84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <pre>
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # @(#)australasia 8.18
be82612009-07-23Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # This file also includes Pacific islands. # Notes are at the end of this file ############################################################################### # Australia
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 - Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 - Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 - Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 - Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 - Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 - # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] # Northern Territory Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb 9:00 - CST 1899 May 9:30 Aus CST # Western Australia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  8:00 AW WST Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul 8:45 AW CWST
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Queensland #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after # Queensland ceased to. # # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman, # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped. # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria, # so use Lindeman. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895 10:00 Aus EST 1971 10:00 AQ EST Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895 10:00 Aus EST 1971 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul 10:00 Holiday EST # South Australia # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
de860a2000-08-12Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule AS 1990 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1991 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1992 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1993 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 1994 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb 9:00 - CST 1899 May 9:30 Aus CST 1971 9:30 AS CST # Tasmania
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16): # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml> # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971. #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb 10:00 Aus EST 1967 10:00 AT EST
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul 10:00 AT EST
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Victoria # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb 10:00 Aus EST 1971 10:00 AV EST # New South Wales # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb 10:00 Aus EST 1971 10:00 AN EST Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23 9:00 - CST 1899 May 9:30 Aus CST 1971 9:30 AN CST 2000 9:30 AS CST # Lord Howe Island # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 - Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 - Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 - Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 - Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 - Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 - Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 - Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar 10:30 LH LHST # Australian miscellany # # Ashmore Is, Cartier # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # no times are set
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Coral Sea Is # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # no times are set
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Macquarie # permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948; # sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # like Australia/Hobart
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Christmas # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time # Cook Is
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Shanks & Pottenger:
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 - Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time -10:00 Cook CK%sT # Cocos
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978. # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Fiji
be94ee2009-12-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10): # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Fiji plans to re-introduce DST # from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010. # # "Daylight savings to commence this month" # <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719"> # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719 # </a> # or # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html"> # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html # </a> # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10): # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved # amendments: # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml"> # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml # </a>
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03): # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on # 2010-03-28 at 03:00. # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?). # # Official source: # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166"> # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166 # </a> # # A bit more background info here: # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html"> # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html # </a>
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 -
be94ee2009-12-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 S
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Fiji 2010 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 - Rule Fiji 2010 only - Oct 24 2:00 1:00 S Rule Fiji 2011 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva 12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time # French Polynesia # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia; # it is uninhabited. # Guam # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana 10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Kiribati # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki 12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901 -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time -11:00 - PHOT 1995 13:00 - PHOT Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901 -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time -10:00 - LINT 1995 14:00 - LINT # N Mariana Is # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 9:43:00 - LMT 1901
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Marshall Is # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time 12:00 - MHT Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time 12:00 - MHT # Micronesia # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Pacific/Chuuk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901 10:00 - CHUT # Chuuk Time Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia 11:00 - PONT # Pohnpei Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901 11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time 12:00 - KOST 1999 11:00 - KOST # Nauru # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe 11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time 9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15 11:30 - NRT 1979 May 12:00 - NRT # New Caledonia # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 - Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 11:00 NC NC%sT ############################################################################### # New Zealand # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no # convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  12:00 NZ NZ%sT
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Auckland Is # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers, # and scientific personnel have wintered # Campbell I # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914 # scientific station operated 1941/1995; # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered # was probably like Pacific/Auckland ############################################################################### # Niue # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1 -11:00 - NUT # Norfolk # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston 11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time 11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time # Palau (Belau) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror 9:00 - PWT # Palau Time # Papua New Guinea # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time # Pitcairn # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00 -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time # American Samoa Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 -11:22:48 - LMT 1911 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Samoa
abd0a42009-11-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16): # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received # the following info:
abd0a42009-11-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first # Sunday of April 2011." # # Background info:
abd0a42009-11-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html"> # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html # </a> #
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not # contain any dates: # <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf"> # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf # </a>
abd0a42009-11-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 -11:26:56 - LMT 1911 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26 -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 3
abd0a42009-11-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -11:00 - WST
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Solomon Is # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara 11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time # Tokelau Is # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901 -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time # Tonga # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 -
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901 12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time 13:00 - TOT 1999 13:00 Tonga TO%sT # Tuvalu # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901 12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time # US minor outlying islands # Howland, Baker
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known. # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944; # uninhabited thereafter. # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937; # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long, # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000). # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935 # until they were abandoned after the war.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Jarvis
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?. # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958; # uninhabited thereafter.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati # Johnston # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST # Kingman # uninhabited # Midway
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23): # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies, # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3] # reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone # designations that I've never seen before:.... # Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun. # " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A " #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3 -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa # Palmyra # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati # Wake # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time # Vanuatu # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 - Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 - Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila 11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time # Wallis and Futuna # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901 12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time ############################################################################### # NOTES # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries # of the IATA's data after 1990. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which # I found in the UCLA library. # # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). # # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. # Corrections are welcome! # std dst # LMT Local Mean Time # 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 9:00 JST Japan # 9:30 CST CST Central Australia # 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 10:00 ChST Chamorro
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945 # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham* # -11:00 SST Samoa # -10:00 HST Hawaii # - 8:00 PST Pitcairn* # # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii. # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is. ############################################################################### # Australia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08): # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml"> # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia # </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12): # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving"> # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales # </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From John Mackin (1991-03-06): # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time. # It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer' # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the # abbreviation does _not_ change... # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight # time'. # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time' # or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times; # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is: # CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30 # WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00 # EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01): # I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones: # <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time> # And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations: # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST" # versus "AEST" etc.: # # I see the following points of dispute: # # * How important are unique time zone abbreviations? # # Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris # Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper # operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity # (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian # Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon. # In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique # abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't # think it's that important to cater to such software these days. # # On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous # abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is # particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for # time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second. # # * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used? # # Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in # many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about # which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard # Time, for example. # # Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to # refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a # tiebreaker. # # * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern # Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with # the word "Australian"? # # My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are # common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more # popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more # often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the # following count of page hits: # # 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au # 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au # 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au # 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au # # Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight", # particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US, # say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer # Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time. # # For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of # ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and # many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here # are the hit counts anyway: # # 161,304 "EST" and domain:au # 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au # 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au # 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au # # 14,538 "CST" and domain:au # 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au # 176 "ACST" and domain:au # 29 "ACDT" and domain:au # # 7,539 "WST" and domain:au # 68 "AWST" and domain:au # # This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in # practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given # the ambiguities involved. # # * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database? # # If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3 # against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay, # saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and # understood in Australia.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00, # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970 # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time. # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable, # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more # relevant entries in this database.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill): # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html"> # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04) # </a> # ACT # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html"> # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 # </a> # SA # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html"> # Standard Time Act, 1898 # </a>
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From David Grosz (2005-06-13): # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday # in April instead of the last Sunday in March. # # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14): # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan # to extend DST together in 2006. # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles # allude to it. # But not Queensland # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Northern Territory # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ] # # [ Nov 1990 ] # # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location. # ... # Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving. # Western Australia # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ] # # [ Nov 1990 ] # # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to # # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but # # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus # # before reaching parliament. # ... # Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST # ... # Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W # Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving. # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02): # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at # work at 9.00am.) # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse # everybody again. # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess; # it matches what was used in the past. # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm"> # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ # </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia. # Queensland # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ] # # [ Dec 1990 ] # ... # Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST # ... # Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E # Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E # From Bradley White (1989-12-24): # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from # October 1989). # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... # From John Mackin (1991-03-06): # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact # end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised # me.) # From Bradley White (1992-03-08): # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ... # ... # Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S # ... # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning # from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # WA are trialing DST for three years.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09): # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Australia and Western Australia....
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09): # This is confirmed by the section entitled # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>. # # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07): # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway, # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern # coast of the continent.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is # the largest population centre in this zone....
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have, # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # (2006-12-09): # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis # of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well # before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago. # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15): # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the # introduction of standard time in 1895.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # southeast Australia
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October. # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # South Australia # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ] # # [ Nov 1990 ] # ... # Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST # ... # Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C # From Bradley White (1992-03-11): # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide # contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival, # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks." # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13): # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that) # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even # numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival # is on... # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000): # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday).... # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever... # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...). # From Bradley White (1994-04-11): # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March, # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ... # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994.... # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Tasmania # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] # # [ Nov 1990 ] # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10): # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia # (but nothing new about that). # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04): # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard, # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
de860a2000-08-12Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules: # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Victoria # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] # # [ Nov 1990 ]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29): # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an # interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located # in Melbourne, Australia. # # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's # fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time, # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the # expected time. # # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more. # # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # New South Wales # From Arthur David Olson: # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # who notes: # In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the # individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time'' # [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common # use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the # legislation. This is very important to understand. # I have researched New South Wales time only...
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual # October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore, # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html"> # Two months more daylight saving # </a> # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).] # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): # See the following official NSW source: # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ"> # Daylight Saving in New South Wales. # </a> # # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of # daylight saving next year. See: # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm"> # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving # </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens. # # Victoria will following NSW. See: # <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm"> # Vic to extend daylight saving # </a> (1999-07-28). # # However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See: # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm"> # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request # </a> (1999-07-19). # # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See: # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm"> # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics # </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying # ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.'' # # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See: # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm"> # Broken Hill to be behind the times # </a> (1999-07-21). # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW # towns to use Queensland time.
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Yancowinna
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna. # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ] # # [ Dec 1990 ] # ... # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not # # presently available. # Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST # ... # Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C # [followed by other Rules] # Lord Howe Island # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # [ Dec 1990 ] # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an # hour ahead of NSW time. # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27): # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour # instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing # arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25): # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and # Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
be82612009-07-23Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28): # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009 # summer (southern hemisphere). # # From # <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf"> # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf # </a> # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing. # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year. # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year... # # We have a wrap-up here: # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html"> # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html # </a>
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) ############################################################################### # New Zealand # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03): # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period. # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start). # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office. # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): # # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that! # # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # [ Nov 1990 ] # ... # Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D # Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D # Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S # Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S # ... # Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand # Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989 # rather than the October 1 value. # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March. # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history, # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references. # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger. # # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30): # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the # first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06. # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) ############################################################################### # Fiji # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time # instead of the American system (which was one day behind). # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February. # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08): # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow. # From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC): # The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to # improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it # also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific # islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new # millenium.
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13) # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Johnston # Johnston data is from usno1995. # Kiribati # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati # ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995'' # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century. # Kwajalein # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes: # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday, # 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands, # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink. # N Mariana Is, Guam # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines; # see Asia/Manila. # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time, # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation, # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law, # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Micronesia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk" # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.'' #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html"> # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information # </a> (1999-01-26) # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11. # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Midway # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956), # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31): # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight # Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning, # your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956 # we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to # air at 6am your time. # # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they # started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Pitcairn # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows. # # The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be # Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known # as Pitcairn Standard Time. # # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation # somehow in light of this proclamation. # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09): # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998 # ... at midnight. # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave: # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago. # Samoa # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald) # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change # ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, # ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.'' # Tonga # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.'' # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do. # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle # <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm"> # How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins' # </a>: # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time). # # Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince # Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change. # # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40 # minutes we have lost?" # # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth # to say your prayers in the morning."
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03): # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front. # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan # Government.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # I was given this link by John Letts:
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm # </a>
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead # (12 + 1 hour DST).
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html # </a>:
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the # third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # set back an hour on the closing date." # Alas, no indication of the time of day. # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06): # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am. # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31): # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the # text, and I have forgotten to report it here. # (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm ) # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01): # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow: # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one # hour to 1:00am. # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05): # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Wake # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup, # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02): # # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost # impossible. # # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) ############################################################################### # The International Date Line # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard, # convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please. # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there. # # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line # has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the # correct date is ambiguous.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31): # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones # on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any # nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's # entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many # independent merchant ships until World War II. # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen # (2005-03-20): # # The American Practical Navigator (2002) # <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187> # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in # international waters; it ignores the international date line.