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# @(#)northamerica      7.54 
# also includes Central America and the Caribbean 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-03-22): 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# United States 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by 
# Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904), 
# Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY). 
# His pamphlet ``A System of National Time for Railroads'' (1870) 
# was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines 
# in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC, 
# but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich. 
# His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00, 
# and the most of the country soon followed suit. 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19): 
# A good source for time zone historical data in the US is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991). 
# Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it. 
# It is the source for the US and Puerto Rico entries below. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin 
# in his whimsical essay ``Turkey vs Eagle, McCauley is my Beagle'' (1784). 
# Not everyone is happy with the results: 
# 
#       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some 
#       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving 
#       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind. 
#       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something 
#       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer 
#       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to 
#       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving 
#       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager 
#       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make 
#       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves. 
# 
#       -- Robertson Davies, The Diary of Samuel Marchbanks (1947), XIX, Sunday 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974. 
# See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26 
# and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of 
# Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25): 
# Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama. 
# In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time." 
# An AltaVista search turned up 
# <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">: 
# "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace 
# Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful." 
# </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation. 
 
# From Joseph Gallant <notquite@hotmail.com>, citing 
# George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987): 
# At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set 
# to switch to London for Atlee's address, but the American people 
# never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account, 
# CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender, 
# but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word 
# of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in 
# London which were to precede Mr. Atlee's speech. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1919. 
# In the light of the above, this seems suspect; 
# but we have no better authority yet. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# <a href="http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d106:h.r.00177:"> 
# H.R.177 
# </a> (introduced 1999-01-06) would change April to March in the above rule. 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967. 
#    old                         new 
#    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same- 
#    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same- 
#    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST) 
#    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST) 
# 
# ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz. 
#    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part 
#    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# The tables below use `NST', not `NT', for Nome Standard Time. 
# I invented `CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON 
# USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON 
# USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO 
# USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST) 
# USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT) 
# USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W 
# USA  - " -         9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC 
# USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21): 
# The above dates are for 1988. 
# Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's 
# no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the 
# Aleutians. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and 
# Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names 
# up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 
# took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261: 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard eastern time 
#       United States standard mountain time 
#       United States standard central time 
#       United States standard Pacific time 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard Alaska time 
#       (none) 
# Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for 
# public law 98-181): 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Yukon standard time 
#       Alaska-Hawaii standard time 
#       Bering standard time 
# And after 1983-11-30: 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Alaska standard time 
#       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time 
#       Samoa standard time 
# The law doesn't give abbreviations. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# Shanks uses 1983-10-30, not 1983-11-30, for the 1983 transitions. 
# Go with Shanks. 
 
# US Eastern time, represented by New York 
 
# Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida, 
# Georgia, far southeastern Indiana, eastern Kentucky, Maine, 
# Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North 
# Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern 
# Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1920 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# US Central time, represented by Chicago 
 
# Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle, Illinois, western Indiana 
# corners, Iowa, most of Kansas, western Kentucky, Louisiana, 
# Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern Nebraska, eastern North 
# Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota, western Tennessee, most of 
# Texas, Wisconsin 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15 2:00 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# US Mountain time, represented by Denver 
# 
# Colorado, southern Idaho, far western Kansas, Montana, western 
# Nebraska, New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota, far eastern Oregon, 
# western South Dakota, far western Texas, Utah, Wyoming 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1920 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1946 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles 
# 
# California, northern Idaho, Nevada, most of Oregon, and Washington 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1946 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT 
 
# Alaska 
# AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, 
# and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia. 
# This was on 1867-10-18.  We omit this transition, since we can't represent 
# changes from Julian to Gregorian. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Juneau      -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1942 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1946 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1969 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Yakutat     -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1942 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1969 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Anchorage   -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -10:00  -       CAT     1942 
                        -10:00  US      CAT/CAWT 1946 
                        -10:00  -       CAT     1967 Apr 
                        -10:00  -       AHST    1969 
                        -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Nome       -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Adak       -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                        -10:00  US      HA%sT 
# Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak) 
# switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00, 
# and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later. 
# These switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff. 
 
# Hawaii 
# 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# And then there's Hawaii. 
# DST was observed for one day in 1933; 
# standard time was changed by half an hour in 1947; 
# it's always standard as of 1986. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert: 
# Shanks says the 1933 experiment lasted for three weeks.  Go with Shanks. 
# 
Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1900 Jan  1 12:00 
                        -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30 2:00 
                        -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 2:00 
                        -10:30  US      H%sT    1947 Jun  8 2:00 
                        -10:00  -       HST 
 
# Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970. 
 
# Arizona mostly uses MST. 
Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1 00:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1944 Mar 17 00:01 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1 00:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc., 
# notes in private correspondence dated 12/28/87 that "Presently, only the 
# Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its 
# large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other 
# tribal nations don't use DST.) 
 
Link America/Denver America/Shiprock 
 
# Southern Idaho and eastern Oregon switched four weeks late in 1974. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13 2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1974 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3 2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# Indiana 
# 
# For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see: 
# <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html"> 
# What time is it in Indiana? 
# </a> (1999-04-06) 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# Indiana generally observes either EST all year, or CST/CDT, 
# but areas near Cincinnati and Louisville use those cities' timekeeping 
# and in 1969 and 1970 the whole state observed daylight time; 
# and there are other exceptions as noted below. 
# Shanks partitions Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history, 
# and writes ``Even newspaper reports present contradictory information.'' 
# Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970. 
# 
# Since 1970, EST-only Indiana has been like America/Indianapolis, 
# with exceptions noted below for Crawford, Starke, and Switzerland counties. 
# The parts of Indiana not listed below have been like America/Chicago, 
# America/Louisville, or America/New_York. 
# 
# Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript 
# that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the `America' level. 
# So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory `America/Indiana'. 
# 
# Most of EST-only Indiana last observed DST in 1970. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
Link America/Indianapolis America/Indiana/Indianapolis 
# 
# Part of Crawford County, Indiana, last observed DST in 1975, 
# and left its clocks alone in 1974. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1951 
                        -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1976 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
# 
# Starke County, Indiana 
# From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28): 
# An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post 
# notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of 
# 1991-10-27. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1947 
                        -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
# 
# Switzerland County, Indiana, last observed DST in 1972. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974. 
# This also includes a part of Indiana immediately adjacent to Louisville. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Louisville -5:43:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1921 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1968 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
Link America/Louisville America/Kentucky/Louisville 
# 
# Wayne, Clinton, and Russell Counties, Kentucky 
# 
# From 
# <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml"> 
# Lake Cumberland LIFE 
# </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7: 
# Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from 
# the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made 
# the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not 
# taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in 
# August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also. 
# The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S. 
# location in the Central time zone. 
# 
# From Rich Wales (2000-08-29): 
# After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion, 
# Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern 
# (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley, 
# The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400). 
Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1968 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-08-30): 
# Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985. 
# Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central; 
#       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10 
# Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10 
# Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10 
# West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10 
# Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10 
# There is another change in the offing; Mercer County, ND is looking 
# to change from MT to CT. It is possible that two other ND counties 
# (Sioux and Morton) will look to change also.  If made, the earliest 
# a change would be effective is October 2001. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# FIXME: I haven't yet had time to incorporate all the above changes. 
 
# Michigan 
# 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18, 
# but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01) 
# that Detroit kept 
# 
#       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should 
#       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the 
#       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision 
#       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to 
#       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the 
#       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted 
#       by city vote. 
# 
# This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks. 
# 
# Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Jun     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1975 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# The Michigan border with Wisconsin switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# Navassa 
# claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act 
# also claimed by Haiti 
# occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co 
# US lighthouse 1917/1997-01 
# currently uninhabited 
# see Mark Fineman, ``An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord'', 
# _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites 
# Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994). 
 
# Old names, for S5 users 
 
# Link  LINK-FROM               LINK-TO 
Link    America/New_York        EST5EDT 
Link    America/Chicago         CST6CDT 
Link    America/Denver          MST7MDT 
Link    America/Los_Angeles     PST8PDT 
Link    America/Indianapolis    EST 
Link    America/Phoenix         MST 
Link    Pacific/Honolulu        HST 
 
################################################################################ 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the US is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). 
# 
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990, 
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which 
# I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
# See the `europe' file for Greenland. 
 
# Canada 
 
# From Alain LaBont<e'> <ALB@immedia.ca> (1994-11-14): 
# I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada 
# for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard.... 
# 
#       UTC     Standard time   Daylight savings time 
#       offset  French  English French  English 
#       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT 
#       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT 
#       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       - 
#       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT 
#       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT 
#       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT 
#       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT 
#       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT 
#       -9      HNY     YST     -       - 
# 
#       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time 
#       HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e    DT: Daylight saving Time 
# 
#       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic 
#       C: du Centre            Central 
#       E: de l'Est             Eastern 
#       M:                      Mountain 
#       N:                      Newfoundland 
#       P: du Pacifique         Pacific 
#       R: des Rocheuses 
#       T: de Terre-Neuve 
#       Y: du Yukon             Yukon 
# 
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1994-11-22): 
# Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software. 
 
# Unless otherwise specified, the data for Canada are all from Shanks. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map 
# <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/SO98/geomap.htm"> 
# "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998) 
# </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard 
# time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998. 
# 
# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has 
# <a href="http://www.nrc.ca/inms/time/tze.html"> 
# information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada. 
# </a> (updated periodically). 
# Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1974    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
 
 
# Newfoundland (and far southeast Labrador) 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT, 
# but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the 
# southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour, 
# but excluding, say, Black Tickle. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    StJohns 1917    1918    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
# Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks. 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S 
# For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks. 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1  23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S 
# For 1936-1941 Shanks gives May Mon>=9 and Oct Mon>=2; go with Whitman. 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
# Shanks gives 1942 May 11 - 1945 Sep 30; go with Whitman. 
Rule    StJohns 1942    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1942    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1943    only    -       May     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1943    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1944    only    -       Jul     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1944    only    -       Sep      2      0:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1945    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1945    only    -       Oct      7      2:00    0       S 
# For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives 
# Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks. 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches 
# at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987. 
Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1987    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    2:00    DD 
Rule    StJohns 1989    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
# St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT 
 
 
# most of east Labrador 
 
# The name `Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use `Goose Bay'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns NST    1919 
                        -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   -       NST     1936 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15 2:00 
                        -4:00   StJohns A%sT 
 
 
# west Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Halifax. 
# Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972; 
# Glace Bay, NS is the largest that we know of. 
# Shanks also writes that Liverpool, NS was the only town in Canada to observe 
# DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume this is a typo. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, New Brunswick switches 
# at 00:01 local time.  FIXME: verify and create a new Zone for this. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule Halifax    1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1945    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1946    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1962    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Halifax    1962    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Halifax    1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT 
Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1972 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT 
 
 
# Ontario, Quebec 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Montreal. 
# Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973. 
# Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974; 
# Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of. 
# Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17): 
# msb@sq.com writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star 
# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST, 
# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT. 
# He also writes that the 
# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html"> 
# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9) 
# </a> 
# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT. 
# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report 
# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice. 
# For what it's worth, Shanks says that Atikokan has agreed with 
# Rainy River ever since standard time was introduced. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and 
# New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes 
# CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in 
# violation of the official Ontario rules. 
# They also write that Quebec east of the -63 meridian is supposed to 
# observe AST, but residents as far east as Natashquan use EST/EDT, 
# and residents east of Natashquan use AST. 
# We probably need Zones for far east Quebec and for Atikokan, 
# but we don't know when their practices started. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Apr     24      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Mar     31      2:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Oct     25      2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1920    only    -       May      2      2:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1920    only    -       Oct      3      2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1921    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1921    only    -       Oct      2      2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1922    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1922    only    -       Oct      1      2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1924    only    -       May     17      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1924    1926    -       Sep     lastSun 2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1925    1926    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1927    1932    -       Sep     Sun>=25 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1928    1931    -       Apr     Sun>=25 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1933    1940    -       Apr     Sun>=24 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1933    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1934    1939    -       Sep     Sun>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1945    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1957    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Montreal   -4:54:16 -      LMT     1884 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT 
Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Rainy_River -6:17:56 -     LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
 
 
# Manitoba 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Manitoba switches from 
# DST at 03:00 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987. 
Rule    Winn    1987    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16 
                        -6:00   Winn    C%sT 
 
 
# Saskatchewan 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Regina. 
# Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972. 
# Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton 
# are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law. 
 
# From W. Jones <jones@skdad.usask.ca> (1992-11-06): 
# The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the 
# provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department. 
# A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and 
# since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother. 
# 
# Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years 
# the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated 
# their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial 
# referendum favoured legislating common time practices. 
# 
# On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of 
# Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern 
# part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in 
# northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to 
# follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and 
# zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would 
# by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST. 
# 
# It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town 
# on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to 
# serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only 
# a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT 
# rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round 
# since sometime in the 1960s. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1947    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1947    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950 
                        -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
 
 
# Alberta 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1972    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep 
                        -7:00   Edm     M%sT 
 
 
# British Columbia 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Vancouver. 
# Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1962    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30 2:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
 
 
# Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): 
# Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979. 
# Mathew Englander <mathew@io.org> (1996-10-07) gives the following refs: 
#       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68, 
#       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9.  This is still valid; 
#       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1). 
#       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00. 
#       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST. 
#       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00. 
# Shanks says Yukon's 1973-10-28 switch was at 2:00; go with Englander. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-09-04): 
# Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone. 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html"> 
# Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31 
# </a> 
# 
# From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06): 
# We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut 
# to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): 
# <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html"> 
# Basic Facts: The New Territory 
# </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on Eastern time, 
# and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when 
# Pangnirtung switched to Eastern time; we'll guess 1995. 
# We'll ignore the claim about Coral Harbour for now, 
# since we have no further info. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): 
# On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time, 
# Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble: 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time: 
# 
#       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP, 
#       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time: 
# 
#       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator 
# 
# This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news. 
# No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to 
# change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not 
# really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally. 
# They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart, 
# so it appears that the situation will last at least that long. 
# The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to 
# their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with 
# the current state of affairs. 
 
# From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html"> 
# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>: 
# Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones, 
# central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time 
# for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then] 
# made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories 
# for these potential new Zones. 
#  
# The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the 
# handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central 
# zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the 
# Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time. 
# Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of 
# Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not 
# required to use daylight savings. 
 
# From 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html"> 
# Nunavut now has two time zones 
# </a> (2000-11-10): 
# The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and 
# Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them 
# one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter. 
# At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against 
# Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with 
# the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on 
# central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to 
# mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's 
# unified time zone in 1999. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# Let's just keep track of the official times for now. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Pangnirtung -4:22:56 -     LMT     1884 
                        -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1 2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
Zone America/Iqaluit    -4:33:52 -      LMT     1884 # Frobisher Bay before 1987 
                        -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
Zone America/Rankin_Inlet -6:08:40 -    LMT     1884 
                        -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
Zone America/Cambridge_Bay -7:00:20 -   LMT     1884 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
Zone America/Yellowknife -7:37:24 -     LMT     1884 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT 
Zone America/Inuvik     -8:54:00 -      LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT 
Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1966 Jul 1 2:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28 0:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Mexico 
 
# Gwillim Law reports this source for daylight saving time in Mexico: 
# <a href="http://www.spin.com.mx/verano/"> 
# Daylight saving time * SPIN-Internet (in Spanish) 
# </a> 
# Law (2000-03-09) translates it as follows: 
# 
# Standard time effective in Mexico takes its origin in the 
# presidential decree of April 24, 1942.  The time of the 120th 
# meridian applies to the state of Baja California; of the 105th 
# meridian to the states of Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, and 
# Nayarit; and the time of the 90th meridian to the rest of the 
# country. 
# 
# In the country, there have been several attempts made to adapt 
# standard time with the object of arriving at a better use of 
# daylight for social and economic activities.  In December, 1981 a 
# permanent time zone was decreed for the states of Campeche, Yucatan, 
# and Quintana Roo, displacing them from the 90th to the 75th 
# meridian.  This disposition was annulled on December 2, 1982. 
# 
# In 1988 a Summer Time was established for the states of Tamaulipas, 
# Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Durango, which meant that from the first 
# Sunday in April to the last [Sunday] of October those states 
# displaced their time from the 90th to the 75th meridian.  That 
# disposition lasted for one year. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-07-26): 
# Shanks gives 1942-04-01 instead of 1942-04-24, and omits the 1981 
# and 1988 DST experiments.  Go with spin.com.mx. 
 
# From Alan Perry <alan.perry@eng.sun.com> (1996-02-15): 
# A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree 
# outlining the timezone changes in Mexico. 
# 
# ------------- Begin Forwarded Message ------------- 
# 
# I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the 
# rules for the DST changes. The rules are: 
# 
# 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones: 
#    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ) 
#    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ) 
#    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ) 
# 
# 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October 
#    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+7 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+6 
#    General:   GMT+5 
# 
# 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+8 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+7 
#    General:   GMT+6 
# 
# The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th. 
# 
# -------------- End Forwarded Message -------------- 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# For an English translation of the decree, see 
# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html"> 
# ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'' (1996-01-04). 
# </a> 
 
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): 
# The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times 
# (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02). 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10): 
# Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time 
# zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight 
# savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of 
# Arizona year round. 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard (2000-12-02): 
# No changes have been implemented yet, but the new elected president 
# Vicente Fox seems to agree with his presidential candidate opponent 
# Labastida that daylight saving should not be discontinued, but maybe 
# reduced with a couple of months, e.g. starting one month later and 
# ending one month earlier: 
# http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/044581/ 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1996    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# 
Rule    BajaN   1954    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    BajaN   1954    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Quintana Roo 
Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1997 Oct lastSun 2:00 
                        -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Campeche, Yucatan 
Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas 
Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1988 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1989 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Central Mexico 
Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Mar 30 23:00 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Chihuahua 
Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Mar 30 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
# Sonora 
Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Mar 30 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
# Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa 
Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Mar 30 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
# Baja California 
Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 16 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   BajaN   P%sT    1976 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1996 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT 
# 
# Revillagigedo Is 
# no information 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Anguilla 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Anguilla   -4:12:16 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Antigua and Barbuda 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Antigua -4:07:12 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1951 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Bahamas 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Bahamas 1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:24 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -5:00   Bahamas E%sT 
 
# Barbados 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:28 -      LMT     1924            # Bridgetown 
                        -3:58:28 -      BMT     1932      # Bridgetown Mean Time 
                        -4:00   Barb    A%sT 
 
# Belize 
# Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr 
                        -6:00   Belize  C%sT 
 
# Bermuda 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:04 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1 2:00    # Hamilton 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28 2:00 
                        -4:00   Bahamas A%sT 
 
# Cayman Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Cayman  -5:25:32 -      LMT     1890            # Georgetown 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Costa Rica 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00; go with Shanks. 
Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use `Costa Rica'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:20 -      LMT     1890            # San Jose 
                        -5:36:20 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time 
                        -6:00   CR      C%sT 
# Coco 
# no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica 
 
# Cuba 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29): 
# The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between 
# the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on 
# the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC. 
# During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that 
# "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving 
# Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of 
# sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched 
# to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have 
# returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.) 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1998    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2000    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00s   1:00    D 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT 
                        -5:00   Cuba    C%sT 
 
# Dominica 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Dominica   -4:05:36 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01         # Roseau 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Dominican Republic 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30): 
# Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the 
# time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am.... 
# http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01): 
# Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday, 
# November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the 
# Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date 
# Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they 
# decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going 
# to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president 
# decided to revert. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890 
                        -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT 
                        -5:00   DR      E%sT    1974 Oct 27 
                        -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29 02:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3 01:00 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# El Salvador 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so we'll use `El Salvador'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921            # San Salvador 
                        -6:00   Salv    C%sT 
 
# Grenada 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Grenada -4:07:00 -      LMT     1911 Jul        # St George's 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Guadeloupe 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guadeloupe -4:06:08 -      LMT     1911 Jun 8      # Pointe a Pitre 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Guatemala 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5 
                        -6:00   Guat    C%sT 
 
# Haiti 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# Shanks says AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.  Go with IATA. 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  1:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890 
                        -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT 
                        -5:00   Haiti   E%sT 
 
# Honduras 
# Shanks says 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr 
                        -6:00   Salv    C%sT 
# 
# Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972 
 
# Jamaica 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Follows US rules. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# JAMAICA             5 H  BEHIND UTC 
 
# From Shanks: 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:12 -      LMT     1890            # Kingston 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 Apr 28 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1984 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Martinique 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890            # Fort-de-France 
                        -4:04   -       FFMT    1911 May     # Fort-de-France MT 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6 
                        -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Montserrat 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-08-31): 
# Recent volcanic eruptions have forced evacuation of Plymouth, the capital. 
# Luckily, Olveston, the current de facto capital, has the same longitude. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Montserrat -4:08:52 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01   # Olveston 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Nicaragua 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (1998-12-29): 
# Nicaragua seems to be back at -6:00 but I have not been able to find when 
# they changed from -5:00. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Nic     1992    only    -       Jan     1       4:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     1992    only    -       Sep     24      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:45   -       MMT     1934 Jun 23  # Managua Mean Time 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1973 May 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16 
                        -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1993 Jan 1 4:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1998 Dec 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
 
# Panama 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:20   -       PMT     1908 Apr 22   # Panama Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Puerto Rico 
# There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use `Puerto_Rico'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00    # San Juan 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3 
                        -4:00   1:00    AWT     1945 Sep 30  2:00 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Kitts-Nevis 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Kitts   -4:10:52 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2      # Basseterre 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Lucia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Lucia   -4:04:00 -      LMT     1890            # Castries 
                        -4:04   -       CMT     1912        # Castries Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Pierre and Miquelon 
# There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use `Miquelon'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15     # St Pierre 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 May 
                        -3:00   Mont    PM%sT   # Pierre & Miquelon Time 
 
# St Vincent and the Grenadines 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Vincent -4:04:56 -      LMT     1890            # Kingstown 
                        -4:04:56 -      KMT     1912       # Kingstown Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Turks and Caicos 
# From Paul Eggert (1998-08-06): 
# Shanks says they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998) 
# says they switch at midnight.  Go with IATA SSIM. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    TC      1979    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    TC      1979    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    TC      1987    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   TC      E%sT 
 
# British Virgin Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Tortola    -4:18:28 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Road Town 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Virgin Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Thomas  -4:19:44 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Charlotte Amalie 
                        -4:00   -       AST