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# @(#)australasia       7.56 
# This file also includes Pacific islands. 
 
# Notes are at the end of this file 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Australia 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    - 
Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    - 
# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which 
# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that 
# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Northern Territory 
Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                         9:00   -       CST     1899 May 
                         9:30   Aus     CST 
# Western Australia 
Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec 
                         8:00   Aus     WST     1943 Jul 
                         8:00   -       WST     1974 Oct lastSun 2:00s 
                         8:00   1:00    WST     1975 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 
                         8:00   -       WST     1983 Oct lastSun 2:00s 
                         8:00   1:00    WST     1984 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 
                         8:00   -       WST     1991 Nov 17 2:00s 
                         8:00   1:00    WST     1992 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 
                         8:00   -       WST 
# Queensland 
# 
# From Alex Livingston <alex@agsm.unsw.edu.au> (1996-11-01): 
# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast 
# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after 
# Queensland ceased to. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman, 
# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped. 
# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria, 
# so use Lindeman. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895 
                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971 
                        10:00   AQ      EST 
Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895 
                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971 
                        10:00   AQ      EST     1992 Jul 
                        10:00   Holiday EST 
 
# South Australia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AS      1987    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AS      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AS      1990    1994    even    Mar     Sun>=18 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AS      1990    1994    odd     Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AS      1995    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb 
                        9:00    -       CST     1899 May 
                        9:30    Aus     CST     1971 
                        9:30    AS      CST 
 
# Tasmania 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      1991    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep 
                        10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00 
                        10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     EST     1967 
                        10:00   AT      EST 
 
# Victoria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AV      1995    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AV      2001    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971 
                        10:00   AV      EST 
 
# New South Wales 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      1996    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    AN      2001    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   Aus     EST     1971 
                        10:00   AN      EST 
Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   -       EST     1896 Aug 23 
                        9:00    -       CST     1899 May 
                        9:30    Aus     CST     1971 
                        9:30    AN      CST     2000 
                        9:30    AS      CST 
 
# Lord Howe Island 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    - 
Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0:30    - 
Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    LH      1996    max     -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   0:30    - 
Rule    LH      2001    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0:30    - 
Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb 
                        10:00   -       EST     1981 Mar 
                        10:30   LH      LHST 
 
# Australian miscellany 
# 
# Ashmore Is, Cartier 
# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers 
# like Australia/Perth, says Turner 
# 
# Coral Sea Is 
# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists 
# no information 
# 
# Macquarie 
# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948; 
# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917 
# like Australia/Hobart, says Turner 
 
# Christmas 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb 
                        7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time 
 
# Cook Is 
# From Shanks: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS 
Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901            # Avarua 
                        -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12     # Cook Is Time 
                        -10:00  Cook    CK%sT 
 
# Cocos 
# From USNO (1989): 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time 
 
# Fiji 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Fiji    1998    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Fiji    1999    max     -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:53:40 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26     # Suva 
                        12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time 
 
# French Polynesia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Rikitea 
                         -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time 
Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct 
                         -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time 
Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Papeete 
                        -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time 
# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia; 
# it is uninhabited. 
 
# Guam 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Guam     9:39:00 -      LMT     1901            # Agana 
                        10:00   -       GST 
 
# Kiribati 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901            # Bairiki 
                         12:00  -       GILT             # Gilbert Is Time 
Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901 
                        -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time 
                        -11:00  -       PHOT    1995 
                         13:00  -       PHOT 
Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901 
                        -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time 
                        -10:00  -       LINT    1995 
                         14:00  -       LINT 
 
# N Mariana Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Saipan      9:43:00 -      LMT     1901 
                         9:00   -       MPT     1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time 
                        10:00   -       MPT 
 
# Marshall Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time 
                        12:00   -       MHT 
Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct 
                        -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20     # Kwajalein Time 
                        12:00   -       MHT 
 
# Micronesia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Yap        9:12:32 -       LMT     1901            # Colonia 
                        9:00    -       YAPT    1969 Oct        # Yap Time 
                        10:00   -       YAPT 
Zone Pacific/Truk       10:07:08 -      LMT     1901 
                        10:00   -       TRUT                    # Truk Time 
Zone Pacific/Ponape     10:32:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kolonia 
                        11:00   -       PONT                    # Ponape Time 
Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901 
                        11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct        # Kosrae Time 
                        12:00   -       KOST    1999 
                        11:00   -       KOST 
 
# Nauru 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15     # Uaobe 
                        11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15     # Nauru Time 
                        9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15 
                        11:30   -       NRT     1979 May 
                        12:00   -       NRT 
 
# New Caledonia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Shanks says the following was at 2:00; go with IATA. 
Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 
                        11:00   NC      NC%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# New Zealand 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Shanks gives 1927 Nov 6 - 1928 Mar 4, 1928 Oct 14 - 1929 Mar 17, 
# 1929 Oct 13 - 1930 Mar 16; go with Whitman. 
Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov     26      2:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    NZ      1928    1929    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Nov      4      2:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    NZ      1929    only    -       Oct     30      2:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    NZ      1930    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NZ      1930    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0:30    HD 
# Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base UT offset 
# didn't change until 1945 Apr 30; go with Shanks. 
Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NZ      1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov      3      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZ      1990    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S 
Rule    NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Chatham 1990    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:45s   1:00    D 
Rule    Chatham 1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:45s   0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 
                        11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1940 Sep 29 2:00 
                        12:00   NZ      NZ%sT 
Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:45   Chatham CHA%sT 
 
 
# Auckland Is 
# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers, 
# and scientific personnel have wintered 
 
# Campbell I 
# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914 
# scientific station operated 1941/1995; 
# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered 
# was probably like Pacific/Auckland 
 
############################################################################### 
 
 
# Niue 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901            # Alofi 
                        -11:20  -       NUT     1951    # Niue Time 
                        -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct 1 
                        -11:00  -       NUT 
 
# Norfolk 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kingston 
                        11:12   -       NMT     1951    # Norfolk Mean Time 
                        11:30   -       NFT             # Norfolk Time 
 
# Palau (Belau) 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901            # Koror 
                        9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time 
 
# Papua New Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880 
                        9:48:40 -       PMMT    1895    # Port Moresby Mean Time 
                        10:00   -       PGT             # Papua New Guinea Time 
 
# Pitcairn 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901            # Adamstown 
                        -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27 00:00 
                        -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time 
 
# American Samoa 
Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5 
                        -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911 
                        -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering 
                        -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa 
 
# W Samoa 
Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5 
                        -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911 
                        -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time 
                        -11:00  -       WST                     # W Samoa Time 
 
# Solomon Is 
# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Honiara 
                        11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time 
 
# Tokelau Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901 
                        -10:00  -       TKT     # Tokelau Time 
 
# Tonga 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Tonga   1999    max     -       Oct     Sat>=1  2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Tonga   2000    max     -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time 
                        13:00   -       TOT     1999 
                        13:00   Tonga   TO%sT 
 
# Tuvalu 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time 
 
 
# US minor outlying islands 
 
# Howland, Baker 
# uninhabited since World War II 
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago 
 
# Jarvis 
# uninhabited since 1958 
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati 
 
# Johnston 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Johnston   -10:00  -       HST 
 
# Kingman 
# uninhabited 
 
# Midway 
Zone Pacific/Midway     -11:49:28 -     LMT     1901 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering 
                        -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa 
 
# Palmyra 
# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati 
 
# Wake 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time 
 
 
# Vanuatu 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13             # Vila 
                        11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time 
 
# Wallis and Futuna 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901 
                        12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# NOTES 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). 
# 
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990, 
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; 
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. 
# Corrections are welcome! 
#               std dst 
#               LMT     Local Mean Time 
#         8:00  WST WST Western Australia 
#         9:00  JST     Japan 
#         9:30  CST CST Central Australia 
#        10:00  EST EST Eastern Australia 
#        10:00  GST     Guam 
#        10:30  LHST LHST Lord Howe* 
#        12:00  NZST NZDT New Zealand 
#        12:45  CHAST CHADT Chatham* 
#       -11:00  SST     Samoa 
#       -10:00  HST     Hawaii 
#       - 8:00  PST     Pitcairn* 
# 
# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii. 
# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Australia 
 
# <a href="http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html"> 
# Australia's Daylight Saving Times 
# </a>, by Margaret Turner, summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. 
 
# From John Mackin (1991-03-06): 
# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time. 
# It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer' 
# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the 
# abbreviation does _not_ change... 
# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least 
# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the 
# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses 
# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight 
# time'. 
# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian 
# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time' 
# or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the 
# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers 
# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases 
# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times; 
# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (March 8 1992): 
# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is: 
#       CST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30 
#       WST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00 
#       EST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. 
# Mark Prior <mrp@itd.adelaide.edu.au> writes that his newspaper 
# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00, 
# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970 
# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time. 
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960. 
 
# From Eric Ulevik <eau@zip.com.au> (1998-01-05): 
#  
# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable, 
# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more 
# relevant entries in this database. 
#  
# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill): 
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html"> 
# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04) 
# </a> 
# ACT 
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html"> 
# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 
# </a> 
# SA 
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html"> 
# Standard Time Act, 1898 
# </a> 
 
# Northern Territory 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ] 
# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ] 
# #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location. 
# ... 
# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving. 
 
# Western Australia 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to 
# #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but 
# #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus 
# #     before reaching parliament. 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W 
# Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       W 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving. 
 
# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02): 
# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney 
# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at 
# work at 9.00am.) 
# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse 
# everybody again. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess; 
# it matches what was used in the past. 
 
# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm"> 
# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ 
# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses 
# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia. 
 
# Queensland 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ] 
# #                                             [ Dec 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E 
# Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       E 
 
# From Bradley White (1989-12-24): 
# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from 
# October 1989). 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving 
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... 
 
# From John Mackin (1991-03-06): 
# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact 
# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised 
# me.) 
 
# From Bradley White (1992-03-08): 
# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted 
# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ... 
# ... 
# Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S 
# ... 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes. 
 
# South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The rules from version 7.1 follow. 
# There are lots of differences between these rules and 
# the Shepherd et al. rules.  Since the Shepherd et al. rules 
# and Bradley White's newspaper article are in agreement on 
# current DST ending dates, no worries. 
# 
# Rule  Oz      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    - 
# Rule  Oz      1986    max     -       Oct     Sun<=24 2:00    1:00    - 
# Rule  Oz      1972    only    -       Feb     27      3:00    0       - 
# Rule  Oz      1973    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       - 
# Rule  Oz      1987    max     -       Mar     Sun<=21 3:00    0       - 
# Zone  Australia/Tasmania      10:00   Oz      EST 
# Zone  Australia/South         9:30    Oz      CST 
# Zone  Australia/Victoria      10:00   Oz      EST     1985 Oct lastSun 2:00 
#                               10:00   1:00    EST     1986 Mar Sun<=21 3:00 
#                               10:00   Oz      EST 
 
# From Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# I believe that the current start date for DST is "lastSun" in Oct... 
# that changed Oct 89.  That is, we're back to the 
# original rule, and that rule currently applies in all the states 
# that have dst, incl Qld.  (Certainly it was true in Vic). 
# The file I'm including says that happened in 1988, I think 
# that's incorrect, but I'm not 100% certain. 
 
# South Australia 
 
# From Bradley White (1991-03-04): 
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... 
# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving 
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST 
# ... 
# Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C 
# Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun<=21 3:00    0       C 
# Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       C 
 
# From Bradley White (1992-03-11): 
# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide 
# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival, 
# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks." 
 
# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13): 
# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that) 
# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even 
# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival 
# is on... 
 
# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000): 
# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday).... 
# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever... 
# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...). 
 
# From Bradley White (1994-04-11): 
# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March, 
# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can 
# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated.... 
 
# From John Warburton <jwarb@SACBH.com.au> (1994-10-07): 
# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ... 
# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994.... 
# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March. 
 
# Tasmania 
 
# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd 
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] 
# #                                     [ Nov 1990 ] 
 
# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10): 
# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have 
# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia 
# (but nothing new about that). 
 
# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04): 
# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the 
# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard, 
# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria 
# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000 
# instead of the first Sunday in October. 
 
# Victoria 
 
# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd 
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] 
# #                                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
 
# New South Wales 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time. 
# Based on law library research by John Mackin (john@basser.cs.su.oz), 
# who notes: 
#       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the 
#       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time'' 
#       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common 
#       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the 
#       legislation.  This is very important to understand. 
#       I have researched New South Wales time only... 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): 
# The Information Service of the Australian National Standards Commission 
# <a href="http://www.nsc.gov.au/InfoServ/Ileaflet/il27.htm"> 
# Daylight Saving 
# </a> page (1995-04) has an excellent overall history of Australian DST. 
# The Community Relations Division of the NSW Attorney General's Department 
# publishes a history of daylight saving in NSW.  See: 
# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/crd.nsf/pages/time2"> 
# Lawlink NSW: Daylight Saving in New South Wales 
# </a> 
 
# From Eric Ulevik <eau@ozemail.com.au> (1999-05-26): 
# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual 
# October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore, 
# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html"> 
# Two months more daylight saving 
# </a> 
# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).] 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): 
# See the following official NSW source: 
# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ"> 
# Daylight Saving in New South Wales. 
# </a> 
# 
# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of 
# daylight saving next year.  See: 
# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm"> 
# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving 
# </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens. 
# 
# Victoria will following NSW.  See: 
# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm"> 
# Vic to extend daylight saving 
# </a> (1999-07-28). 
# 
# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See: 
# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm"> 
# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request 
# </a> (1999-07-19). 
# 
# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See: 
# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm"> 
# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics 
# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying 
# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time 
# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very 
# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of 
# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.  
# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.'' 
# 
# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See: 
# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm"> 
# Broken Hill to be behind the times 
# </a> (1999-07-21). 
 
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian 
# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken 
# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics. 
 
# Yancowinna 
 
# From John Basser (1989-01-04): 
# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna. 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ] 
# #                                     [ Dec 1990 ] 
# ... 
# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the 
# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings 
# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government 
# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have 
# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not 
# # presently available. 
# Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST 
# ... 
# Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C 
# [followed by other Rules] 
 
# Lord Howe Island 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen.. pauline@Aus ] 
#                                       [ Dec 1990 ] 
# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an 
# hour ahead of NSW time. 
 
# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27): 
# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same 
# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the 
# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is 
# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time 
# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour 
# instead of only 30 minutes.  Dependant on the wishes of residents 
# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing 
# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will 
# however always coincide with the rest of NSW. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-31): 
# For Lord Howe we use Shanks through 1989, and Lonergan thereafter. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# New Zealand 
 
# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03): 
# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period. 
# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for 
# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start). 
# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office. 
 
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): 
# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that! 
# #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z. 
# #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Geofft@Aus.. Auckland N.Z. ] 
# #                             [ Nov 1990 ] 
# ... 
# Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       S 
# Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S 
# ... 
# Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand 
# Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): 
# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989 
# rather than the October 1 value. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19); 
# Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. 
# Robert Uzgalis <buz@cs.aukuni.ac.nz> writes that the New Zealand Daylight 
# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard 
# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March. 
# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): 
# Shanks gives no time data for Chatham; usno1989 says it's +12:45, 
# usno1995 says it's +12:45/+13:45, and IATA SSIM (1991/1999) 
# gives the NZ rules but with transitions at 2:45 local standard time. 
# Guess that they have been in lock-step with NZ since 1990. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
 
# Fiji 
 
# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji 
# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time 
# instead of the American system (which was one day behind). 
 
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): 
# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01 
# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will  
# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08): 
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow. 
 
# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC): 
# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to 
# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.  But correspondents say it 
# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific 
# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new 
# millenium. 
 
 
# Johnston 
 
# Johnston data is from usno1995. 
 
 
# Kiribati 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): 
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati 
# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995'' 
# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century. 
 
 
# Kwajalein 
 
# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes: 
# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday, 
# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with 
# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands, 
# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink. 
 
 
# N Mariana Is, Guam 
 
# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the 
# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones 
# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time. 
# Ignore this for now, as we have no hard data.  See also Asia/Manila. 
 
 
# Micronesia 
 
# Alan Eugene Davis <adavis@kuentos.guam.net> writes (1996-03-16), 
# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk" 
# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.'' 
# 
# Shanks writes that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 on 1978-10-01; 
# ignore this for now. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): 
# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in 
# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html"> 
# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information 
# </a> (1999-01-26) 
# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11. 
# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now. 
 
 
# Pitcairn 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): 
# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998 
# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows. 
# 
#       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be 
#       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known 
#       as Pitcairn Standard Time. 
# 
# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several 
# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation 
# somehow in light of this proclamation. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09): 
# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998 
# ... at midnight. 
 
# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave: 
# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as 
# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in 
# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago. 
 
 
# Samoa 
 
# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald) 
# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change 
# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, 
# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that 
# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.'' 
 
 
# Tonga 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): 
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting 
# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.'' 
# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do. 
 
# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle 
# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm"> 
# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins' 
# </a>: 
 
# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST 
# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its 
# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its 
# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of 
# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees 
# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time). 
# 
# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince 
# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time 
# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change. 
# 
# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer 
# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40 
# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40 
# minutes we have lost?" 
# 
# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that 
# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth 
# to say your prayers in the morning." 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-08-12): 
# Shanks says the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell. 
 
# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03): 
# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium 
# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front. 
# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from 
# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan 
# Government. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen [straen@thorsen.priv.no] (1999-09-09): 
# * Tonga will introduce DST in November 
#  
# I was given this link by John Letts <johnletts@earthlink.net>: 
# <a hef="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm"> 
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm 
# </a> 
#  
# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November 
# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead 
# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead 
# (12 + 1 hour DST). 
 
# From Arthur David Olson [arthur_david_olson@nih.gov] (1999-09-20): 
# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html> 
# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html 
# </a>: 
# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000  
# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the  
# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on  
# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and  
# set back an hour on the closing date." 
# Alas, no indication of the time of day. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06): 
# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am. 
# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning. 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# The International Date Line 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03): 
#  
# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard, 
# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please. 
# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on 
# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there. 
# 
# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and 
# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL 
# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most 
# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line 
# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific 
# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international 
# convention, but are not legally binding national borders. 
# 
# An Anglo-French Conference on Time-Keeping at Sea (June, 1917) agreed that 
# legal time on the high seas would be zone time, i.e., the standard time at 
# the nearest meridian that is a multiple of fifteen degrees.  The date is 
# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some 
# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not 
# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the 
# correct date is ambiguous.