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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for 
# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. 
# 
# Other sources occasionally used include: 
# 
#       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
#       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), 
#       which I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
#       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition 
#       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf> 
#       [PDF] (1914-03) 
# 
#       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 
#       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes: 
#       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables 
#       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society, 
#       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org. 
# 
#       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. 
#       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see 
#       https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html 
#       The full Russian citation is: 
#       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток 
#       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го 
#       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград: 
#       Десятая гос. тип., 1919. 
#       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf 
# 
#       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO), 
#       History of Summer Time 
#       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm> 
#       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) 
# 
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table; 
# the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time, 
# or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome! 
#                   std  dst  2dst 
#                   LMT             Local Mean Time 
#       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic 
#        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer 
#        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer 
#        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe 
#        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937) 
#        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971) 
#        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST 
#        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe 
#        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899) 
#        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)* 
#        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe 
#        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow 
 
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members: 
# The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, 
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for 
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8% 
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous 
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice. 
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.) 
# ... 
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT. 
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards. 
# ... 
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules]. 
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact 
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the 
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed 
# in the Directive. 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire) 
 
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06): 
# 
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about 
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo 
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph 
# of the text said: 
# 
# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands 
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude 
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed 
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They 
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament, 
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking 
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.' 
# 
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's 
# position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should 
# be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. 
# 
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.] 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18): 
# 
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time. 
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, 
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country. 
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) 
# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). 
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway 
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most 
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the 
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be 
# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. 
# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, 
# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many 
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public 
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock 
# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, 
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal 
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading 
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. 
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition 
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02. 
# 
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single 
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much 
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19): 
# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time 
# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year. 
# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the 
# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946), 
# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value 
# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research. 
# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society 
# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See: 
# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°. 
# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734 
# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html 
# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal 
# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten. 
# 
# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915), 
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society 
# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907) 
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, 
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. 
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, 
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. 
# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and 
# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. 
# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18). 
# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in 
# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular 
# subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith, 
# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial, 
# which is permanently set to Summer Time. 
 
# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28): 
# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of 
# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country 
# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which 
# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the 
# foundations of civilization throughout the world. 
#       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly; 
#       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26 
#       https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08): 
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving" 
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this 
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the 
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer". 
# The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see: 
# Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press 
# ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): 
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's 
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom. 
 
# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) 
# From: Jonathan Leffler 
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament. 
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in 
# politics making a fortune, not computing. 
 
# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14): 
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the 
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published 
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and 
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T." 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02): 
# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the 
# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516) 
# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945). 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03): 
# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir 
# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any 
# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't 
# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British 
# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally. 
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png 
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png 
 
# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21): 
# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time 
# which is to be introduced in May.... 
# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time" 
# which could not be said to run counter to any official description. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common 
# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first, 
# so we use 'BDST'. 
 
# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length 
# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. 
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating 
# and extending this list, which can be found in 
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06): 
# 
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC; 
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech 
# https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0 
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# 
# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948. 
# 
# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger 
# are incorrect: 
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until 
#       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain. 
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880. 
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1. 
# It actually just had one transition. 
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II. 
# Actually, it conformed to Britain. 
#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18. 
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time. 
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change). 
# 
# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger: 
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT 
#       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to 
#       conform with Great Britain. 
# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise. 
# 
# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful; 
# we'll ignore it for now. 
#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04): 
# 
# Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as 
# Greenwich was to London.  For example: 
# 
#   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time." 
#   -- James Joyce, Ulysses 
# 
# The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time"; 
# this being Ireland, opinions differed. 
# 
# Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees 
# with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink 
# Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24. 
# <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>.  Malone 
# writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when 
# it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used 
# the former and the 1896 edition used the latter).  Evidently the 
# news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists 
# UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau.  As it is 
# not clear that there was any practical significance to the change 
# from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this 
# transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its 
# fraction since our format cannot represent fractions. 
 
# "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time 
# was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that 
# would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed 
# Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'." 
# -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising. 
# Irish Times 2014-10-27. 
# https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): 
# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>. 
# These include various relating to legal time, for example: 
# 
# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html 
# 
# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html 
# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html 
# 
# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html 
# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html 
# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html 
# 
# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html 
# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html 
# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html 
# 
# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is 
# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.] 
# 
# (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these 
# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover 
# the laws applicable in Ireland.) 
# 
# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined 
# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it 
# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time 
# being GMT+1.) 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28): 
# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31) 
# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time 
# (CT), equivalent to French civil time. 
# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that 
# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door) 
# and Frethun run in CT. 
# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities, 
# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities, 
# and that the time depends on who you're talking to. 
# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason, 
# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST. 
# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST. 
 
# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02): 
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, 
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC. 
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate 
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of 
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is 
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07): 
# The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct 
# abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor 
# focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time".  Though the 
# "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an 
# error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that 
# standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in 
# summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter.  (Thanks 
# to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.)  That is, when 
# Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish 
# Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT 
# as a negative daylight saving time in winter.  So, in this database 
# IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for 
# Irish Standard Time after that.  See: 
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print 
 
# Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's 
# Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947: 
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print 
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print 
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Summer Time Act, 1916 
Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358 
Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274 
Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297 
Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 
Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844 
Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363 
Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264 
Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT 
# The Summer Time Act, 1922 
Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The Summer Time Act, 1925 
Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379 
Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883 
Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476 
Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506 
Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932 
Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16 1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The Summer Time Act, 1947 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518) 
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430) 
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21 2:00s   0       GMT 
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925 
Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71) 
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465) 
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101) 
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201) 
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968 
#       (no summer time) 
# The Summer Time Act, 1972 
Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089) 
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673) 
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223) 
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23 1:00u   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985) 
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729) 
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22 1:00u   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982) 
# See EU for rules starting in 1996. 
# 
# Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27 
                         1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996 
                         0:00   EU      GMT/BST 
Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey 
Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey 
Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15): 
# In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the 
# Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU: 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html 
# and with tests for OpenJDK: 
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html 
# 
# To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the 
# following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the 
# other form with a traditional approximation for Irish time stamps 
# after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst 
# flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often 
# suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE 
# values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should 
# not rely on it. 
# 
# The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in 
# summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when 
# negative SAVE values are used. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   - 
Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16  2:00u  0       - 
Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23  2:00u  -1:00   - 
Rule    Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23  1:00u  -1:00   - 
Rule    Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00u  -1:00   - 
Rule    Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2 
                        -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s 
                        -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence 
                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s 
                         0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s 
                         0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s 
                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 
# The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used. 
                         1:00   Eire    IST/GMT 
# These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative. 
#                        1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u 
#                        0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 
#                        0:00   EU      GMT/IST 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Europe 
 
# The following rules are for the European Union and for its 
# predecessor organization, the European Communities. 
# For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See: 
# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 
# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. 
# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT 
 
# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time. 
Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
 
# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables. 
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time. 
Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       - 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13): 
# 
# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s 
# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was 
# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the 
# tz database itself, as seen below: 
# 
# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01 
#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00 
# 
# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 
#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00 
# 
# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 
#    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s 
# 
# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 - 
# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 - 
# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - 
# 
# The rule line to be changed is: 
# 
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 - 
# 
# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on 
# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no 
# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items 
# affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms 
# CET and MET: 
# 
# Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 
# Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT 
# 
# It this is right then the corrected version would look like: 
# 
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 - 
# 
# A small step for mankind though 8-) 
Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time. 
Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
 
 
# Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union 
# 
# The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23). 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time 
# 
# Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137 
Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time 
# 
# Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001 
Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time 
Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST 
# 
# Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST 
# 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       0:00u  1:00    MSD 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK 
# 
# Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD 
# 
# Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    +05 
# 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
# Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): 
Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
# Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in 
# Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): 
Rule    Russia  1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Russia  1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
# 
Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
# As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data. 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): 
# Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of 
# Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the 
# Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227. 
# 
# I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have 
# title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ : 
# "About change in calculation of time on the territories of 
# Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan, 
# Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts". 
# And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to 
# contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules 
# of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov 
# oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989: 
# a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast: 
# second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1); 
# b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt 
# rules (Moscow time) 
# c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1). 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27): 
# Unamended version of the act of the 
# Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992 
# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0 
# says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday 
# of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September 
# at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14): 
# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev 
# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011. 
# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time. 
# 
# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian): 
# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583 
# 
# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): 
# https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15): 
# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered 
# to be standard. 
 
# These are for backward compatibility with older versions. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT 
Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT 
Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT 
Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST 
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage. 
 
# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12): 
# The official German names ... are 
# 
#       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00 
#       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00 
# 
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), 
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111).... 
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution 
# 
#       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) 
#       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit" 
#       Postfach 3345 
#       D-38023 Braunschweig 
#       phone: +49 531 592-0 
# 
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB 
# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the 
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as 
# 
#       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00 
#       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00 
 
 
# Albania 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16 
                        1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Andorra 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901 
                        0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30 
                        1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Austria 
 
# Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and 
# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and 
# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged" 
# date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV, 
# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920 
                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s 
                        1:00    -       CET     1946 
                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Belarus 
# 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02): 
# http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm 
# (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from 
# 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00 
# on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September 
# (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations). 
# 
# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16): 
# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to 
# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST). 
# 
# Sources (Russian language): 
# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html 
# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ 
# https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html 
# 
# From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09): 
# Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time.... 
# http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        3:00    -       +03 
 
# Belgium 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02): 
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from: 
#       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, 
#       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991 
#       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC), 
#       pp 8-9. 
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium: 
#       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. 
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references. 
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium. 
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S 
# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd 
# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier), 
# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15 
# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT. 
Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880 
                        0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT 
                        0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8 
                        1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u 
                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3 
                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Bosnia and Herzegovina 
# See Europe/Belgrade. 
 
# Bulgaria 
# 
# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): 
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says: 
# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... 
# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT? 
                        2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 
                        1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00 
                        2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Croatia 
# See Europe/Belgrade. 
 
# Cyprus 
# Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia. 
 
# Czech Republic / Czechia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15): 
# The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15. 
# https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas 
# We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time; 
# abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=1  2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Czech   1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850 
                        0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  9 
                        1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1946 Dec  1  3:00 
# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. 
                        1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00 
# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. 
#                       0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00 
# End of rearguard section. 
                        1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
# Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia. 
 
# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26): 
# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law 
# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01.... 
# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL 
# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29. 
# 
# The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973: 
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL 
# 
# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes 
# in subsequent decrees with the law 
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL 
# 
# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have 
# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST 
# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to 
# 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from 
# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know 
# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only 
# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981: 
# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning 
# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which 
# was suspended on that night): 
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11): 
# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between 
# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11): 
# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not 
# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       - 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890 
                         0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT 
                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s 
                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00 
                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn 
                         0:00   -       WET     1981 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31): 
# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in 
# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones. 
# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10): 
# Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark, 
# obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities 
# on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU 
# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb 
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU 
# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing 
# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15), 
# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen: 
# 
# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC 
# is according to the following time line: 
# 
# The military zone near Thule  UTC-4 
# Standard Greenland time       UTC-3 
# Scoresbysund                  UTC-1 
# Danmarkshavn                  UTC 
# 
# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be 
# introduced. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01): 
# 
# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at 
# the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have 
# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have 
# info from earlier correspondence.] 
# 
# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule 
# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight 
# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time.... 
# 
# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund 
# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst. 
# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the 
# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th 
# email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in 
# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the 
# DPC research station at Zackenberg. 
# 
# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use 
# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb). 
# 
# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it 
# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time 
# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules. 
# 
# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and 
# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators 
# maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of 
# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be 
# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19): 
# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place 
# there at 2:00 AM. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; 
# the 1995 map as like Godthåb. 
# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996. 
# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error, 
# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year. 
# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules. 
 
# From J William Piggott (2016-02-20): 
# "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named 
# "National Park" by Executive Order: 
# http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf 
# It is their only National Park. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00 
                        -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996 
                        0:00    -       GMT 
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit 
                        -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00 
                        -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29 
                        -1:00   EU      -01/+00 
Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00 
                        -3:00   EU      -03/-02 
Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base 
                        -4:00   Thule   A%sT 
 
# Estonia 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
# 
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15): 
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards 
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it, 
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989.... 
# 
# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28): 
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s, 
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:] 
# "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different 
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules 
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia.... 
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on 
# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to 
# summer time next spring." 
 
# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited: 
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law 
# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390 
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between 
# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120). 
# 
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation 
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg" 
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time). 
 
# From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09) 
# via Steffen Thorsen: 
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time, 
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6.... 
# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European 
# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory 
# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do 
# after that. 
 
# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): 
# Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation 
# No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all 
# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01. 
 
# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21): 
# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics. 
# Now we are using again EU rules. 
# 
# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28): 
# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul 
                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May 
                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Finland 
 
# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC): 
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one, 
# and it's supposed to change at 4am... 
 
# From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15): 
# 
# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982. 
# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour 
# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made 
# according to the central European standards. 
# 
# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac 
# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in 
# Finnish) at 
# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf 
# 
# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings 
# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills. 
# 
# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at: 
# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401 
# 
# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not 
# exist tonight." 
 
# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13): 
# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013] 
# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf 
# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942 
# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942, 
# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper 
# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday".... 
# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14): 
# Go with Oja over Shanks. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       - 
Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       - 
 
# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document); 
# round to nearest. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31 
                        1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time 
                        2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Åland Is 
Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn 
 
 
# France 
 
# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20): 
# 
# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions 
# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993 
# 
# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel, 
# Paris, 1991 
# 
# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie, 
# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987 
 
 
# 
# Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st 
# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions 
# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S 
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger 
# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. 
# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez, 
# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La 
# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes, 
# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin, 
# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois, 
# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie). 
Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer 
# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, 
# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12), 
# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes 
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT. 
Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; 
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT. 
Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05, 
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21. 
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based 
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre. 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00 
# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00 
                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Germany 
 
# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29): 
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische 
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. 
# [See tz-link.html for the URL.] 
 
# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23): 
# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by 
# https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/ 
# General [Nikolai] Bersarin. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08): 
# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf 
# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20. 
# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so 
# this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition 
# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Go with the PTB. 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S 
 
Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S 
Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00 
                        1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946 
                        1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12): 
# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton 
# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE 
# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did. 
# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1, 
# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin. 
# 
# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980: 
# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03): 
# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970. 
 
Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen 
 
# Georgia 
# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi. 
# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni) 
# is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part. 
 
# Gibraltar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s 
                        0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00 
                        1:00    -       CET     1982 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Greece 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14 
                        1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT 
                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30 
                        1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4 
                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981 
                        # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981; 
                        # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1. 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Hungary 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): 
# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from: 
# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945. 
# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29). 
# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html 
# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks 
# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates). 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 
                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 
                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Iceland 
# 
# From Adam David (1993-11-06): 
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT. 
# 
# (1993-12-05): 
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of 
# Iceland Almanak. 
# 
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour 
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts 
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which 
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT. 
# 
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks 
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the 
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always 
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars. 
# 
# (1993-12-10): 
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the 
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus 
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question. 
#       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day 
#       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday. 
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style" 
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it 
# might mean something else (???). 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22): 
# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see 
# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2   1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2   1:00s  1:00    - 
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter 
Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    - 
Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       - 
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter 
Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    - 
# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week 
Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908 
                        -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Italy 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): 
# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893, 
# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32). 
# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time. 
# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff, 
# so record only the time in Rome. 
# 
# From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24): 
# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10 
# ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into 
# force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in 
# the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...." 
# 
# From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20): 
# The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological 
# institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at 
# http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml 
# (2016-10-24): 
# http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/ 
# has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as 
# there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic 
# Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south 
# of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies. 
# 
# From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23): 
# Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219. 
# Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ... 
# Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is 
# advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ... 
# Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27): 
# Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944 
# for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini. 
# Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10 
# to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it 
# was effectively controlled by Germany. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1916    1917    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Mar     31      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar      9      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Oct      6      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      1      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Oct      4      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     14      24:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22 
                        0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican 
Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino 
 
# Latvia 
 
# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17): 
 
# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy 
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the 
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about 
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981.... 
# 
# Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... 
# according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning 
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00) 
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00). 
# 
# Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... 
# according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning 
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of 
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day). 
# 
# Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... 
# according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, 
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the 
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia 
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of 
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00 
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is 
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock.... 
# 
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of 
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of 
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union. 
 
# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06): 
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in 
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of 
# 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>, 
# in Latvian for subscribers only). 
 
# From RFE/RL Newsline 
# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html 
# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow: 
# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will 
# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported. 
# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their 
# clocks one hour in the spring.... 
# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few 
# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European 
# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving 
# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government 
# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it 
# appears that they will not do so.... 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34. 
# Go with Byalokoz. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT 
                        1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST 
                        1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00 
                        1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00 
                        1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11 
                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s 
                        2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29 
                        2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Liechtenstein 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich. 
 
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18): 
# http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf 
# ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942. 
# I ... translate only the last two paragraphs: 
#    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein 
#    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on 
#    central European time was in force throughout the year. 
#    From a report of the duke's government to the high council, 
#    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977. 
 
Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz 
 
 
# Lithuania 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is 
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too. 
 
# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07): 
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone 
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed. 
 
# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>, 
# via Steffen Thorsen: 
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours) 
# to be valid here starting from October 31, 
# as decided by the national government on Wednesday.... 
# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a 
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was 
# already done by Estonia. 
 
# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism 
# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27): 
# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving. 
 
# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07): 
# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will 
# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid 
# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its 
# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of 
# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at 
# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm 
 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time 
                        1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time 
                        1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12 
                        2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 
                        2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u 
                        2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Luxembourg 
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun 
                        1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25 
                        0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s 
                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00 
                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Macedonia 
# See Europe/Belgrade. 
 
# Malta 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21): 
# Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31 
                        1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Moldova 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): 
# the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04 
# http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2 
# ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR 
# time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt 
# plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be 
# adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer" 
# time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and 
# reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write 
# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00. 
# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence 
# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree). 
# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area 
# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time. 
# But [two people] separately reported via 
# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau. 
# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now. 
# 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17): 
# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as 
# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition 
# to the Winter Time). 
# 
# News (in Russian): 
# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html 
# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html 
# 
# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry) 
# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17) 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19) 
# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol 
# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32. 
# 
# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed) 
# 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26) 
# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point. 
# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own 
# decision to abolish DST this winter. 
# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- 
# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011. 
# News from Moldova (in russian): 
# https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html 
 
# From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02): 
# http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01): 
# The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that 
# 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also, 
# https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara 
# says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time. 
# Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 
                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. 
                        2:00    Moldova EE%sT 
 
# Monaco 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's 
# more precise 0:09:21. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00 
                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Montenegro 
# See Europe/Belgrade. 
 
# Netherlands 
 
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940, 
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. 
 
# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01): 
# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00 
# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including 
# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time 
# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the 
# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was 
# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law. 
# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and 
# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd"). 
# 
# (2001-04-08): 
# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to 
# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common 
# practice of following Amsterdam mean time. 
# 
# (2001-04-09): 
# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the 
# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe 
# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was 
# actually followed. 
# 
# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to 
# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of 
# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most 
# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically 
# adopted Amsterdam mean time. 
# 
# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety 
# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it 
# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe 
# Amsterdam mean time. 
 
# The data entries before 1945 are taken from 
# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time 
Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time 
Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT 
Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT 
Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       AMT 
Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST 
# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week 
# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend. 
Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       - 
# 
# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted 
# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835 
                        0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1 
                        0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00 
                        1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Norway 
# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks & 
# Pottenger. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1 
                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00 
                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Svalbard & Jan Mayen 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01): 
# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and 
# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the 
# time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared 
# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan 
# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From 
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and 
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation 
# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came 
# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a 
# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From 
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been 
# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100) 
# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by 
# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever 
# since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since 
# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere 
# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04): 
# 
# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II, 
# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was 
# keeping Berlin time. 
# 
# <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists 
# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in 
# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite 
# frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a 
# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly 
# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that 
# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules. 
# 
# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an 
# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says 
# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ 
# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were 
# expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return, 
# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) 
# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html 
# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named 
# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945. 
# 
# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo 
# for these regions. 
Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen 
 
# Poland 
 
# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20), 
# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       - 
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, 
# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., 
# https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1 
# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. 
# He also gives these further references: 
# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm> 
# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf> 
Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00 
                        2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun 
                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 
                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Portugal 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne: 
# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26) 
# https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf 
# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. 
# Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett.... 
# 
# From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15): 
# article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...: 
# These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which, 
# according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins, 
# all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ... 
 
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12): 
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone 
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC. 
# 
# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve 
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring. 
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12): 
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions 
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos. 
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00. 
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00. 
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal 
# harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not 
# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. 
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8  23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24 23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M 
Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25 22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21 22:00s  2:00    M 
Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. 
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884 
                        -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00 
                         1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s 
                         0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z. 
Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada 
                        -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT 
                        -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s 
                        -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1983 Sep 25  1:00s 
                        -1:00   W-Eur   -01/+00 1992 Sep 27  1:00s 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u 
                        -1:00   EU      -01/+00 
# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z. 
Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal 
                        -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u # Funchal MT 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    +01     1942 Aug 15 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    +01     1943 Aug 28 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    +01     1944 Aug 26 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    +01     1945 Aug 25 22:00s 
                        -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1966 Apr  3  2:00 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
 
# Romania 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): 
# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html> 
# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at 
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info, 
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997, 
# the same year as Bulgaria. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1   0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2   0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct 
                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
 
# Russia 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15): 
# Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011 
# (Government document 
# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/ 
# in Russian) 
# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones... 
# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English 
# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below: 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm 
 
# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27): 
# Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at: 
# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966 
# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian). 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): 
# Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia 
# changed in September 2011: 
# 
# One source is 
# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/ 
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31, 
# 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information. 
# 
# Another source is 
# https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html 
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the 
# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also 
# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on: 
# in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which 
# does not contain any "effective date" information. 
# 
# Another source is 
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 
# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011... 
# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" 
# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011. 
# 
# The Wikipedia article refers to 
# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896 
# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page. 
# 
# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's 
# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" 
# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to 
# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias 
# Conradi notes). 
# 
# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks. 
# 
# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01): 
# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency) 
# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562 
# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to 
# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new 
# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ... 
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02 
# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N 
# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding 
# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English): 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html 
# 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22): 
# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian) 
# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711 
# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660 
# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279 
# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this: 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, 
# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger, 
# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 
# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. 
# 
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29): 
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! 
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change; 
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching 
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. 
# 
# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04): 
# 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with 
# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... 
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor 
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there. 
# 
# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30): 
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from 
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ... 
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located. 
# 
# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from 
# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07): 
# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was 
# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with 
# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began 
# enforcing curfew at the wrong time. 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05): 
# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in 
# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the 
# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan 
# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok 
# since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are 
# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have 
# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan. 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): 
# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist 
# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions 
# are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative 
# listing.  The region codes listed come from 
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498 
# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their 
# future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level 
# divisions where available. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Europe/Kaliningrad covers... 
# 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): 
# http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni 
# confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented. 
# (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that 
# summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But 
# 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.) 
# ... 
# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091 
# says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided 
# at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to 
# Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19. 
 
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr 
                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 
                         2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         2:00   -       EET 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and 
# Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Europe/Moscow covers... 
# 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of 
# 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of 
# 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of 
# 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic 
# 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of 
# 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic 
# 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of 
# 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic 
# 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic 
# 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of 
# 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of 
# 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of 
# 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic 
# 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic 
# 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai 
# 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai 
# 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast 
# 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast 
# 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast 
# 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast 
# 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast 
# 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast 
# 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast 
# 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast 
# 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast 
# 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast 
# 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast 
# 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast 
# 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast 
# 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast 
# 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 
# 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast 
# 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast 
# 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast 
# 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast 
# 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast 
# 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast 
# 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast 
# 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast 
# 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast 
# 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast 
# 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast 
# 77    RU-MOW  Moscow 
# 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg 
# 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23): 
# The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59 
# (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time 
# zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854 
# specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT. 
# No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date; 
# later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are 
# taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks. 
# (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.) 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): 
# 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982. 
# Wikipedia refers to 
# http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html 
# http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm 
# 
# The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn 
# magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to 
# the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the 
# same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses 
# time belt changes map). 
# 
# The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to 
# introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt 
# border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous 
# Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka 
# according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that 
# "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time 
# belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on 
# 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was 
# supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2 
# hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01 
# is also provided. 
# 
# The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems 
# and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not 
# moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan, 
# Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian, 
# Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol 
# krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, 
# Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and 
# Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky 
# district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous 
# Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end 
# up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow 
# time. 
# 
# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt 
# attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers 
# of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds 
# Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky 
# district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously. 
# 
# The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow, 
# Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk. 
# 
# 12. Udmurtia 
# The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i 
# Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from 
# Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act. 
# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt 
# implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01. 
# Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991. 
# 
# ... 
# 
# All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at 
# 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1 
# change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia). 
# 
# There were some exceptions, though. 
# Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd, 
# Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992 
# change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some 
# lists found in the internet are quite wild.) 
# 
# And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment. 
# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091 
# says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the 
# 1991-03-31 switch and one person at 
# https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html 
# says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception 
# 2 days before the switch. 
# 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the 
# chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries 
# should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the 
# time in Moscow. 
 
# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08): 
# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow 
# Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30").... 
# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard. 
# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.) 
# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by 
# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow 
# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory 
# coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" > 
# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 = 
# 2:31:19 ... 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): 
# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in 
# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895). 
# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in 
# Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky. 
 
Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880 
                         2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time 
                         2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  0:00u 
                         3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct 
                         2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       MSK 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): 
# Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea. 
 
Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880 
                         2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T 
                         2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                         3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov 
                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                         3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00 
                         2:00   -       EET     1992 
# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched 
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. 
# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened 
# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say 
# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it 
# changed in May. 
                         2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May 
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. 
                         3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s 
                         3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s 
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. 
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997 
                         3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): 
# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 
# https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): 
# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks 
# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial 
# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. 
                         2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00 
                         4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       MSK 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Europe/Astrakhan covers: 
# 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast 
# 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12): 
# On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation 
# Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time).... 
# This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00. 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056 
 
Zone Europe/Astrakhan    3:12:12 -      LMT     1924 May 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11): 
# Europe/Volgograd covers: 
# 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast 
# The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04). 
 
Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   -       +04     1961 Nov 11 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11): 
# Europe/Saratov covers: 
# 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast 
 
# From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11): 
# Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4. 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11): 
# ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18. 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031 
 
Zone Europe/Saratov      3:04:18 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03     2016 Dec  4  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Europe/Kirov covers: 
# 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
# 
Zone Europe/Kirov        3:18:48 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Europe/Samara covers... 
# 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic 
# 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20. 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
 
Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   -       +04     1935 Jan 27 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1991 Sep 29  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03     1991 Oct 20  3:00 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 2010 Mar 28  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Europe/Ulyanovsk covers: 
# 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast 
 
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17): 
# Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am. 
# Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ... 
# 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading. 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051 
 
Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk    3:13:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u 
                         3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         4:00   -       +04 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers... 
# 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of 
# 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai 
# 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast 
# 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast 
# 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast 
# 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast 
# 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast 
# 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra 
# 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 
# 
# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak 
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai. 
 
# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. 
# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05. 
# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard. 
# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks. 
 
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3 
                         3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00 
                         4:00   -       +04     1930 Jun 21 
                         5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         5:00   Russia  +05/+06 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         6:00   -       +06     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         5:00   -       +05 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Asia/Omsk covers... 
# 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast 
 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30. 
 
Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14 
                         5:00   -       +05     1930 Jun 21 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         6:00   -       +06 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22): 
# Asia/Barnaul covers: 
# 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic 
# 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai 
 
# Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): 
# Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25 
# http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm 
# suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on 
# 1995-05-28. 
# 
# https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html 
# has some historical data for Altai Krai: 
# before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7 
# after 1957: UT+7 
# since 1995: UT+6 
# http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html 
# confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17): 
# Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones 
# by March 27, 2016 at 2am.... 
# Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ... 
# Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038 
 
Zone Asia/Barnaul        5:35:00 -      LMT     1919 Dec 10 
                         6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1995 May 28 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         6:00   -       +06     2016 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Asia/Novosibirsk covers: 
# 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30): 
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6 
# moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7. 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04): 
# The law was signed yesterday and published today on 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064 
 
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00 
                         6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P. 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         6:00   -       +06     2016 Jul 24  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# Asia/Tomsk covers: 
# 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24): 
# Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51. 
 
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29): 
# Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow. 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19): 
# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743 
# (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time) 
# / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ... 
# Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their 
# GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally 
# belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced 
# with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a 
# 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014). 
 
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12): 
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6 
# This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast 
# from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at 
# 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by 
# the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President 
# and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected 
# before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the 
# recent changes). 
# 
# Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws, 
# the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule 
# http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/ 
# http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303 
# I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the 
# bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday, 
# approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and 
# published as a law around 2016-04-26. 
 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048 
 
Zone    Asia/Tomsk       5:39:51 -      LMT     1919 Dec 22 
                         6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2002 May  1  3:00 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         6:00   -       +06     2016 May 29  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers... 
# 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13): 
# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on 
# March 28, 2010: 
# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700 
# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600 
# 
# This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September 
# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth 
# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600) 
# 
# Russian Government web site (Russian language) 
# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm 
# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference 
# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html 
# 
# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010 
# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock. 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): 
# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus 
# realigning itself with KRAT. 
 
Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1 
                         6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2010 Mar 28  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers... 
# 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic 
# 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of 
# 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai 
# 
# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr 
# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai. 
 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26. 
 
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6 
                         6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         8:00   -       +08     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         7:00   -       +07 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Asia/Irkutsk covers... 
# 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of 
# 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast 
# 
# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was 
# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast. 
 
# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15. 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05. 
# Go with Byalokoz. 
 
Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880 
                         6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time 
                         7:00   -       +07     1930 Jun 21 
                         8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  +08/+09 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                         9:00   -       +09     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         8:00   -       +08 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): 
# Asia/Chita covers... 
# 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai 
# 
# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat 
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02): 
# [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) - 
# Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will 
# be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am.... 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107 
 
Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15 
                         8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         8:00   -       +08     2016 Mar 27  2:00 
                         9:00   -       +09 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): 
# Asia/Yakutsk covers... 
# 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast 
# 
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: 
# 14-02 ****    Aldansky District 
# 14-04 ****    Amginsky District 
# 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District 
# 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District 
# 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District 
# 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District 
# 14-11 ****    Gorny District 
# 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District 
# 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District 
# 14-14 ****    Lensky District 
# 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District 
# 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District 
# 14-18 ****    Namsky District 
# 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District 
# 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District 
# 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District 
# 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District 
# 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District 
# 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District 
# 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District 
# 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District 
# 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District 
# 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District. 
# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too. 
# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk. 
 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58. 
 
Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15 
                         8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         9:00   -       +09 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): 
# Asia/Vladivostok covers... 
# 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai 
# 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai 
# 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast 
# 
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: 
# 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District 
# 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District 
 
# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5. 
# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31. 
# Go with Byalokoz. 
 
Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15 
                         9:00   -       +09     1930 Jun 21 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: 
# 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District 
# 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): 
# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time 
# in 2011. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25): 
# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time. 
# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004. 
# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info. 
 
Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15 
                         8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2004 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725? 
                        10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                         9:00   -       +09 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Asia/Sakhalin covers... 
# 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast 
# ...with the exception of: 
# 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) 
 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22): 
# Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ... 
# (2016-03-09): 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044 
 
# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long. 
Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23 
                         9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 25 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10     2016 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): 
# Asia/Magadan covers... 
# 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): 
# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however, 
# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of 
# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented 
# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will 
# need their own zone. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27): 
# ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ... 
# will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock 
# 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05): 
# ... signed by the President today ... 
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038 
 
Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2 
                        10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10     2016 Apr 24  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): 
# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: 
# 14-01 ****    Abyysky District 
# 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District 
# 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District 
# 14-17 ****    Momsky District 
# 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District 
# 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District 
# 
# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast: 
# 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02): 
# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with 
# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on 
# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District 
# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by 
# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11. 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): 
# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27. 
# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone 
# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary. 
# 
# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these 
# districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently 
# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females 
# each!  (Yikes!) 
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493 
# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one. 
# 
# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have 
# fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the 
# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most 
# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of 
# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf 
# in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older 
# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining. 
# Go with Srednekolymsk. 
 
Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2 
                        10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                        11:00   -       +11 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: 
# 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): 
# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from 
# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011. 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): 
# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch, 
# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of 
# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on 
# UTC+12 since at least then, too. 
 
Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15 
                         8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21 
                         9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1981 Apr  1 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        12:00   -       +12     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725? 
                        11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s 
                        10:00   -       +10 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): 
# Asia/Kamchatka covers... 
# 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai 
# 
# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak 
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai. 
 
# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps 
# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long. 
Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10 
                        11:00   -       +11     1930 Jun 21 
                        12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
 
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): 
# Asia/Anadyr covers... 
# 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 
 
Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2 
                        12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21 
                        13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s 
                        12:00   -       +12 
 
 
# San Marino 
# See Europe/Rome. 
 
# Serbia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884 
                        1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 
                        1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s 
# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of 
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. 
# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj. 
                        1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia 
 
# Slovakia 
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava 
 
# Slovenia 
# See Europe/Belgrade. 
 
# Spain 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14): 
# 
# The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is: 
# Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios. 
# Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish). 
# http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf 
# As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure, 
# and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data. 
# 
# In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for 
# the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that 
# the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart, 
# with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to 
# the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this 
# directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a 
# fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00. 
 
# From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15): 
# The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at 
# https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf 
# says in its article 5 (my translation): 
# These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the 
# instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1, 
# the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1918    1919    -       Oct      6      24:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      6      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      24:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  24:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     15       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S 
# Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28. 
Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Jun     16      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Oct      2      24:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   2:00    M 
Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Oct      2      24:00   1:00    S 
# The following rules are for unified Spain again. 
# 
# Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on 
# 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on 
# 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not 
# change during that period. 
# 
# The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain. 
#Rule   Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Oct      7      24:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13 23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1943    1944    -       Oct     Sun>=1   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Oct      2       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=12 23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       - 
# Nationalist Spain during the civil war 
#Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S 
#Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  24:00s  0       - 
#Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S 
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978. 
Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16 
                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00 
                         1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44 
                         0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00 
                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00 
                         0:00   -       WET     1924 
                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929 
                         0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 
                         1:00   -       CET     1986 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. 
                        -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00 
                         0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s 
                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u. 
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU. 
 
# Sweden 
 
# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger: 
# 
# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879: 
# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all 
# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at 
# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the 
# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31. 
# 
# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30" 
# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the 
# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT.... 
# 
# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk 
# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning 
# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at 
# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English 
# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west 
# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 
# 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time 
# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT. 
# 
# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states 
# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is 
# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00.... 
# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later". 
# 
# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish 
# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are 
# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available 
# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type 
# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click 
# the Sök-button). 
# 
# (2001-05-13): 
# 
# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00 
# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show 
# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some 
# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already 
# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another 
# hour before the event took place. 
# 
# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1 
                        1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time 
                        1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00 
                        1:00    -       CET     1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Switzerland 
# From Howse: 
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace 
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep 
# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 .... 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"): 
# Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S 
# Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       - 
# From Shanks & Pottenger: 
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S 
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
 
# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17): 
# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies. 
# 
# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values 
# to be wrong. This is now verified. 
# 
# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal 
# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss 
# federal law collection)... 
# 
# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am 
# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am. 
# 
# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am 
# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am 
# 
# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully. 
# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law 
# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any 
# other years are made. 
# 
# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported 
# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous 
# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such 
# a thing had happened in Switzerland. 
# 
# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de 
# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is 
# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled 
# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time. 
# 
# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to: 
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S 
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       - 
# 
# The 1940 rules must be deleted. 
# 
# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for 
# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ... 
# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of 
# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not 
# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time. 
# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed. 
# 
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11): 
# The Federal regulations say 
# https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html 
# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7° 26' 22.50". 
# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s. 
 
# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11): 
# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893) 
# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353 
# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight 
# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one 
# hour before the beginning of service. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11): 
# Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46. 
# 
# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland 
# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book: 
# 
#       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und 
#       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995, 
#       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797. 
# 
# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not 
# agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the 
# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the 
# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on 
# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16 
# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in 
# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph 
# offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso" 
# (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on 
# 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and 
# legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment. 
                        0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time 
                        1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Turkey 
 
# From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25): 
# 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with 
#    no exceptions. 
# 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ... 
# Here are official papers: 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf  - page 10 for 1998 - 2000 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25): 
# Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1985. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09): 
# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC 
# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07): 
# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp 
# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...: 
# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm 
# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document 
# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006: 
# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm 
 
# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10): 
# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer 
# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27. 
# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th. 
# https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872 
# Turkish: 
# https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464 
 
# From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14): 
# The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the 
# Turkish Local election.... 
# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik 
# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m. 
# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15): 
# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31, 
# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST 
# change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time. 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15): 
# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule 
# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See: 
# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency 
# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30. 
# I guess the best we can do is document the official time. 
 
# From Fatih (2015-09-29): 
# It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy. 
# Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00 
# http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217 
# 
# From BBC News (2015-10-25): 
# Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a 
# government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan 
# Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan. 
# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326 
 
# From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08): 
# Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter.... 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07): 
# The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey. 
# It takes effect today, which is not much notice. 
 
# From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28): 
# Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10. 
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf 
# 
# From Even Scharning (2017-11-08): 
# ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous": 
# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08): 
# Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like 
# Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time? 
                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15 
                        3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20 
                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u 
                        2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u 
                        2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7 
                        3:00    -       +03 
Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents. 
 
# Ukraine 
# 
# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice, 
# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27): 
# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government 
# regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says: 
# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday 
# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of 
# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am" 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20): 
# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to 
# abolish the transfer clock to winter time. 
# 
# Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got 
# approval from 266 deputies. 
# 
# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian) 
# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/ 
# 
# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian) 
# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html 
# 
# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian) 
# https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/ 
# 
# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18): 
# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the 
# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter 
# time this year after all. 
# 
# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18): 
# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone 
# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar 
# to Russia) was reverted today: 
# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995 
# 
# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted: 
# The law documents themselves are at 
# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484 
 
# From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28): 
# First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST: 
#       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST 
#       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST 
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134. 
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html 
# 
# They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law, 
# "summer time" was still in action): 
#       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST 
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272. 
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html 
# 
# Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action): 
#       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST 
# 
# DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended): 
#       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST 
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225. 
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm 
# This is an answer. 
# 
# Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure: 
#       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started 
#       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended 
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139. 
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev. 
# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but 
# "Kiev" is more common in English. 
Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. 
# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but 
# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English. 
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26 
                        1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00 
                        1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1992 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991. 
# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but 
# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English 
# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in 
# portable Posix file names. 
Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:20    -       +0220   1924 May  2 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Vatican City 
# See Europe/Rome. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from 
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986. 
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else. 
# 
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but 
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules. 
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at 
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey 
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time 
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST) 
 
# ... 
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 
# From: Tom Hofmann 
# ... 
# 
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when 
# most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only 
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according 
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on 
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following 
# years... 
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions 
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST 
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep 
# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now. 
# 
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the 
# Soviet Union (as far as I know). 
# 
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG, 
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland 
# ... 
 
# ... 
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 
# From: Dik T. Winter 
# ... 
# 
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct. 
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information 
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969. 
# 
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on 
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September... 
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that 
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982 
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in 
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch 
# dates... 
# 
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g. 
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST... 
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not 
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations 
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always 
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the 
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours 
# in advance of normal time. 
# 
# ... 
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland 
# ... 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# ... 
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates). 
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight. 
# ... 
# Monaco: has same DST as France. 
# ...