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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# This file also includes Pacific islands. 
 
# Notes are at the end of this file 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Australia 
 
# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D 
# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which 
# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that 
# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Northern Territory 
Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                         9:00   -       ACST    1899 May 
                         9:30   Aus     AC%sT 
# Western Australia 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec 
                         8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul 
                         8:00   AW      AW%sT 
Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec 
                         8:45   Aus +0845/+0945 1943 Jul 
                         8:45   AW  +0845/+0945 
 
# Queensland 
# 
# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01): 
# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast 
# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after 
# Queensland ceased to. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman, 
# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped. 
# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria, 
# so use Lindeman. 
# 
# From J William Piggott (2016-02-20): 
# There is no location named Holiday Islands in Queensland Australia; holiday 
# islands is a colloquial term used globally.  Hayman and Lindeman are at the 
# north and south extremes of the Whitsunday Islands archipelago, and 
# Hamilton is in between; it is reasonable to believe that this time zone 
# applies to all of the Whitsundays. 
# http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-islands 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 
                        10:00   AQ      AE%sT 
Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 
                        10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul 
                        10:00   Holiday AE%sT 
 
# South Australia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb 
                        9:00    -       ACST    1899 May 
                        9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971 
                        9:30    AS      AC%sT 
 
# Tasmania 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16): 
# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml 
# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep 
                        10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00 
                        10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967 
                        10:00   AT      AE%sT 
Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep 
                        10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00 
                        10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul 
                        10:00   AT      AE%sT 
 
# Victoria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 
                        10:00   AV      AE%sT 
 
# New South Wales 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 
                        10:00   AN      AE%sT 
Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23 
                        9:00    -       ACST    1899 May 
                        9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971 
                        9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000 
                        9:30    AS      AC%sT 
 
# Lord Howe Island 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    - 
Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    - 
Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    0       - 
Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0:30    - 
Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   -       AEST    1981 Mar 
                        10:30   LH      +1030/+1130 1985 Jul 
                        10:30   LH      +1030/+11 
 
# Australian miscellany 
# 
# Ashmore Is, Cartier 
# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers 
# no times are set 
# 
# Coral Sea Is 
# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists 
# no times are set 
# 
# Macquarie 
# Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948; 
# sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the 
# Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island 
# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828 
# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831 
# Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10): 
# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division: 
# - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not 
# switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do 
# on 4 April. 
# 
# From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23): 
# The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics 
# will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type; 
# this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by 
# pre-2013 versions of localtime. 
Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       -00     1899 Nov 
                        10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00 
                        10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s 
                        0       -       -00     1948 Mar 25 
                        10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967 
                        10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
# Christmas 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb 
                        7:00    -       +07 
 
# Cocos (Keeling) Is 
# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978. 
# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900 
                        6:30    -       +0630 
 
 
# Fiji 
 
# Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10): 
# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST 
# from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010. 
# 
# "Daylight savings to commence this month" 
# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10): 
# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved 
# amendments: 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03): 
# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on 
# 2010-03-28 at 03:00. 
# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March 
# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?). 
# 
# Official source: 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166 
# 
# A bit more background info here: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24): 
# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3 
# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011... 
# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands, 
# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site: 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03): 
# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date 
# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong). 
# 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 
# which says 
# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in 
# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to 
# 2am on February 26 next year. 
 
# From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24) 
# Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for 
# Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22. 
# 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 
# states: 
# 
# The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012 
# has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012. 
# The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start 
# on the  23rd of October, 2011. 
 
# From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen: 
# The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate 
# today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st 
# October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013. 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155 
 
# From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler: 
# Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ... 
# move clocks forward by one hour from 2am 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10): 
# Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00: 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx 
 
# From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20): 
# DST will start Nov. 2 this year. 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx 
 
# From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77 
# in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28), 
# via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02): 
# the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time 
# commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at 
# 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016. 
 
# From Raymond Kumar (2016-10-04): 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-6th-NOVEMBER,-2016.aspx 
# "Fiji's daylight savings will begin on Sunday, 6 November 2016, when 
# clocks go forward an hour at 2am to 3am....  Daylight Saving will 
# end at 3.00am on Sunday 15th January 2017." 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-08-21): 
# Dominic Fok writes (2017-08-20) that DST ends 2018-01-14, citing 
# Extraordinary Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 21 (2017-08-27), 
# [Legal Notice No. 41] of an order of the previous day by J Usamate. 
# For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00 
# the first Sunday on or after January 14.  Although ad hoc, it matches 
# transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future 
# practice than guessing no DST. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       - 
Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       - 
Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21 2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       - 
Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18 3:00    0       - 
Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=14 3:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva 
                        12:00   Fiji    +12/+13 
 
# French Polynesia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea 
                         -9:00  -       -09 
Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct 
                         -9:30  -       -0930 
Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete 
                        -10:00  -       -10 
# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia; 
# it is uninhabited. 
 
# Guam 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31 
                         9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana 
                        10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam 
                        10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time 
Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is 
 
# Kiribati 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki 
                         12:00  -       +12 
Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901 
                        -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct 
                        -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31 
                         13:00  -       +13 
Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901 
                        -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct 
                        -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31 
                         14:00  -       +14 
 
# N Mariana Is 
# See Pacific/Guam. 
 
# Marshall Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct 
                        12:00   -       +12 
Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct 
                        -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
# Micronesia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901 
                        10:00   -       +10 
Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia 
                        11:00   -       +11 
Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct 
                        12:00   -       +12     1999 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
# Nauru 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe 
                        11:30   -       +1130   1942 Mar 15 
                        9:00    -       +09     1944 Aug 15 
                        11:30   -       +1130   1979 May 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
# New Caledonia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    - 
# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA. 
Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa 
                        11:00   NC      +11/+12 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# New Zealand 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M 
Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0:30    S 
Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       M 
Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M 
Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S 
Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S 
# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a 
# there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this 
# transition.  Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change 
# time to percolate out. 
Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:45s   1:00    - 
Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       - 
Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    - 
Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:45s   0       - 
Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:45s   1:00    - 
Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:45s   1:00    - 
Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:45s   0       - 
Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    - 
Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:45s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2 
                        11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1 
                        12:00   NZ      NZ%sT 
Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2 
                        12:15   -       +1215   1946 Jan  1 
                        12:45   Chatham +1245/+1345 
 
Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo 
 
# Auckland Is 
# uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers, 
# and scientific personnel have wintered 
 
# Campbell I 
# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914 
# scientific station operated 1941/1995; 
# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered 
# was probably like Pacific/Auckland 
 
# Cook Is 
# From Shanks & Pottenger: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    - 
Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua 
                        -10:30  -       -1030   1978 Nov 12 
                        -10:00  Cook    -10/-0930 
 
############################################################################### 
 
 
# Niue 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi 
                        -11:20  -       -1120   1951 
                        -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1 
                        -11:00  -       -11 
 
# Norfolk 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston 
                        11:12   -       +1112   1951 
                        11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00 
                        11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00 
                        11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
# Palau (Belau) 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror 
                        9:00    -       +09 
 
# Papua New Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880 
                        9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time 
                        10:00   -       +10 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13): 
# Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have 
# the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War. 
# 
# Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates 
# are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns. 
# The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta. 
# The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942, 
# according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia 
# https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm 
# and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender. 
# 
# The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11 
# on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time". 
# See: 
# http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/ 
# 
Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880 
                         9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895 
                        10:00   -       +10     1942 Jul 
                         9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 21 
                        10:00   -       +10     2014 Dec 28  2:00 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
# Pitcairn 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown 
                        -8:30   -       -0830   1998 Apr 27  0:00 
                        -8:00   -       -08 
 
# American Samoa 
Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5 
                        -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911 
                        -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa 
Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands 
 
# Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa) 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16): 
# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received 
# the following info: 
# 
# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year 
# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first 
# Sunday of April 2011." 
# 
# Background info: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html 
# 
# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not 
# contain any dates: 
# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf 
 
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07): 
# Please see 
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws 
# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday 
# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight 
# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks 
# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am" 
 
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07): 
# [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf] 
# 
# ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am 
# or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to 
# measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock 
# (3:00am or 0300Hrs). 
 
# From David Zülke (2011-05-09): 
# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line 
# 
# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27): 
# The International Date Line Act 2011 
# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf 
# changed Samoa from UT -11 to +13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on 
# Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted 
# accordingly. 
 
# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02): 
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html 
# 
# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change 
# 
# DST 
# Year  End      Time              Start        Time 
# 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am 
# 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - - 
# 
# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011 
# Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours 
# Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours 
# 
# From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10): 
# Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and 
# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.... 
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): 
# That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4. 
# Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       - 
Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  4:00    0       - 
Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       - 
Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  4:00    0       - 
Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5 
                        -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911 
                        -11:30  -       -1130   1950 
                        -11:00  WS      -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00 
                         13:00  WS      +13/+14 
 
# Solomon Is 
# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
# Tokelau 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29) 
# A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping 
# December 31 this year ... 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25) 
# ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking 
# about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13.... 
# Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change 
# actually was to UT-11 back then. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25) 
# A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of 
# Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948, 
# <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau 
# was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger 
# are off by an hour starting in 1901. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901 
                        -11:00  -       -11     2011 Dec 30 
                        13:00   -       +13 
 
# Tonga 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Tonga   2016    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Tonga   2017    only    -       Jan     Sun>=15 3:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:20   -       +1220   1941 
                        13:00   -       +13     1999 
                        13:00   Tonga   +13/+14 
 
# Tuvalu 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
 
# US minor outlying islands 
 
# Howland, Baker 
# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British 
# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known. 
# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944; 
# uninhabited thereafter. 
# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937; 
# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long, 
# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000). 
# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935 
# until they were abandoned after the war. 
 
# Jarvis 
# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?. 
# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958; 
# uninhabited thereafter. 
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati 
 
# Johnston 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): 
# Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind. 
# Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so 
# treat it like Hawaii for now.  Since Johnston is now uninhabited, 
# its link to Pacific/Honolulu is in the 'backward' file. 
# 
# In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945 
# <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes, 
# "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM 
# Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and 
# confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945. 
# 
# From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11): 
# [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used 
# was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships, 
# which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the 
# time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last 
# Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin, 
# "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the 
# Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976. 
# https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf 
# See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a 
# footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time 
# Minus One Hour". 
 
# Kingman 
# uninhabited 
 
# Midway 
# See Pacific/Pago_Pago. 
 
# Palmyra 
# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati 
 
# Wake 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
 
# Vanuatu 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila 
                        11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12 
 
# Wallis and Futuna 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# NOTES 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# For data circa 1899, a common source is: 
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. 
# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# The following abbreviations are from other sources. 
# Corrections are welcome! 
#               std     dst 
#               LMT             Local Mean Time 
#         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia 
#         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia 
#        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia 
#        10:00  GST             Guam through 2000 
#        10:00  ChST            Chamorro 
#        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945 
#        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present 
#       -11:00  SST             Samoa 
#       -10:00  HST             Hawaii 
# 
# See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii. 
# See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Australia 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): 
# Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting 
# region against region, rural against urban, and local against global. 
# For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving 
# Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native 
# Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was 
# very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a 
# Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded 
# Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables 
# about fading curtains and crazed farm animals." 
# Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03) 
# http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08): 
# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia 
# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml 
# summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12): 
# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales 
# http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving 
# covers New South Wales in particular. 
 
# From John Mackin (1991-03-06): 
# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time. 
# It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer' 
# and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the 
# abbreviation does _not_ change... 
# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least 
# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the 
# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses 
# the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight 
# time'. 
# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian 
# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time' 
# or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the 
# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers 
# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases 
# prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times; 
# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): 
# 
# Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this 
# file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer 
# Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST". 
# However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common 
# practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints 
# about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage. 
# For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important; 
# what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web 
# directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for 
# strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an 
# abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the 
# following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries: 
# 
#   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits] 
#   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au 
#   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au 
#   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au 
#   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au 
#   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au 
#   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits] 
#   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits] 
#   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au 
#  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au 
# 
#   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits] 
#   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au 
# 
# I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but 
# they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages 
# mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since 
# there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found: 
# 
#  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au 
#  226 "western standard time" WST site:au 
# 
# I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as 
# listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au" 
# and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results. 
# All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers 
# surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail, 
# The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser, 
# The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle). 
# 
# I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations 
# like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/> 
# found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style 
# dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't 
# fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations 
# like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather 
# column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column 
# (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not 
# strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..." 
# (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and 
# WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel 
# about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two 
# territories has prompted one group to form its very own political 
# party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party." 
# 
# I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree: 
# 
#   The Australian Government (2014-03-26) 
#   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time 
#   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.) 
#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT 
# 
#   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08) 
#   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml 
#   EST CST WST EDT CDT 
# 
#   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated) 
#   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml 
#   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST) 
# 
#   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24) 
#   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp 
#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT 
# 
#   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10) 
#   https://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf 
#   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used 
# 
#   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports, 
#   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like. 
#   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits: 
#   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT". 
#   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to 
#   appear in reports of events with international implications. 
# 
# From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in 
# Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although 
# some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in 
# the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it 
# seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all 
# the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments, 
# it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current 
# version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and 
# "AEDT" for Australian time zones. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. 
# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper 
# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00, 
# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970 
# and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time. 
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960. 
 
# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05): 
# 
# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable, 
# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more 
# relevant entries in this database. 
# 
# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill): 
# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04) 
# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html 
# ACT 
# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 
# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html 
# SA 
# Standard Time Act, 1898 
# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html 
 
# From David Grosz (2005-06-13): 
# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by 
# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. 
# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday 
# in April instead of the last Sunday in March. 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14): 
# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan 
# to extend DST together in 2006. 
# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt 
# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html 
# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html 
# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772 
# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles 
# allude to it. 
# But not Queensland 
# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html 
 
# Northern Territory 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ] 
# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ] 
# #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location. 
# ... 
# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving. 
 
# Western Australia 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to 
# #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but 
# #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus 
# #     before reaching parliament. 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W 
# Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving. 
 
# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02): 
# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney 
# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at 
# work at 9.00am.) 
# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse 
# everybody again. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess; 
# it matches what was used in the past. 
 
# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ 
# http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm 
# (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses 
# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-04-01): 
# The Guardian Express of Perth, Australia reported today that the 
# government decided to advance the clocks permanently on January 1, 
# 2019, from UT +08 to UT +09.  The article noted that an exemption 
# would be made for people aged 61 and over, who "can apply in writing 
# to have the extra hour of sunshine removed from their area."  See: 
# Daylight saving coming to WA in 2019. Guardian Express. 2018-04-01. 
# https://www.communitynews.com.au/guardian-express/news/exclusive-daylight-savings-coming-wa-summer-2018/ 
 
# Queensland 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-26): 
# I lack access to the following source for Queensland DST: 
# Pearce C. History of daylight saving time in Queensland. 
# Queensland Hist J. 2017 Aug;23(6):389-403 
# https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=994682348436426;res=IELHSS 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ] 
# #                                             [ Dec 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E 
# Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       E 
 
# From Bradley White (1989-12-24): 
# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from 
# October 1989). 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving 
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... 
 
# From John Mackin (1991-03-06): 
# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact 
# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised 
# me.) 
 
# From Bradley White (1992-03-08): 
# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted 
# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ... 
# ... 
# Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S 
# ... 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes. 
 
# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning 
# from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01): 
# WA are trialing DST for three years. 
# http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf 
 
# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09): 
# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the 
# southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western 
# Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The 
# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so 
# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the 
# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South 
# Australia and Western Australia.... 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09): 
# This is confirmed by the section entitled 
# "What's the deal with time zones???" in 
# http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html 
# 
# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07): 
# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway, 
# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern 
# coast of the continent. 
# 
# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no 
# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border 
# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west 
# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is 
# the largest population centre in this zone.... 
# 
# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the 
# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I 
# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have, 
# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45. 
# 
# (2006-12-09): 
# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving 
# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis 
# of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well 
# before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15): 
# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the 
# introduction of standard time in 1895. 
 
 
# southeast Australia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT 
# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October. 
# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html 
 
 
# South Australia 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving 
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C 
# Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 3:00    0       C 
# Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C 
 
# From Bradley White (1992-03-11): 
# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide 
# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival, 
# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks." 
 
# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13): 
# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that) 
# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even 
# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival 
# is on... 
 
# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000): 
# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday).... 
# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever... 
# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...). 
 
# From Bradley White (1994-04-11): 
# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March, 
# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can 
# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated.... 
 
# From John Warburton (1994-10-07): 
# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ... 
# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994.... 
# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. 
 
# Tasmania 
 
# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd 
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] 
# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ] 
 
# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10): 
# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have 
# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia 
# (but nothing new about that). 
 
# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04): 
# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the 
# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard, 
# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria 
# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000 
# instead of the first Sunday in October. 
 
# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules: 
# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. 
 
# Victoria 
 
# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd 
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
 
# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29): 
# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an 
# interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was 
# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar 
# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located 
# in Melbourne, Australia. 
# 
# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which 
# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day 
# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's 
# fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time, 
# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the 
# expected time. 
# 
# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had 
# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of 
# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps 
# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more. 
# 
# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html 
# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. 
 
# New South Wales 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time. 
# Based on law library research by John Mackin, 
# who notes: 
#       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the 
#       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time" 
#       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common 
#       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the 
#       legislation.  This is very important to understand. 
#       I have researched New South Wales time only... 
 
# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26): 
# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual 
# October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore, 
# Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26). 
# http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): 
# See the following official NSW source: 
# Daylight Saving in New South Wales. 
# http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ 
# 
# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of 
# daylight saving next year.  See: 
# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving 
# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm 
# (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens. 
# 
# Victoria will follow NSW.  See: 
# Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28) 
# http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm 
# 
# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See: 
# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19) 
# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm 
# 
# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See: 
# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics 
# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm 
# (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying 
# "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time 
# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very 
# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of 
# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night. 
# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules." 
# 
# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See: 
# Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21) 
# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm 
 
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian 
# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken 
# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics. 
 
# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29: 
# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW 
# towns to use Queensland time. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. 
 
# Yancowinna 
 
# From John Mackin (1989-01-04): 
# 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna. 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ] 
# #                                     [ Dec 1990 ] 
# ... 
# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the 
# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings 
# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government 
# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have 
# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not 
# # presently available. 
# Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST 
# ... 
# Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C 
# [followed by other Rules] 
 
# Lord Howe Island 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ] 
#                                       [ Dec 1990 ] 
# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an 
# hour ahead of NSW time. 
 
# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27): 
# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same 
# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the 
# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is 
# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time 
# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour 
# instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents 
# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing 
# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will 
# however always coincide with the rest of NSW. 
 
# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25): 
# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards 
# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently 
# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as 
# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start 
# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and 
# Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): 
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28): 
# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight 
# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009 
# summer (southern hemisphere). 
# 
# From 
# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf 
# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling 
# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing. 
# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each 
# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year. 
# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia 
# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and 
# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year... 
# 
# We have a wrap-up here: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html 
############################################################################### 
 
# New Zealand 
 
# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03): 
# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period. 
# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for 
# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start). 
# source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office. 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that! 
# #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z. 
# #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ] 
# #                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S 
# Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S 
# ... 
# Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand 
# Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989 
# rather than the October 1 value. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19); 
# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. 
# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight 
# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard 
# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March. 
# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history, 
# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.html for the full references. 
# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger. 
# 
# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with 
# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham 
# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland. 
 
# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30): 
# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the 
# first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning 
# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06. 
# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14): 
# Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by 
# New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26). 
# https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf 
# According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand 
# parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard 
# time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New 
# Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow." 
# For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time 
# in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match 
# LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did 
# not observe New Zealand's prewar DST. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
 
# Fiji 
 
# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji 
# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time 
# instead of the American system (which was one day behind). 
 
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): 
# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01 
# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will 
# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08): 
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow. 
 
# From the BBC World Service in 
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC): 
# The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to 
# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also 
# intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning 
# of the new millennium. 
 
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13) 
# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST. 
 
 
# Kiribati 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): 
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati 
# "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995" 
# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century. 
 
# From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03): 
# December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition 
# would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995. 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04): 
# One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All: 
# The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007). 
 
# Kwajalein 
 
# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes: 
# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday, 
# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with 
# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands, 
# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink. 
 
 
# N Mariana Is, Guam 
 
# Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the 
# Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones 
# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time. 
# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines; 
# see Asia/Manila. 
 
# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time, 
# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation, 
# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law, 
# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST". 
 
 
# Micronesia 
 
# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16), 
# "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk' 
# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10." 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11 
# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): 
# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in 
# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26) 
# http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html 
# that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11. 
# We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now. 
 
 
# Midway 
 
# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956), 
# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection 
# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31): 
# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight 
# Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning, 
# your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956 
# we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to 
# air at 6am your time. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): 
# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they 
# started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years 
# in Midway, but we have no record of it. 
 
# Norfolk 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23): 
# Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100: 
# https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text 
# ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015. 
# http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23): 
# Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted 
# the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's 
# Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST 
# other than in 1974/5.  See: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html 
 
# Pitcairn 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): 
# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998 
# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows. 
# 
#       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be 
#       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known 
#       as Pitcairn Standard Time. 
# 
# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several 
# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation 
# somehow in light of this proclamation. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09): 
# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998 
# ... at midnight. 
 
# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave: 
# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as 
# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be ½ hour different from us here in 
# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago. 
 
 
# (Western) Samoa and American Samoa 
 
# Howse writes (p 153) that after the 1879 standardization on Antipodean 
# time by the British governor of Fiji, the King of Samoa decided to change 
# "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, 
# ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that 
# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year." 
# This happened in 1892, according to the Evening News (Sydney) of 1892-07-20. 
# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl.htm 
 
# Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UT -11:30 
# in 1911, and to -11 in 1950. many earlier sources give -11 
# for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards 
# circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932. 
# Assume American Samoa switched to -11 in 1911, not 1950, 
# and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a 
# day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New 
# Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations. 
 
 
# Tonga 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): 
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting 
# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time." 
# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do. 
 
# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle 
# How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins': 
# http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm 
# 
# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST 
# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its 
# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its 
# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of 
# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13° 
# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time). 
# 
# Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince 
# Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time 
# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change. 
# 
# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer 
# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40 
# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40 
# minutes we have lost?" 
# 
# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that 
# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth 
# to say your prayers in the morning." 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell. 
 
# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03): 
# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium 
# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front. 
# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from 
# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan 
# Government. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): 
# * Tonga will introduce DST in November 
# 
# I was given this link by John Letts: 
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm 
# 
# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November 
# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead 
# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead 
# (12 + 1 hour DST). 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20): 
# According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>: 
# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000 
# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the 
# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on 
# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and 
# set back an hour on the closing date." 
# Alas, no indication of the time of day. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06): 
# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am. 
# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31): 
# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com 
# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19 
# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article 
# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the 
# text, and I have forgotten to report it here. 
# (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>) 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01): 
# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27. 
 
# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow: 
# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom 
# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday 
# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one 
# hour to 1:00am. 
 
# From Pulu ʻAnau (2002-11-05): 
# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't. 
 
# From Pulu ʻAnau (2016-10-27): 
# http://mic.gov.to/news-today/press-releases/6375-daylight-saving-set-to-run-from-6-november-2016-to-15-january-2017 
# Cannot find anyone who knows the rules, has seen the duration or has seen 
# the cabinet decision, but it appears we are following Fiji's rule set. 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2016-10-26): 
# Assume Tonga will observe DST from the first Sunday in November at 02:00 
# through the third Sunday in January at 03:00, like Fiji, for now. 
 
# From David Wade (2017-10-18): 
# In August government was disolved by the King.  The current prime minister 
# continued in office in care taker mode.  It is easy to see that few 
# decisions will be made until elections 16th November. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): 
# For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing. 
 
 
# Wake 
 
# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup, 
# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02): 
# 
# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the 
# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the 
# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we 
# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time 
# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost 
# impossible. 
# 
# https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): 
# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# The International Date Line 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03): 
# 
# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard, 
# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please. 
# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on 
# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there. 
# 
# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and 
# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL 
# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most 
# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line 
# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific 
# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international 
# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is 
# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some 
# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not 
# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the 
# correct date is ambiguous. 
 
# From Wikipedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31): 
# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting 
# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's 
# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's 
# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the 
# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all 
# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones 
# on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any 
# nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted 
# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's 
# entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were 
# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many 
# independent merchant ships until World War II. 
 
# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen 
# (2005-03-20): 
# 
# The American Practical Navigator (2002) 
# http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187 
# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in 
# international waters; it ignores the international date line.