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----- Calendrical issues ----- 
 
As mentioned in Theory.html, although calendrical issues are out of 
scope for tzdb, they indicate the sort of problems that we would run 
into if we extended tzdb further into the past.  The following 
information and sources go beyond Theory.html's brief discussion. 
They sometimes disagree. 
 
 
France 
 
Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20. 
French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31, 
and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23. 
 
 
Russia 
 
From Chris Carrier (1996-12-02): 
On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an "Eternal Calendar" 
with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week. 
On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the 
Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it 
reverted to the 7-day week.  With the 6-day week the usual days 
off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month. 
(Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_) 
 
 
Mark Brader reported a similar story in "The Book of Calendars", edited 
by Frank Parise (1982, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8719-6467-8), page 377.  But: 
 
From: Petteri Sulonen (via Usenet) 
Date: 14 Jan 1999 00:00:00 GMT 
... 
 
If your source is correct, how come documents between 1929 and 1940 were 
still dated using the conventional, Gregorian calendar? 
 
I can post a scan of a document dated December 1, 1934, signed by 
Yenukidze, the secretary, on behalf of Kalinin, the President of the 
Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet, if you like. 
 
 
 
Sweden (and Finland) 
 
From: Mark Brader 
Subject: Re: Gregorian reform - a part of locale? 
<news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com> 
Date: 1996-07-06 
 
In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian.  Sweden 
decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of 
those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap 
year after 1696 would be in 1744 - putting the whole country on a calendar 
different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years. 
 
However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through; 
they did, after all, have a leap year that year.  And one in 1708.  In 1712 
they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that 
year!... 
 
Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner, 
getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule. 
 
(A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers 
produced the following references to support it: "Tideräkning och historia" 
by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tideräkning och 
kalenderväsen" by Lars-Olof Lodén (1968). 
 
 
Grotefend's data 
 
From: "Michael Palmer" [with one obvious typo fixed] 
Subject: Re: Gregorian Calendar (was Re: Another FHC related question 
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.german 
Date: Tue, 9 Feb 1999 02:32:48 -800 
... 
 
The following is a(n incomplete) listing, arranged chronologically, of 
European states, with the date they converted from the Julian to the 
Gregorian calendar: 
 
04/15 Oct 1582 - Italy (with exceptions), Spain, Portugal, Poland (Roman 
                 Catholics and Danzig only) 
09/20 Dec 1582 - France, Lorraine 
 
21 Dec 1582/ 
   01 Jan 1583 - Holland, Brabant, Flanders, Hennegau 
10/21 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Liege (Lüttich) 
13/24 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Augsburg 
04/15 Oct 1583 - electorate of Trier 
05/16 Oct 1583 - Bavaria, bishoprics of Freising, Eichstedt, Regensburg, 
                 Salzburg, Brixen 
13/24 Oct 1583 - Austrian Oberelsaß and Breisgau 
20/31 Oct 1583 - bishopric of Basel 
02/13 Nov 1583 - duchy of Jülich-Berg 
02/13 Nov 1583 - electorate and city of Köln 
04/15 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Würzburg 
11/22 Nov 1583 - electorate of Mainz 
16/27 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Strassburg and the margraviate of Baden 
17/28 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Münster and duchy of Cleve 
14/25 Dec 1583 - Steiermark 
 
06/17 Jan 1584 - Austria and Bohemia 
11/22 Jan 1584 - Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn 
12/23 Jan 1584 - Silesia and the Lausitz 
22 Jan/ 
   02 Feb 1584 - Hungary (legally on 21 Oct 1587) 
      Jun 1584 - Unterwalden 
01/12 Jul 1584 - duchy of Westfalen 
 
16/27 Jun 1585 - bishopric of Paderborn 
 
14/25 Dec 1590 - Transylvania 
 
22 Aug/ 
   02 Sep 1612 - duchy of Prussia 
 
13/24 Dec 1614 - Pfalz-Neuburg 
 
          1617 - duchy of Kurland (reverted to the Julian calendar in 
                 1796) 
 
          1624 - bishopric of Osnabrück 
 
          1630 - bishopric of Minden 
 
15/26 Mar 1631 - bishopric of Hildesheim 
 
          1655 - Kanton Wallis 
 
05/16 Feb 1682 - city of Strassburg 
 
18 Feb/ 
   01 Mar 1700 - Protestant Germany (including Swedish possessions in 
                 Germany), Denmark, Norway 
30 Jun/ 
   12 Jul 1700 - Gelderland, Zutphen 
10 Nov/ 
   12 Dec 1700 - Utrecht, Overijssel 
 
31 Dec 1700/ 
   12 Jan 1701 - Friesland, Groningen, Zürich, Bern, Basel, Geneva, 
                 Turgau, and Schaffhausen 
 
          1724 - Glarus, Appenzell, and the city of St. Gallen 
 
01 Jan 1750    - Pisa and Florence 
 
02/14 Sep 1752 - Great Britain 
 
17 Feb/ 
   01 Mar 1753 - Sweden 
 
1760-1812      - Graubünden 
 
The Russian empire (including Finland and the Baltic states) did not 
convert to the Gregorian calendar until the Soviet revolution of 1917. 
 
Source: H. Grotefend, _Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen 
Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_, herausgegeben von Dr. O. Grotefend 
(Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1941), pp. 26-28. 
 
----- 
 
This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 2009-05-17 by 
Arthur David Olson. 
 
----- 
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