -       LMT     1928 
                        7:00    -       CHUT    1980 May # Chungking Time 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928 
                        6:00    -       URUT    1980 May # Urumqi Time 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
Zone    Asia/Kashgar    5:03:56 -       LMT     1928 
                        5:30    -       KAST    1940     # Kashgar Time 
                        5:00    -       KAST    1980 May 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
# Hong Kong 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1948    1952    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1965    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1965    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       - 
Rule    HK      1979    1980    -       May     Sun>=8  3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    HK      1979    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:36 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30 
                        8:00    HK      HK%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Taiwan 
 
# Shanks writes that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it 
# was still controlled by Japan.  This is hard to believe, but we don't 
# have any other information. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Taiwan  1945    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1945    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Taiwan  1980    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Taiwan  1980    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 
                        8:00    Taiwan  C%sT 
 
# Macao 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Macao   1961    1962    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1961    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       - 
Rule    Macao   1963    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1964    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1965    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1965    only    -       Oct     31      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Macao   1966    1971    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1966    1971    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       - 
Rule    Macao   1972    1974    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1972    1973    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Macao   1974    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=15 3:30    0       - 
Rule    Macao   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=15 3:30    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Macao   1978    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Macao      7:34:20 -       LMT     1912 
                        8:00    Macao   MO%sT   1999 Dec 20 # return to China 
                        8:00    PRC     C%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Cyprus 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14 
                        2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep 
                        2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT 
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time. 
 
# Georgia 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1994-11-19): 
# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward 
# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze, 
# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it! 
# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall. 
# 
# From Mathew Englander <mathew@io.org>, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04): 
# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia 
# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy, 
# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:59:16 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time 
                        3:00    -       TBIT    1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        3:00    1:00    TBIST   1991 Apr  9 # independence 
                        3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   1992 # Georgia Time 
                        3:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1994 Sep lastSun 
                        4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1996 Oct lastSun 
                        4:00    1:00    GEST    1997 Mar lastSun 
                        4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT 
 
# East Timor 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 
                        8:00    -       TPT     1942 Feb 21 23:00 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 
                        9:00    -       TPT     1976 May  3 
                        8:00    -       TPT     # East Timor Time 
 
# India 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Calcutta   5:53:28 -       LMT     1880 
                        5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time? 
                        6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time 
                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15 
                        5:30    -       IST 
# The following are like Asia/Calcutta: 
#       Andaman Is 
#       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is) 
#       Nicobar Is 
 
# Indonesia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10 
# Shanks says the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13, 
# but this must be a typo. 
                        7:07:12 -       JMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Jakarta 
                        7:20    -       JAVT    1932 Nov         # Java Time 
                        7:30    -       JAVT    1942 Mar 23 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 
                        7:30    -       JAVT    1948 May 
                        8:00    -       JAVT    1950 May 
                        7:30    -       JAVT    1964 
                        7:00    -       JAVT 
Zone Asia/Ujung_Pandang 7:57:36 -       LMT     1920 
                        7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT 
                        8:00    -       BORT    1942 Feb  9 # Borneo Time 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 
                        8:00    -       BORT 
Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov 
                        9:00    -       JAYT    1944        # Jayapura Time 
                        9:30    -       CST     1964 
                        9:00    -       JAYT 
 
# Iran 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-06-12), following up a suggestion by Rich Wales: 
# Ahmea Alavi in 
# <a href="http://www.persia.org/Iran_Lib/Calendar/taghveem.txt"> 
# TAGHVEEM (1993-07-12) 
# </a> 
# writes ``Daylight saving time in Iran starts from the first day 
# of Farvardin and ends the first day of Mehr.''  This disagrees with the SSIM: 
# 
#                  DST start       DST end 
#       year    SSIM    Alavi   SSIM    Alavi 
#       1991    05-03!= 03-21   09-20!= 09-23 
#       1992    03-22!= 03-21   09-23   09-23 
#       1993    03-21   03-21   09-23   09-23 
#       1994    03-21   03-21   09-22!= 09-23 
#       1995    03-21   03-21   09-22!= 09-23 
#       1996    03-21!= 03-20   09-22   09-22 
#       1997    03-22!= 03-21   09-22!= 09-23 
#       1998    03-21   03-21   09-21!= 09-23 
#       1999    03-22!= 03-21   09-22!= 09-23 
#       2000    03-21!= 03-20   09-21!= 09-22 
#       2001    03-19!= 03-21   09-19!= 09-23 
#       2002    03-18!= 03-21   09-18!= 09-23 
# 
# Go with Alavi starting with 1992. 
# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 19.34 to compute Persian dates. 
# The Persian calendar is based on the sun, and dates after around 2050 
# are approximate; stop after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       Sep     20      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2005    2007    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2005    2007    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2024    2025    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2024    2025    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2026    2027    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2026    2027    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916 
                        3:25:44 -       TMT     1946    # Tehran Mean Time 
                        3:30    -       IRT     1977 Nov 
                        4:00    Iran    IR%sT   1979 
                        3:30    Iran    IR%sT 
 
 
# Iraq 
# 
# From Jonathan Lennox <lennox@cs.columbia.edu> (2000-06-12): 
# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in 
# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:  
# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and 
# are an hour ahead of Baghdad." 
# 
# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows: 
# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi 
# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred 
# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone 
# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq. 
# 
# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       S 
Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    D 
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo. 
# Shanks says Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997 or 1999 on; ignore this. 
Rule    Iraq    1991    max     -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Iraq    1991    max     -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890 
                        2:57:36 -       BMT     1918        # Baghdad Mean Time? 
                        3:00    -       AST     1982 May 
                        3:00    Iraq    A%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Israel 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# ISRAEL              2 H  AHEAD OF UTC 
# ISRAEL              3 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 10 - SEP 3 
 
# From Shanks: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD 
Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr      9      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
 
# From Ephraim Silverberg <ephraim@cs.huji.ac.il> 
# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17 and 2000-07-25): 
 
# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of 
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes. 
# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150 
# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to 
# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to 
# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a 
# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard 
# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard 
# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid 
# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to 
# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from 
# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time 
# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for 
# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was 
# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it 
# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all 
# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no 
# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date 
# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve 
# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date 
# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement] 
# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar). 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
 
# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the 
# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by 
# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
 
# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the 
# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998 
# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at: 
# 
#   ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz 
# 
# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa. 
# 
# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at: 
# 
#   ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz 
# 
#       where YYYY is the relevant year. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S 
 
# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for 
# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the 
# years 2001-2004 as well. 
# 
# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at: 
# 
#       ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz 
# 
# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates 
# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at: 
# 
#       ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S 
Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-07-25): 
# Here are guesses for rules after 2004. 
# They are probably wrong, but they are more likely than no DST at all. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Zion    2005    max     -       Apr      1      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Zion    2005    max     -       Oct      1      1:00    0       S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:56 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:20:40 -       JMT     1918    # Jerusalem Mean Time? 
                        2:00    Zion    I%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Japan 
 
# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris. 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-03-06): 
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had 
# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued 
# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.'' 
# Shanks writes that daylight saving in Japan during those years was as follows: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
#Rule   Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
#Rule   Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8  2:00    0       S 
#Rule   Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
#Rule   Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# but the only locations using it were US military bases. 
# We go with Shanks and omit daylight saving in those years for Asia/Tokyo. 
 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09): 
# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical 
# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0. 
# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996' 
# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.... 
# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST). 
# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07. 
 
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16): 
# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan, 
# which stands for the time on E 135 degree. 
# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central 
# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard 
# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree....  But "western standard 
# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No. 
# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is 
# standard.... 
# 
# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate. 
# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor. 
 
# Shanks claims JST in use since 1896, and that a few places (e.g. Ishigaki) 
# use +0800; go with Suzuki.  Guess that all ordinances took effect on Jan 1. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u 
                        9:00    -       JST     1896 
                        9:00    -       CJT     1938 
                        9:00    -       JST 
# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo. 
 
# Jordan 
# 
# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html"> 
# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): 
# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight, 
# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time 
# all year round. 
# 
# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html"> 
# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09): 
# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back 
# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final! 
# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in 
# government's departments from six to seven hours. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Jordan  1999    max     -       Sep     lastThu 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Jordan  2000    max     -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931 
                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT 
 
# Kazakhstan 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# Andrew Evtichov <evti@chevron.com> (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan 
# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk) 
# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones. 
# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time 
# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata 
                        5:00    -       ALMT    1957 Mar # Alma-Ata Time 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        5:00    1:00    ALMST   1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                        5:00    -       ALMT    1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                        6:00 E-EurAsia  ALM%sT 
Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       AKT     1957 Mar # Aktyubinsk Time 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia AK%sT   1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        4:00    1:00    AKTST   1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                        4:00    -       AQTT    1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Aqtobe Time 
                        5:00 E-EurAsia  AQT%sT 
Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Aktau 
                        4:00    -       SHET    1957 Mar # Fort Shevchenko Time 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        4:00    1:00    AQTST   1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                        4:00    -       AQTT    1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Aqtau Time 
                        5:00 E-EurAsia  AQT%sT  1995 Sep lastSun 
                        4:00 E-EurAsia  AQT%sT 
 
# Kirgizstan 
# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Kirgiz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Kirgiz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Kirgiz  1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    S 
Rule    Kirgiz  1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       FRUT    1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        5:00    1:00    FRUST   1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence 
                        5:00    Kirgiz  KG%sT               # Kirgizstan Time 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Korea (North and South) 
 
# From Guy Harris: 
# According to someone at the Korean Times in San Francisco, 
# Daylight Savings Time was not observed until 1987.  He did not know 
# at what time of day DST starts or ends. 
 
# From Shanks: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    ROK     1960    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1960    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun<=14 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun<=14 0:00    0       S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1890 
                        8:30    -       KST     1904 Dec 
                        9:00    -       KST     1928 
                        8:30    -       KST     1932 
                        9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21 
                        8:00    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10 
                        8:30    -       KST     1968 Oct 
                        9:00    ROK     K%sT 
Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1890 
                        8:30    -       KST     1904 Dec 
                        9:00    -       KST     1928 
                        8:30    -       KST     1932 
                        9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21 
                        8:00    -       KST     1961 Aug 10 
                        9:00    -       KST 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Kuwait 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Kuwait     3:11:56 -       LMT     1950 
                        3:00    -       AST 
 
# Laos 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Vientiane  6:50:24 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9 
                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? 
                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May 
                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May 
                        7:00    -       ICT 
 
# Lebanon 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:00    Lebanon EE%sT 
 
# Malaysia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    TS 
Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:48 -       LMT     1880 
                        6:55:24 -       SMT     1905 Jun # Singapore Mean Time 
                        7:00    -       MALT    1933     # Malaya Time 
                        7:20    -       MALT    1942 Feb 15 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 2 
                        7:20    -       MALT    1950 
                        7:30    -       MALT    1982 May 
                        8:00    -       MYT     # Malaysia Time 
Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar 
                        7:30    -       BORT    1933    # Borneo Time 
                        8:00    NBorneo BOR%sT  1942 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 2 
                        8:00    -       BORT    1982 May 
                        8:00    -       MYT 
 
# Maldives 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880    # Male 
                        4:54:00 -       MMT     1960    # Male Mean Time 
                        5:00    -       MVT             # Maldives Time 
 
# Mongolia 
 
# Shanks says that Mongolia has three time zones, but usno1995 and the CIA map 
# Standard Time Zones of the World (1997-01) 
# both say that it has just one. 
 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11): 
# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm"> 
# General Information Mongolia 
# </a> (1999-09) 
# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of 
# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and 
# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus 
# eight hours." 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13): 
# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998 
# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am 
# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time 
# of implementation may have been different.... 
# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time 
# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod, 
# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15): 
# For now, we'll comment out the east zone (Choybalsan) 
# and use Shanks's and the IATA's data for the daylight-saving rules. 
# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia. 
# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone; 
# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us, 
# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd 
# is good enough for our purposes. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mongol  1981    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Mongol  1981    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Mongol  1985    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Mongol  1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       - 
Rule    Mongol  1991    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Mongol  1991    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says 1996-10-25; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Mongol  1996    only    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Mongol  1997    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug 
                        6:00    -       HOVT    1978    # Hovd Time 
                        7:00    Mongol  HOV%sT 
Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug 
                        7:00    -       ULAT    1978    # Ulaanbaatar Time 
                        8:00    Mongol  ULA%sT 
# We're not sure about this entry yet, so we'll omit it for now. 
#Zone Asia/Choybalsan   7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug 
#                       8:00    -       CHOT    1978    # Choybalsan Time 
#                       9:00    Mongol  CHO%sT  19?? 
#                       8:00    Mongol  ULA%sT 
 
# Nepal 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Katmandu   5:41:16 -       LMT     1920 
                        5:30    -       IST     1986 
                        5:45    -       NPT     # Nepal Time 
 
# Oman 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Muscat     3:54:20 -       LMT     1920 
                        4:00    -       GST 
 
# Pakistan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907 
                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15 
                        5:30    -       IST     1951 Sep 30 
                        5:00    -       KART    1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time 
                        5:00    -       PKT     # Pakistan Time 
 
# Palestine 
 
# From Amos Shapir <amos@nsof.co.il> (1998-02-15): 
# 
# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now 
# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule. 
# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too... 
# 
# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05 
# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no 
# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt, 
# though. 
# 
# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally 
# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from 
# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the 
# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major 
# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and 
# East Jerusalem. 
# 
# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except 
# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might 
# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware 
# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer 
# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected). 
# 
# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most 
# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to 
# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to 
# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't 
# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the 
# Jordanian one). 
# 
# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that: 
# 
# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996- 
# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------- 
# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion 
# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan 
# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan 
# 
# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they 
# have one). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1998-02-25): 
# Shanks writes that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but we'll go 
# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947, 
# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996. 
# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since 
# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about 
# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970. 
# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries 
# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules 
# to Palestine's rules.  If you have more info about this, please 
# send it to tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for incorporation into future editions. 
 
# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time, 
# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg: 
# 
# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time 
# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks 
# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule, 
# the PA has decided to implement DST in April. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): 
# Daoud Kuttab writes in 
# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html"> 
# Holiday havoc 
# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that 
# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15. 
# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source). 
# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00, 
# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October. 
 
# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       - 
Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       - 
 
Rule Palestine  1999    max     -       Apr     Fri>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule Palestine  1999    max     -       Oct     Fri>=15 0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct 
                        2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15 
                        2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5 
                        2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996 
                        2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999 
                        2:00 Palestine  EE%sT 
 
# Paracel Is 
# no information 
 
# Philippines 
# Howse writes (p 153) that until 1844 the Philippines kept American date. 
# The rest of this data is from Shanks. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 
                        8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11 
                        8:00    Phil    PH%sT   1942 May 
                        9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov 
                        8:00    Phil    PH%sT 
 
# Qatar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920            # Al Dawhah 
                        4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun 
                        3:00    -       AST 
 
# Saudi Arabia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1950 
                        3:00    -       AST 
 
# Singapore 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:24 -       LMT     1880 
                        6:55:24 -       SMT     1905 Jun # Singapore Mean Time 
                        7:00    -       MALT    1933     # Malaya Time 
                        7:20    -       MALT    1942 Feb 15 
                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  2 
                        7:20    -       MALT    1950 
                        7:30    -       MALT    1965 Aug  9 # independence 
                        7:30    -       SGT     1982 May # Singapore Time 
                        8:00    -       SGT 
 
# Spratly Is 
# no information 
 
# Sri Lanka 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): 
# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout" 
# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24, 
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17) 
# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at 
# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.'' 
# 
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted 
# by Shamindra in 
# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net"> 
# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26) 
# </a>: 
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996 
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880 
                        5:19:32 -       MMT     1906    # Moratuwa Mean Time 
                        5:30    -       IST     1942 Jan  5 
                        5:30    0:30    IHST    1942 Sep 
                        5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 16 2:00 
                        5:30    -       IST     1996 May 25 0:00 
                        6:30    -       LKT     1996 Oct 26 0:30 
                        6:00    -       LKT 
 
# Syria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02; 
# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02, 
# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31; 
# ignore all these claims and go with Shanks. 
Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1994    max     -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Syria   1999    max     -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 
                        2:00    Syria   EE%sT 
 
# Tajikistan 
# From Shanks. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       DUST    1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        5:00    1:00    DUSST   1991 Sep  9 2:00s 
                        5:00    -       TJT                 # Tajikistan Time 
 
# Thailand 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880 
                        6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time 
                        7:00    -       ICT 
 
# Turkmenistan 
# From Shanks. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Ashkhabad  3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashgabat 
                        4:00    -       ASHT    1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Oct 27 # independence 
                        4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT   1992 Jan 19 2:00 
                        5:00    -       TMT 
 
# United Arab Emirates 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920 
                        4:00    -       GST 
 
# Uzbekistan 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        4:00    -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time 
                        5:00    -       SAMT    1981 Apr  1 
                        5:00    1:00    SAMST   1981 Oct  1 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00 # Tashkent Time 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1993 
                        5:00    -       UZT 
Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2 
                        5:00    -       TAST    1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time 
                        6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992 
                        5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1993 
                        5:00    -       UZT 
 
# Vietnam 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): 
# Saigon's official name is Thanh-Pho Ho Chi Minh, but it's too long. 
# We'll stick with the traditional name for now. 
# From Shanks: 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Saigon     7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jun  9 
                        7:06:20 -       SMT     1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? 
                        7:00    -       ICT     1912 May 
                        8:00    -       ICT     1931 May 
                        7:00    -       ICT 
 
# Yemen 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Asia/Aden       3:00:48 -       LMT     1950 
                        3:00    -       AST