c0dbee2000-08-01Mirar (Pontus Hagland) # @(#)europe 7.71 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). # # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries # of the IATA's data after 1990. # # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. # # Other sources occasionally used include: # # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), # which I found in the UCLA library. # # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH), # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm"> # History of Summer Time # </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) # # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. # Corrections are welcome! # std dst # LMT Local Mean Time # -4:00 AST Atlantic # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* # 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer # 0:00 WET WEST Western Europe # 1:00 CET CEST Central Europe # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow # # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain, # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, # Luxembourg, the Netherlands. # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom. # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece. # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal. # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8% # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice. # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.) # ... # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT. # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards. # ... # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules]. # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed # in the Directive. ############################################################################### # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire) # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): # # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph # of the text said: # # `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament, # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking # along the towpath within a few yards of it.' # # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's # position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. # # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.] # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): # # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time. # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country. # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most # (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many # railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02. # # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time. # From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915), # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society # who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907) # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. # One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving'' # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''. # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): # # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom. # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) # From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament. # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in # politics making a fortune, not computing. # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T." # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02): # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516) # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945). # Howse writes (p 157) `DBST'; let's assume this is a typo. # Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating # and extending this list, which can be found in # <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/"> # History of legal time in Britain # </a> (2000-02-12). # From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): # # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC; # see Lord Tanlaw's speech # <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0"> # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976) # </a>. # From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17): # # For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. # # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain. # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880. # * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1. # It actually just had one transition. # * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II. # Actually, it conformed to Britain. # * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18. # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time. # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change). # # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to # conform with Great Britain. # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise. # # The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; # we'll ignore it for now. # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. # # # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28): # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31) # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time # (CT), equivalent to French civil time. # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door) # and Frethun run in CT. # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities, # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities, # and that the time depends on who you're talking to. # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason, # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST. # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST. # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02): # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC. # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # Summer Time Act, 1916 Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358 Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274 Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297 Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844 Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363 Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264 Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT # The Summer Time Act, 1922 Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST # The Summer Time Act, 1925 Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379 Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883 Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476 Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506 Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932 Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312 Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208 Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST # The Summer Time Act, 1947 Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495) Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373) Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518) # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430) # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451) Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925 Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71) # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465) # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81) Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101) # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201) # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148) Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117) Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST # The British Standard Time Act, 1968 # (no summer time) # The Summer Time Act, 1972 Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089) # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673) # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223) # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931) Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985) # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729) # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798) Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982) # See EU for rules starting in 1996. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 0:00 EU GMT/BST Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 0:00 EU GMT/BST Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 0:00 EU GMT/IST ############################################################################### # Continental Europe # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, # Common Market, etc. # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 - # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time. Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 - # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables. # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time. Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time. Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 - Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - # Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in # Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S # Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 - Rule Russia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - Rule Russia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - # These are for backward compatibility with older versions. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage. # From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): # The official German names ... are # # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 # Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00 # # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111).... # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution # # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) # Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit" # Postfach 3345 # D-38023 Braunschweig # phone: +49 531 592-0 # # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB # department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as # # Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00 # Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00 # Albania # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 - Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul 1:00 EU CE%sT # Andorra # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30 1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00 1:00 EU CE%sT # Austria # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 - Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Jun 16 3:00 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Belarus # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880 1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT # Belgium # # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02): # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from: # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991 # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC), # pp 8-9. # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium: # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium. # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier), # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT. Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT 0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8 1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Bosnia and Herzegovina # see Yugoslavia # Bulgaria # # From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says: # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 - Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT? 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 3:00 2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 2:00 EU EE%sT # Croatia # see Yugosloavia # Czech Republic # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850 0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s 1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979 1:00 EU CE%sT # Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 - Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 - Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways # about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. # # For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890 0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn 0:00 - WET 1981 0:00 EU WE%sT # # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU # rules at least through 1984. Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Thule 1993 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D Rule Thule 1993 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S # # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormit -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29 -1:00 EU EG%sT Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -3:00 EU WG%sT Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik -4:00 Thule A%sT # Estonia # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it, # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989.... # # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s, # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:] # ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia.... # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to # summer time next spring.'' # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390"> # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law # </a> # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120). # # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg" # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time). # From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09) # via Steffen Thorsen: # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time, # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6.... # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do # after that. # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880 1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1 2:00 - EET # Finland # # From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one, # and it's supposed to change at 4am... # # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): # Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. # Go with Strang instead. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31 1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time 2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00 2:00 EU EE%sT # France # # Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks. Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, # but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco). Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer # Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, # but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT. Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - # Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT. Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21. # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time # Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT. 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 1:00 France CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Germany # From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. # # <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm"> # Realisation of Legal Time in Germany # </a> # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S # Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes # the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem) # (1961-11-25), which gives dates only. Guess 3:00 transition times. Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S # The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times; # go with Shanks. Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT # Gibraltar # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00 1:00 - CET 1982 1:00 EU CE%sT # Greece # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 - Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 - Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 - Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 - Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14 1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981 # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. 2:00 EU EE%sT # Hungary # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 - Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 - Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 1 23:00 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s 1:00 EU CE%sT # Iceland # # From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT. # # (1993-12-05): # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of # Iceland Almanak. # # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT. # # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the # time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars. # # (1993-12-10): # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question. # the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday. # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style" # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it # might mean something else (???). # # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that # Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 - Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 - # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S # 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837 -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time? -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s 0:00 - GMT # Italy # # From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri # <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html"> # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) # </a> # (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows: # # year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with: # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W # 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S # 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S # 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur) # 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s # 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S # 09-20 09-27 00:00 S # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino # Latvia # From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981.... # # Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... # according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00) # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00). # # Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... # according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day). # # Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... # according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock.... # # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union. # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06): # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in # <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm"> # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only). # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880 1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer 1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s 2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29 2:00 - EET # Liechtenstein # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun 1:00 - CET 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Lithuania # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too. # From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed. # From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29), # via Steffen Thorsen: # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours) # to be valid here starting from October 31, # as decided by the national government on Wednesday.... # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was # already done by Estonia. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880 1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time 1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u 2:00 EU EE%sT # Luxembourg # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 - Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 - Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25 0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Macedonia # see Yugoslavia # Malta # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 - Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 - Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 - Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Moldova # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6 2:00 - EET 1991 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. 2:00 EU EE%sT Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD # Monaco # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 1:00 France CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Netherlands # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940, # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman. Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT # Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks. Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks. Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST # Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks. Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun 5 2:00s 1:00 NST # For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks. Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - # Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks. Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May 0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul 0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:40 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977 1:00 EU CE%sT # Norway # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - # Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, # 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT # Svalbard & Jan Mayen Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen # From Whitman: # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT # Poland # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 - # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 - Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 - Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880 1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ # <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> # http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) # </a> # says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. # Stick with W-Eur for now. # # From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): # According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would # follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not # worth further discussion. # # From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): # Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 # or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to # EU rules in 1999. 1:00 EU CE%sT # Portugal # # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC. # # Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring. # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter. # # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12): # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos. # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00. # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00. # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. # Go with Shanks. Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 - Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S # Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - # Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S # Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - # Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 - Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s 0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u 0:00 EU WE%sT Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s 0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u -1:00 EU AZO%sT Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s 0:00 EU WE%sT # Romania # # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): # <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html"> # Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info, # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997, # the same year as Bulgaria. # # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 2:00 EU EE%sT # Russia # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations. # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow # Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. # # From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): # `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with # Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there. # # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ... # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located. # # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880 2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time 2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s 3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time 5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 6:00 Russia OMS%sT # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00 6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks 6:00 Russia NOV%sT Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 7:00 Russia KRA%sT Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880 6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time 7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 8:00 Russia IRK%sT Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 9:00 Russia YAK%sT Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 10:00 Russia VLA%sT Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 11:00 Russia MAG%sT # This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time 12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 12:00 Russia PET%sT Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s 12:00 Russia ANA%sT # Slovakia Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava # Slovenia # see Yugoslavia # Spain # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978. Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979 1:00 EU CE%sT Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00 0:00 - WET 1924 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 1:00 - CET 1986 1:00 EU CE%sT Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s 0:00 EU WE%sT # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u. # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU. # Sweden # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31 1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT 1:00 - CET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Sep 30 23:00s 1:00 - CET 1980 1:00 EU CE%sT # Switzerland # From Howse: # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep # mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 .... # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S # From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''): Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - # From Shanks: Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981 1:00 EU CE%sT # Turkey # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time? 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1986 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 2:00 EU EE%sT Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents. # Ukraine # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev. Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 2:00 - EET 1992 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 2:00 EU EE%sT # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct 1:00 - CET 1940 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00 2:00 - EET 1992 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 2:00 EU EE%sT # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991. # Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 2:00 EU EE%sT # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 2:00 - EET 1992 # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. # Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May. 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u 2:00 EU EE%sT # Yugoslavia # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s # Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. # Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 1:00 EU CE%sT Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia ############################################################################### # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986. # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else. # # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but # uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules. # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST) # ... # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 # From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) # Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> # ... # # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following # years... # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep # lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now. # # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the # Soviet Union (as far as I know). # # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG, # 4002 Basle, Switzerland # UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho # ... # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 # From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) # ... # # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct. # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information # about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969. # # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September... # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in # the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch # dates... # # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g. # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST... # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours # in advance of normal time. # # ... # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland # INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl # BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): # ... # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates). # Since 1978. Change at midnight. # ... # Monaco: has same DST as France. # ...