----- Calendrical issues -----
As mentioned in Theory.html, although calendrical issues are out of
scope for tzdb, they indicate the sort of problems that we would run
into if we extended tzdb further into the past. The following
information and sources go beyond Theory.html's brief discussion.
They sometimes disagree.
Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
From Chris Carrier (1996-12-02):
On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an "Eternal Calendar"
with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week.
On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the
Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it
reverted to the 7-day week. With the 6-day week the usual days
off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month.
(Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_)
Mark Brader reported a similar story in "The Book of Calendars", edited
by Frank Parise (1982, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8719-6467-8), page 377. But:
From: Petteri Sulonen (via Usenet)
Date: 14 Jan 1999 00:00:00 GMT
If your source is correct, how come documents between 1929 and 1940 were
still dated using the conventional, Gregorian calendar?
I can post a scan of a document dated December 1, 1934, signed by
Yenukidze, the secretary, on behalf of Kalinin, the President of the
Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet, if you like.
Sweden (and Finland)
From: Mark Brader
Subject: Re: Gregorian reform - a part of locale?
In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian. Sweden
decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
year after 1696 would be in 1744 - putting the whole country on a calendar
different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
they did, after all, have a leap year that year. And one in 1708. In 1712
they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
(A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
produced the following references to support it: "Tideräkning och historia"
by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tideräkning och
kalenderväsen" by Lars-Olof Lodén (1968).
From: "Michael Palmer" [with one obvious typo fixed]
Subject: Re: Gregorian Calendar (was Re: Another FHC related question
Date: Tue, 9 Feb 1999 02:32:48 -800
The following is a(n incomplete) listing, arranged chronologically, of
European states, with the date they converted from the Julian to the
04/15 Oct 1582 - Italy (with exceptions), Spain, Portugal, Poland (Roman
Catholics and Danzig only)
09/20 Dec 1582 - France, Lorraine
21 Dec 1582/
01 Jan 1583 - Holland, Brabant, Flanders, Hennegau
10/21 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Liege (Lüttich)
13/24 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Augsburg
04/15 Oct 1583 - electorate of Trier
05/16 Oct 1583 - Bavaria, bishoprics of Freising, Eichstedt, Regensburg,
13/24 Oct 1583 - Austrian Oberelsaß and Breisgau
20/31 Oct 1583 - bishopric of Basel
02/13 Nov 1583 - duchy of Jülich-Berg
02/13 Nov 1583 - electorate and city of Köln
04/15 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Würzburg
11/22 Nov 1583 - electorate of Mainz
16/27 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Strassburg and the margraviate of Baden
17/28 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Münster and duchy of Cleve
14/25 Dec 1583 - Steiermark
06/17 Jan 1584 - Austria and Bohemia
11/22 Jan 1584 - Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn
12/23 Jan 1584 - Silesia and the Lausitz
02 Feb 1584 - Hungary (legally on 21 Oct 1587)
Jun 1584 - Unterwalden
01/12 Jul 1584 - duchy of Westfalen
16/27 Jun 1585 - bishopric of Paderborn
14/25 Dec 1590 - Transylvania
02 Sep 1612 - duchy of Prussia
13/24 Dec 1614 - Pfalz-Neuburg
1617 - duchy of Kurland (reverted to the Julian calendar in
1624 - bishopric of Osnabrück
1630 - bishopric of Minden
15/26 Mar 1631 - bishopric of Hildesheim
1655 - Kanton Wallis
05/16 Feb 1682 - city of Strassburg
01 Mar 1700 - Protestant Germany (including Swedish possessions in
Germany), Denmark, Norway
12 Jul 1700 - Gelderland, Zutphen
12 Dec 1700 - Utrecht, Overijssel
31 Dec 1700/
12 Jan 1701 - Friesland, Groningen, Zürich, Bern, Basel, Geneva,
Turgau, and Schaffhausen
1724 - Glarus, Appenzell, and the city of St. Gallen
01 Jan 1750 - Pisa and Florence
02/14 Sep 1752 - Great Britain
01 Mar 1753 - Sweden
1760-1812 - Graubünden
The Russian empire (including Finland and the Baltic states) did not
convert to the Gregorian calendar until the Soviet revolution of 1917.
Source: H. Grotefend, _Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen
Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_, herausgegeben von Dr. O. Grotefend
(Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1941), pp. 26-28.
This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 2009-05-17 by
Arthur David Olson.