be82612009-07-23Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2014-05-31):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries # of the IATA's data after 1990. #
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Other sources occasionally used include: # # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), # which I found in the UCLA library. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf> # [PDF] (1914-03)
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes: # "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society, # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org. #
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. # This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html # The full Russian citation is: # Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток # введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го # июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград: # Десятая гос. тип., 1919. # http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # History of Summer Time
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm> # (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  #
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. # Corrections are welcome!
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # std dst 2dst # LMT Local Mean Time # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)* # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*
a6d1842014-10-16Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971)
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)* # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
6f2cda2014-10-24Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 3:00 FET Further-eastern Europe (2011-2014)*
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 3:00 MSK MSD MSM* Moscow
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, # Luxembourg, the Netherlands. # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom. # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece. # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal. # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8% # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice. # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.) # ... # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT. # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards. # ... # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules]. # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed # in the Directive. ############################################################################### # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph # of the text said: #
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament, # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking # along the towpath within a few yards of it.' # # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. # # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time. # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country. # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most # (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many # railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02. # # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19): # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year. # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946), # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research. # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See: # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg. # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten. # # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18). # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # which is permanently set to Summer Time. # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28): # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly; # republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26 # http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom. # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From: Jonathan Leffler
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament. # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in # politics making a fortune, not computing.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T." # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02): # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516) # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
01c4092001-01-09Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21): # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time # which is to be introduced in May.... # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time" # which could not be said to run counter to any official description. # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # so we use 'BDST'.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # and extending this list, which can be found in
03d5bb2012-04-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC; # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger # are incorrect:
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain. # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880. # * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1. # It actually just had one transition. # * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II. # Actually, it conformed to Britain. # * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18. # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time. # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change). #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to # conform with Great Britain. # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # we'll ignore it for now. # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. # #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than # Shanks & Pottenger.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was # to London. For example: # # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time." # -- James Joyce, Ulysses
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>. # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html # # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # being GMT+1.)
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28): # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31) # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time # (CT), equivalent to French civil time. # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door) # and Frethun run in CT. # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities, # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities, # and that the time depends on who you're talking to. # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason, # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST. # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST. # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02): # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC. # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # Summer Time Act, 1916 Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358 Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274 Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297 Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844 Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363 Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264 Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT # The Summer Time Act, 1922 Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST # The Summer Time Act, 1925 Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379 Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883 Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476 Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506 Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932 Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312 Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208 Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST # The Summer Time Act, 1947 Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495) Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373) Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518) # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430) # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451) Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925 Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71) # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465) # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81) Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101) # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201) # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148) Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117) Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST # The British Standard Time Act, 1968 # (no summer time) # The Summer Time Act, 1972 Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089) # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673) # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223) # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931) Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985) # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729) # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798) Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982) # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 0:00 EU GMT/BST
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 0:00 EU GMT/IST ###############################################################################
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Europe
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, # Common Market, etc. # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See: # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time. Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 - # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables. # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time. Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # tz database itself, as seen below: # # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 # # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 # 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s # # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - # # The rule line to be changed is: # # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 - # # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
e34a322013-09-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # CET and MET: # # Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT # Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT # # It this is right then the corrected version would look like: # # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - # # A small step for mankind though 8-) Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time. Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 MSD Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 MSK Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 MSD
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 MSM # Midsummer
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 MSD
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - # Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in # Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S # Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14): # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011. # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
16a4ba2013-03-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
16a4ba2013-03-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15): # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered # to be standard.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # These are for backward compatibility with older versions. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The official German names ... are #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 # Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111).... # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution # # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) # Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit" # Postfach 3345 # D-38023 Braunschweig # phone: +49 531 592-0 # # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB # department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as # # Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00 # Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00 # Albania # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 - Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul 1:00 EU CE%sT # Andorra # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 EU CE%sT # Austria
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged" # date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV, # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 - Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1946
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Belarus
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16): # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST). # # Sources (Russian language): # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
6f2cda2014-10-24Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09): # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time.... # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-08): # Hence Belarus can share time zone abbreviations with Moscow again. #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
6f2cda2014-10-24Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 1:00s 3:00 - MSK
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Belgium # # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02): # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from: # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC), # pp 8-9. # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium: # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium. # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier), # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT. Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8 1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Bosnia and Herzegovina
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # See Europe/Belgrade.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Bulgaria #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 - Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT? 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 2:00 EU EE%sT # Croatia
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # See Europe/Belgrade.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Cyprus
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Czech Republic # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979 1:00 EU CE%sT
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01.... # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29. # # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL # # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # in subsequent decrees with the law
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL # # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981: # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which # was suspended on that night): # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two. # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11): # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 - Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - # # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 - WET 1981 0:00 EU WE%sT #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31): # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones. # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard. # # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15), # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen: # # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC # is according to the following time line: # # The military zone near Thule UTC-4 # Standard Greenland time UTC-3 # Scoresbysund UTC-1 # Danmarkshavn UTC # # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be # introduced. # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01): # # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at # the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have # info from earlier correspondence.] # # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time.... # # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst. # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th # email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the # DPC research station at Zackenberg. # # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules. # # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators # maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this. # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19): # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place # there at 2:00 AM.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the 1995 map as like Godthåb. # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year. # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996 0:00 - GMT
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29 -1:00 EU EG%sT Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -3:00 EU WG%sT
059cb82000-11-15Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -4:00 Thule A%sT # Estonia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it, # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989.... #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s, # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia.... # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # summer time next spring."
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg" # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # via Steffen Thorsen: # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time, # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6.... # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # after that.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21): # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics. # Now we are using again EU rules. #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21 2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Finland
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one, # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982. # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made # according to the central European standards. # # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in # Finnish) at # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf # # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills. # # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at: # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401 # # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not # exist tonight."
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13): # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013] # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942, # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday".... # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards. # # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14): # Go with Oja over Shanks.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document); # round to nearest.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31 1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
447cac2010-09-29Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 EU EE%sT
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Åland Is
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # France
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20): #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993 #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Paris, 1991 #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie, # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez, # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
03d5bb2012-04-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT. Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT. Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21. # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 1:00 France CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Germany
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20. # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger. # Go with the PTB. Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did. # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1, # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin. #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Georgia # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi. # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni) # is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Gibraltar # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1982 1:00 EU CE%sT # Greece # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 - Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 - Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 - Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. 2:00 EU EE%sT # Hungary
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from: # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945. # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29). # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 - Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s 1:00 EU CE%sT # Iceland #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT. # # (1993-12-05): # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of # Iceland Almanak. # # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT. # # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the # time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars. # # (1993-12-10): # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question. # the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday. # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style" # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it # might mean something else (???). #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points. # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely # that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 - # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S # 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837 -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 - GMT # Italy #
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893, # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32). # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time. # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff, # so record only the time in Rome. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and # F. Pollastri # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows: #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W # 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S # 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S # 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur) # 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S # 09-20 09-27 00:00 S # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino # Latvia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981.... # # Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... # according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00) # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00). # # Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... # according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day). # # Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... # according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock.... # # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union. # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06): # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 29-Feb-2000 (#79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>, # in Latvian for subscribers only).
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From RFE/RL Newsline
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported. # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their # clocks one hour in the spring....
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it # appears that they will not do so....
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34. # Go with Byalokoz.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880 1:36:34 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 # Riga MT 1:36:34 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 # Latvian ST 1:36:34 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 1:36:34 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 1:36:34 - RMT 1926 May 11
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Liechtenstein
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09): # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich. # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18): # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942. # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs: # ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein # introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on # central European time was in force throughout the year. # From a report of the duke's government to the high council, # regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977. Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Lithuania # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # via Steffen Thorsen: # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours) # to be valid here starting from October 31, # as decided by the national government on Wednesday.... # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # already done by Estonia.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27): # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
de860a2000-08-12Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07): # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1 2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Luxembourg
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 - Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Macedonia
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # See Europe/Belgrade.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Malta # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 - Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 - Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 - Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Moldova
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree). # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # But [two people] separately reported via
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17): # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition # to the Winter Time). # # News (in Russian): # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html # # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry) # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17) # # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19) # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32. # # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed) # # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26) # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point. # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
16a4ba2013-03-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # decision to abolish DST this winter.
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011. # News from Moldova (in russian): # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6 2:00 - EET 1991 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. 2:00 EU EE%sT # Monaco
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's # more precise 0:09:21.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 France CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Montenegro
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # See Europe/Belgrade.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Netherlands
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940, # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01): # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law. # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd"). # # (2001-04-08): # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common # practice of following Amsterdam mean time. # # (2001-04-09): # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was # actually followed. # # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically # adopted Amsterdam mean time. # # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe # Amsterdam mean time.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The data entries before 1945 are taken from # http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - # # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835 0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Norway
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks & # Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01): # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the # time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # keeping Berlin time. # # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules. # # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return, # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945. #
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo # for these regions.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen # Poland
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20), # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # He also gives these further references: # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm> # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf> Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 EU CE%sT # Portugal #
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne: # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26) # http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring. # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter. # # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12): # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos. # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00. # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00. # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 - Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 - Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) #
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884 -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s 0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 EU WE%sT
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s 0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  -1:00 EU AZO%sT
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 EU WE%sT # Romania # # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html> # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info, # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997, # the same year as Bulgaria. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 2:00 EU EE%sT
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Russia
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15): # Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011 # (Government document # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/ # in Russian) # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones... # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below: # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27): # Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at: # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian). # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia # changed in September 2011: # # One source is # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/ # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31, # 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information. # # Another source is # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on: # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue number 5573 September 6, 2011" but which # does not contain any "effective date" information. # # Another source is # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011... # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011. # # The Wikipedia article refers to # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page. # # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias # Conradi notes).
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks. # # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01): # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency) # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ... # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English): # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html # # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22): # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian) # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this: # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations. # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger, # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there. #
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ... # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located. #
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # enforcing curfew at the wrong time. # # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05): # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions # are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative # listing. The region codes listed come from # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their # future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level # divisions where available.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 - EET # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Europe/Moscow covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of # 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of # 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of # 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic # 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of # 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic # 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of # 11 RU-KO Komi Republic # 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic # 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of # 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of # 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of # 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic # 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic # 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai # 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai # 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast # 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast # 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast # 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast # 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast # 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast # 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast # 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast # 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast # 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast # 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast # 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast # 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast # 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast # 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast # 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast # 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast # 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast # 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast # 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast # 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast # 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast # 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast # 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast # 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast # 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast # 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast # 77 RU-MOW Moscow # 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg # 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08): # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30").... # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.) # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" > # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 = # 2:31:19 ... # # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895). # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in # Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky. Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880 2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
8b89bc2014-06-14Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Europe/Simferopol covers... # ** **** Crimea, Republic of # ** **** Sevastopol Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 - EET 1992 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it # changed in May. 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Europe/Volgograd covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast # 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast # 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast # 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09): # Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300. # Perhaps it switched after the others? But we have no data.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3 3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time 3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time 4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s 3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Europe/Samara covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic # 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:20 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time 3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  4:00 - SAMT
c4ff9d2010-05-12Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of # 90 RU-PER Perm Krai # 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast # 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast # 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast # 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast # 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast # 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra # 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05. # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard. # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1916 Jul 3 3:45:05 - PMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  5:00 - YEKT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Asia/Omsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 04 RU-AL Altai Republic # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai # 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30. Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:30 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  6:00 - OMST # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast # 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  6:00 - NOVT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast
be94ee2009-12-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13): # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on # March 28, 2010: # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600 # # This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600) # # Russian Government web site (Russian language) # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html # # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock. # # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus # realigning itself with KRAT.
a6d1842014-10-16Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - LMT 1924 May 1
be94ee2009-12-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time
be94ee2009-12-15Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic # 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of # 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26. Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:26 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  7:00 - KRAT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of # 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15. # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05. # Go with Byalokoz.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:05 - LMT 1880 6:57:05 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  8:00 - IRKT
c621d92010-01-19Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): # Asia/Chita covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai. Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  8:00 - IRKT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: # 14-02 **** Aldansky District # 14-04 **** Amginsky District # 14-05 **** Anabarsky District # 14-06 **** Bulunsky District # 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District # 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District # 14-11 **** Gorny District # 14-12 **** Zhigansky District # 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District # 14-14 **** Lensky District # 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District # 14-16 **** Mirninsky District # 14-18 **** Namsky District # 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District # 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District # 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District # 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District # 14-26 **** Suntarsky District # 14-27 **** Tattinsky District # 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District # 14-32 **** Khangalassky District # 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District # 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District. # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too. # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
c621d92010-01-19Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58. Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:58 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 - YAKT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai # 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai # 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: # 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District # 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District
c621d92010-01-19Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5. # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31. # Go with Byalokoz.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:31 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 - VLAT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: # 14-28 **** Tomponsky District # 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time # in 2011.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25): # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time. # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004. # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 - YAKT
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ...with the exception of: # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 - SAKT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): # Asia/Magadan covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however, # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will # need their own zone.
c621d92010-01-19Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 - MAGT # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: # 14-01 **** Abyysky District # 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District # 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District # 14-17 **** Momsky District # 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District # 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District # # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast: # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02): # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11. # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27. # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary. # # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these # districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females # each! (Yikes!) # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one. # # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have # fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf # in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining. # Go with Srednekolymsk. # # Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT # as the abbreviation. Use SRET instead. Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s 11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: # 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch, # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time 9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s 12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  10:00 - VLAT
4ce88e2013-04-22Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai. # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s 11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  12:00 - PETT
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): # Asia/Anadyr covers...
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
fea1f12011-09-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  12:00 - ANAT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # San Marino # See Europe/Rome.
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Serbia
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 1:00 EU CE%sT Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Slovakia Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava # Slovenia
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # See Europe/Belgrade.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # Spain # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978. Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979 1:00 EU CE%sT Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00 0:00 - WET 1924 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1986 1:00 EU CE%sT Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries T 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  0:00 EU WE%sT # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u. # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU. # Sweden
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31. # # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT.... # # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT. #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00.... # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later". # # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the Sök-button).
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # (2001-05-13): # # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another # hour before the event took place. # # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 1:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 - CET 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT # Switzerland # From Howse: # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Shanks & Pottenger:
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17): # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies. # # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values # to be wrong. This is now verified. # # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # federal law collection)... # # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am. # # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am # # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully. # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any # other years are made. # # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such # a thing had happened in Switzerland. #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time. # # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to: # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 - # # The 1940 rules must be deleted. # # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time. # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11): # The Federal regulations say # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s. # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one # hour before the beginning of service. # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11): # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46. # # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book: #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995, # ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797. # # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not # agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso" # (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Turkey
6ba2da2007-03-07Martin Nilsson  # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03): # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ... The latest rules are available at:
6ba2da2007-03-07Martin Nilsson # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03): # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure # what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001: # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03): # Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09): # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07): # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...: # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006: # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
0cd39f2011-03-25Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27. # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th. # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872 # Turkish: # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
7329262014-03-10Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14): # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the # Turkish Local election.... # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15): # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31, # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST # change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time. # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15): # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See: # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30. # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
ecc1102009-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
6ba2da2007-03-07Martin Nilsson Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
6ba2da2007-03-07Martin Nilsson Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time? 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u 2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u 2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u 2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents. # Ukraine
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) #
e34a322013-09-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
e34a322013-09-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
2440ca2003-03-30Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says: # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20): # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to # abolish the transfer clock to winter time. # # Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got # approval from 266 deputies. #
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/ # # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian) # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html # # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian) # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18): # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter # time this year after all. # # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
e34a322013-09-28Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar # to Russia) was reverted today: # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995 # # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted: # The law documents themselves are at # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
7329262014-03-10Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28): # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST: # 03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1 Time Zone 3 with DST # 07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134. # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html # # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law, # "summer time" was still in action): # 09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272. # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html # # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action): # 03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST # # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended): # 09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0 Time Zone 2, no DST # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225. # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm # This is an answer. # # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure: # 03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1 DST started # 09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0 DST ended # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139. # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
6bb83e2011-10-31Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) 
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but # "Kiev" is more common in English.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct 1:00 - CET 1940 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 - EET 1992 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
ca883b2008-04-03Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in # portable Posix file names.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
fc85112012-01-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  2:00 EU EE%sT
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) 
93f75a2013-11-21Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # Vatican City # See Europe/Rome.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) ############################################################################### # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986. # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else. # # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but # uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules. # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST) # ... # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From: Tom Hofmann
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # ... # # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
1e27ed2014-09-04Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # most European countries started DST. Before that year, only
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following # years... # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
dc03802014-08-18Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the # Soviet Union (as far as I know). # # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG, # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ...
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # ... # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # From: Dik T. Winter
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # ... # # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct. # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information # about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969. # # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September... # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in # the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch # dates... # # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g. # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST... # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours # in advance of normal time. # # ... # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
84701a2007-02-01Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) # ...
c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland)  # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): # ... # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates). # Since 1978. Change at midnight. # ... # Monaco: has same DST as France. # ...