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# @(#)europe    7.71 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). 
# 
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, 
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. 
# 
# Other sources occasionally used include: 
# 
#       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
#       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), 
#       which I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
#       Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH), 
#       <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm"> 
#       History of Summer Time 
#       </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) 
 
# 
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; 
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. 
# Corrections are welcome! 
#               std dst 
#               LMT     Local Mean Time 
#       -4:00   AST     Atlantic 
#       -3:00   WGT WGST Western Greenland* 
#       -1:00   EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* 
#        0:00   GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer 
#        0:00   GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer 
#        0:00   WET WEST Western Europe 
#        1:00   CET CEST Central Europe 
#        2:00   EET EEST Eastern Europe 
#        3:00   MSK MSD Moscow 
# 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain, 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
 
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), 
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, 
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal. 
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for 
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8% 
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous 
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice. 
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.) 
# ... 
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT. 
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards. 
# ... 
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules]. 
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact 
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the 
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed 
# in the Directive. 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire) 
 
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): 
# 
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about 
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo 
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph 
# of the text said: 
# 
# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands 
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude 
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed 
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They 
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament, 
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking 
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.' 
# 
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's 
# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should 
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. 
# 
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.] 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): 
# 
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time. 
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, 
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country. 
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) 
# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). 
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway 
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most 
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the 
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be 
# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. 
# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, 
# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many 
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public 
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock 
# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, 
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal 
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading 
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. 
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition 
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02. 
# 
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single 
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much 
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): 
# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915), 
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society 
# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907) 
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, 
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. 
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, 
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. 
# One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): 
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving'' 
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this 
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the 
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): 
# 
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's 
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom. 
 
# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) 
# From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> 
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament. 
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in 
# politics making a fortune, not computing. 
 
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): 
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the 
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published 
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and 
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T." 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02): 
# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the 
# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516) 
# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945). 
 
# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST'; let's assume this is a typo. 
 
# Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length 
# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. 
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating 
# and extending this list, which can be found in 
# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/"> 
# History of legal time in Britain 
# </a> (2000-02-12). 
 
# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): 
# 
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC; 
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech 
# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0"> 
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976) 
# </a>. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17): 
# 
# For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. 
# 
# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: 
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until 
#       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain. 
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880. 
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1. 
# It actually just had one transition. 
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II. 
# Actually, it conformed to Britain. 
#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18. 
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time. 
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change). 
# 
# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks:  
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT 
#       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to 
#       conform with Great Britain. 
# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise. 
# 
# The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; 
# we'll ignore it for now. 
#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. 
# 
# 
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28): 
# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31) 
# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time 
# (CT), equivalent to French civil time. 
# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that 
# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door) 
# and Frethun run in CT. 
# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities, 
# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities, 
# and that the time depends on who you're talking to. 
# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason, 
# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST. 
# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST. 
 
# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02): 
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, 
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC. 
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate 
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of 
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is 
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Summer Time Act, 1916 
Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358 
Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274 
Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297 
Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 
Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844 
Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363 
Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264 
Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT 
# The Summer Time Act, 1922 
Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The Summer Time Act, 1925 
Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379 
Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16 2:00s   0       GMT 
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883 
Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476 
Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506 
Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932 
Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16 1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2  1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9  1:00s   1:00    BST 
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208 
Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The Summer Time Act, 1947 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518) 
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430) 
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21 2:00s   0       GMT 
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925 
Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       GMT 
Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9  2:00s   1:00    BST 
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71) 
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465) 
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101) 
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201) 
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19 2:00s   1:00    BST 
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST 
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968 
#       (no summer time) 
# The Summer Time Act, 1972 
Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 2:00s   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23 2:00s   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089) 
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673) 
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223) 
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST 
Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23 1:00u   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985) 
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729) 
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798) 
Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22 1:00u   0       GMT 
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982) 
# See EU for rules starting in 1996. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27 
                         1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31 2:00u 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996 
                         0:00   EU      GMT/BST 
Zone    Europe/Belfast  -0:23:40 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2 
                        -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT 
                        -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1 2:00s   # Irish Summer Time 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27 
                         1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31 2:00u 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996 
                         0:00   EU      GMT/BST 
Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:21 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2 
                        -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT 
                        -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1 2:00s 
                         0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence 
                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 
                         0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6 2:00 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16 2:00 
                         0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2 2:00 
                         0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18 2:00 
                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 
                         1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31 2:00u 
                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 
                         0:00   EU      GMT/IST 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Continental Europe 
 
# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, 
# Common Market, etc. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S 
Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       - 
 
# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time. 
Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
 
# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables. 
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time. 
Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. 
Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time. 
Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST     # Moscow Summer Time 
Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT     # Moscow Mean Time 
Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST    # Moscow Double Summer Time 
Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): 
Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in 
# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): 
Rule    Russia  1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Russia  1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
# 
Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat  23:00  1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat  23:00  0       - 
Rule    Russia  1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Russia  1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Russia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
 
# These are for backward compatibility with older versions. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT 
Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT 
Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT 
Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST 
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage. 
 
# From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): 
# The official German names ... are 
# 
#       Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00 
#       Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00 
# 
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), 
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111).... 
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution 
# 
#       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) 
#       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit" 
#       Postfach 3345 
#       D-38023 Braunschweig 
#       phone: +49 531 592-0 
# 
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB 
# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the 
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as 
# 
#       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00 
#       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00 
 
 
# Albania 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16 
                        1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Andorra 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901 
                        0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30 
                        1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31 2:00 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Austria 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Austria 1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:20 -       LMT     1893 Apr 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Jun 16 3:00 
                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1 2:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00 
                        1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Belarus 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:50    -       MMT     1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                        2:00    -       EET     1992 Mar 29 0:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1992 Sep 27 0:00s 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT 
 
# Belgium 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02): 
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from: 
#       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, 
#       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991 
#       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC), 
#       pp 8-9. 
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium: 
#       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. 
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. 
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium. 
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect. 
#  
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S 
# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd 
# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier), 
# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15 
# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT. 
Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880 
                        0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT 
                        0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8 
                        1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u 
                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3 
                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Bosnia and Herzegovina 
# see Yugoslavia 
 
# Bulgaria 
# 
# From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): 
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says: 
# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... 
# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat<=7  23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT? 
                        2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  3:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00 
                        2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  2:00 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Croatia 
# see Yugosloavia 
 
# Czech Republic 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850 
                        0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17 2:00s 
                        1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       - 
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways 
# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. 
# 
# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890 
                         0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Apr  # Copenhagen Mean Time 
                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s 
                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00 
                         1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone Atlantic/Faeroe    -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11     # Torshavn 
                         0:00   -       WET     1981 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, 
# and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU 
# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab 
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU 
# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980. 
 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Thule   1993    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Thule   1993    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormit 
                        -2:00   -       CGT     1980 Apr  6 2:00 
                        -2:00   C-Eur   CG%sT   1981 Mar 29 
                        -1:00   EU      EG%sT 
Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk 
                        -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6 2:00 
                        -3:00   EU      WG%sT 
Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik 
                        -4:00   Thule   A%sT 
 
# Estonia 
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): 
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards 
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it, 
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989.... 
# 
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): 
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s, 
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:] 
# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different 
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules 
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia.... 
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on 
# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to 
# summer time next spring.'' 
 
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: 
# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390"> 
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law 
# </a> 
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between 
# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120). 
# 
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation 
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg" 
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time). 
 
# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09) 
# via Steffen Thorsen: 
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time, 
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6.... 
# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European 
# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory 
# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do 
# after that.  
 
# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): 
# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation 
# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all 
# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul 
                        1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May 
                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24 2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Nov  1 
                        2:00    -       EET 
 
# Finland 
# 
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): 
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one, 
# and it's supposed to change at 4am... 
# 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): 
# Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. 
# Go with Strang instead. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 -       LMT     1878 May 31 
                        1:39:52 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time 
                        2:00    Finland EE%sT   1981 Mar 29 2:00 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# France 
# 
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st 
# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions 
# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks. 
Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S 
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, 
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco). 
Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer 
# Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, 
# but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), 
# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes 
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT. 
Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M 
Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       - 
# Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; 
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT. 
Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       - 
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, 
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21. 
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based 
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time 
# Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT. 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00 
                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Germany 
 
# From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): 
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische 
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. 
# 
#       <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm"> 
#       Realisation of Legal Time in Germany 
#       </a> 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Germany 1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes 
# the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem) 
# (1961-11-25), which gives dates only.  Guess 3:00 transition times. 
Rule    Germany 1945    only    -       May     31      3:00    2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule    Germany 1945    only    -       Sep     23      3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S 
# The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times; 
# go with Shanks. 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M 
Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr 2 2:00 
                        1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Gibraltar 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2 
                        0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14 2:00 
                        1:00    -       CET     1982 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Greece 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       - 
Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14 
                        1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT 
                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30 
                        1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4 
                        2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981 
                        # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; 
                        # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Hungary 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     29       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Sep     15       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1920    only    -       Apr      5       3:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1920    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       - 
Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 
                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  6  2:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  1 23:00 
                        1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Iceland 
# 
# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): 
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT. 
# 
# (1993-12-05): 
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of 
# Iceland Almanak. 
# 
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour 
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts 
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which 
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT. 
# 
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks 
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the 
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always 
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars. 
# 
# (1993-12-10): 
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the 
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus 
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question. 
#       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day 
#       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday. 
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style" 
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it 
# might mean something else (???). 
# 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): 
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. 
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that 
# Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Iceland 1917    1918    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1918    only    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Nov     29       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Nov      3       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1941    only    -       Mar      2       1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1941    only    -       Nov      2       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1942    only    -       Mar      8       1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1942    only    -       Oct     25       1:00s  0       - 
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter 
Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Iceland 1943    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       - 
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter 
Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    S 
# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week 
Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 -      LMT     1837 
                        -1:27:48 -      RMT     1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time? 
                        -1:00   Iceland IS%sT   1968 Apr 7 1:00s 
                         0:00   -       GMT 
 
# Italy 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): 
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri 
# <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html"> 
# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) 
# </a> 
# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute 
# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows: 
# 
# year  FP      Shanks (S)      Whitman (W)     Go with: 
# 1916  06-03   06-03 24:00     06-03 00:00     FP & W 
#       09-30   09-30 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s 
# 1917  04-01   03-31 24:00     03-31 00:00     FP & S 
#       09-30   09-29 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP & W 
# 1918  03-09   03-09 24:00     03-09 00:00     FP & S 
#       10-06   10-05 24:00     10-06 01:00     FP & W 
# 1919  03-01   03-01 24:00     03-01 00:00     FP & S 
#       10-04   10-04 24:00     10-04 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s 
# 1920  03-20   03-20 24:00     03-20 00:00     FP & S 
#       09-18   09-18 24:00     10-01 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s 
# 1944  04-02   04-03 02:00                     S (see C-Eur) 
#       09-16   10-02 03:00                     FP; guess 24:00s 
# 1945  09-14   09-16 24:00                     FP; guess 24:00s 
# 1970  05-21   05-31 00:00                     S 
#       09-20   09-27 00:00                     S 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Apr      1      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar     10      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1918    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      2      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     21      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     19      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     15      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1966    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00    0       - 
Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22 0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22 
                        0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Nov        # Rome Mean Time 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican 
Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino 
 
# Latvia 
 
# From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): 
 
# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy 
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the 
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about 
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981.... 
# 
# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... 
# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning 
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00) 
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00). 
# 
# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... 
# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning 
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of 
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day). 
# 
# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... 
# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, 
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the 
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia 
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of 
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00 
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is 
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock.... 
# 
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of 
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of 
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union. 
 
# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06): 
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in 
# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm"> 
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of 
# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only). 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:24 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time 
                        1:36:24 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer 
                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1 2:00 
                        1:36:24 1:00    LST     1919 May 22 3:00 
                        1:36:24 -       RMT     1926 May 11 
                        2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s 
                        2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29 
                        2:00    -       EET 
 
# Liechtenstein 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Vaduz    0:38:04 -       LMT     1894 Jun 
                        1:00    -       CET     1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Lithuania 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): 
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is 
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too. 
 
# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): 
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone 
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed. 
 
# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29), 
# via Steffen Thorsen: 
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours) 
# to be valid here starting from October 31, 
# as decided by the national government on Wednesday.... 
# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a 
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was 
# already done by Estonia.  
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time 
                        1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time 
                        1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12 
                        2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 
                        2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29 1:00u 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31 1:00u 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Luxembourg 
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15  2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15  2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2   2:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun 
                        1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25 
                        0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6 2:00s 
                        0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14 3:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18 3:00 
                        1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Macedonia 
# see Yugoslavia 
 
# Malta 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       - 
Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2     # Valletta 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2 2:00s 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00s 
                        1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31 
                        1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Moldova 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 
                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 May 6 
                        2:00    -       EET     1991 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
Zone    Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 
                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15 
                        2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 
                        2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19 2:00 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 
 
# Monaco 
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15 
                        0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time 
                        0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16 3:00 
                        1:00    France  CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Netherlands 
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940, 
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      2:00s   1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time 
Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      2      2:00s   0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time 
Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT 
# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1  2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     Mon>=24 2:00s   0       AMT 
Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    NST 
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       AMT 
Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun      1      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    NST 
# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun      5      2:00s   1:00    NST 
# For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST 
Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00s   0       - 
# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       May     20      2:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:28 -       LMT     1892 May 
                        0:19:28 Neth    %s      1937 Jul 
                        0:20    Neth    NE%sT   1940 May 16 0:40 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2 2:00 
                        1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Norway 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, 
# 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 
                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00 
                        1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Svalbard & Jan Mayen 
Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen 
# From Whitman: 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00   -       EGT 
 
# Poland 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       - 
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1947    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S 
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00s   0       - 
Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     Sun>=25 1:00s   1:00    S 
Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16 3:00 
                        2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun 
                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23 2:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 
                        1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977 Apr  3 1:00 
                        1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1999 
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ 
# <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> 
# http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) 
# </a> 
# says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. 
# Stick with W-Eur for now. 
# 
# From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): 
# According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would 
# follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not 
# worth further discussion. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): 
# Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 
# or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details.  Assume they switched to 
# EU rules in 1999. 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Portugal 
# 
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): 
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone 
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC. 
# 
# Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve 
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring. 
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12): 
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions 
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos. 
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00. 
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00. 
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal 
# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not 
# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. 
# Go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8  23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24 23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M 
Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25 22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21 22:00s  2:00    M 
Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. 
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1   2:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       - 
Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:32 -      LMT     1884 
                        -0:36:32 -      LMT     1911 May 24   # Lisbon Mean Time 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3 2:00 
                         1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26 1:00 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25 1:00s 
                         0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27 1:00s 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31 1:00u 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884            # Ponta Delgada 
                        -1:55   -       HMT     1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time 
                        -2:00   Port    AZO%sT  1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time 
                        -1:00   Port    AZO%sT  1983 Sep 25 1:00s 
                        -1:00   W-Eur   AZO%sT  1992 Sep 27 1:00s 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28 1:00u 
                        -1:00   EU      AZO%sT 
Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884            # Funchal 
                        -1:08   -       FMT     1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time 
                        -1:00   Port    MAD%sT  1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time 
                         0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25 1:00s 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
 
# Romania 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): 
# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html"> 
# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at 
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info, 
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997, 
# the same year as Bulgaria. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1   0:00s  0       - 
Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2   0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct 
                        1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24     # Bucharest MT 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29 2:00s 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991 
                        2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Russia 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): 
# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations. 
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, 
# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks, except we follow 
# Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. 
# 
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): 
# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with 
# Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... 
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor 
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there. 
# 
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): 
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from 
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ... 
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr 
                         1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 
                         2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT 
Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:20 -      LMT     1880 
                         2:30   -       MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time 
                         2:30:48 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1 2:00 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct 
                         2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 
Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1 2:00 
                         3:00   -       KUYT    1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev 
                         4:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1989 Mar 26 2:00s 
                         3:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         2:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1991 Sep 29 2:00s 
                         3:00   -       KUYT    1991 Oct 20 3:00 
                         4:00   Russia  SAM%sT  # Samara Time 
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:24 -      LMT     1919 Jul 15 4:00 
                         4:00   -       SVET    1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time 
                         5:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         4:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         5:00   Russia  YEK%sT  # Yekaterinburg Time 
Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:36 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14 
                         5:00   -       OMST    1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme 
                         6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         5:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  OMS%sT 
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): 
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! 
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change; 
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching 
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. 
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14 6:00 
                         6:00   -       NOVT    1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time 
                         7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1993 May 23 # says Shanks 
                         6:00   Russia  NOV%sT 
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:20 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6 
                         6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time 
                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  KRA%sT 
Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:20 -      LMT     1880 
                         6:57:20 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time 
                         7:00   -       IRKT    1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time 
                         8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         7:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  IRK%sT 
Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15 
                         8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time 
                         9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  YAK%sT 
Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:44 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15 
                         9:00   -       VLAT    1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time 
                        10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                         9:00   Russia  VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  VLA%sT 
Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2 
                        10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time 
                        11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  MAG%sT 
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. 
Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10 
                        11:00   -       PETT    1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time 
                        12:00   Russia  PET%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  PET%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  PET%sT 
Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2 
                        12:00   -       ANAT    1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time 
                        13:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1982 Apr  1 0:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1991 Mar 31 2:00s 
                        11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1992 Jan 19 2:00s 
                        12:00   Russia  ANA%sT 
 
# Slovakia 
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava 
 
# Slovenia 
# see Yugoslavia 
 
# Spain 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1917    only    -       May      5      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1917    1919    -       Oct      6      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       May     22      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1937    1939    -       Oct     Sat>=1  23:00s  0       - 
Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Mar     22      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1940    only    -       Mar     16      23:00s  1:00    S 
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer 
Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1      22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13 22:00s  2:00    M 
Rule    Spain   1943    only    -       Oct      3      22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1944    only    -       Oct     10      22:00s  1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1945    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1946    only    -       Sep     30       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=13 23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1   1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       - 
Rule    Spain   1977    1978    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       - 
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978. 
Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       - 
Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1901 
                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1946 Sep 30 
                         1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1901 
                         0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00 
                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00 
                         0:00   -       WET     1924 
                         0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929 
                         0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 
                         1:00   -       CET     1986 
                         1:00   EU      CE%sT 
Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. 
                        -1:00   -       CANT    1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time 
                         0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6 0:00s 
                         0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28 0:00s 
                         0:00   EU      WE%sT 
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u. 
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU. 
 
# Sweden 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1878 May 31 
                        1:12:12 -       SMT     1900 Jan  1  1:00 # Stockholm MT 
                        1:00    -       CET     1916 Apr 14 23:00s 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Sep 30 23:00s 
                        1:00    -       CET     1980 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Switzerland 
# From Howse: 
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace 
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep 
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 .... 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''): 
Rule    Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       - 
# From Shanks: 
Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1848 Sep 12 
                        0:29:44 -       BMT     1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time 
                        1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
 
# Turkey 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. 
Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880 
                        1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time? 
                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15 
                        3:00    Turkey  TR%sT   1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time 
                        2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1986 
                        2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents. 
 
# Ukraine 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev. 
Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1992 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. 
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct 
                        1:00    -       CET     1940 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26 
                        1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00 
                        1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31 3:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1992 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991. 
# Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. 
Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:20    -       CUT     1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. 
Zone Europe/Simferopol  2:16:24 -       LMT     1880 
                        2:16    -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T 
                        2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1941 Nov 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 
                        3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1 2:00 
                        2:00    -       EET     1992 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): 
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched 
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. 
# Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened 
# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  For now, guess it changed in May. 
                        2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May 
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. 
                        3:00    E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s 
                        3:00    1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27 3:00s 
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. 
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. 
                        3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u 
                        2:00    EU      EE%sT 
 
# Yugoslavia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884 
                        1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00 
                        1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  8  2:00s 
                        1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s 
# Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of 
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. 
# Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. 
                        1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27 
                        1:00    EU      CE%sT 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia 
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from 
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986. 
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else. 
# 
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but 
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules. 
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at 
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey 
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time 
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST) 
 
# ... 
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 
# From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) 
# Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> 
# ... 
# 
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when 
# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only 
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according 
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on 
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following 
# years... 
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions 
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST 
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep 
# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now. 
# 
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the 
# Soviet Union (as far as I know). 
# 
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG, 
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland 
# UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho 
 
# ... 
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 
# From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) 
# ... 
# 
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct. 
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information 
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969. 
# 
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on 
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September... 
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that 
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982 
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in 
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch 
# dates... 
# 
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g. 
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST... 
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not 
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations 
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always 
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the 
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours 
# in advance of normal time. 
# 
# ... 
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland 
# INTERNET   : dik@cwi.nl 
# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# ... 
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates). 
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight. 
# ... 
# Monaco: has same DST as France. 
# ...