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1819
  
1820
  
1821
  
1822
  
1823
  
1824
  
1825
  
1826
  
1827
  
1828
  
1829
  
1830
  
1831
  
1832
  
1833
  
1834
  
1835
  
1836
  
1837
  
1838
  
1839
  
1840
  
1841
  
1842
  
1843
  
1844
  
1845
  
1846
  
1847
  
1848
  
1849
  
1850
  
1851
  
1852
  
1853
  
1854
  
1855
  
1856
  
1857
  
1858
  
1859
  
1860
  
1861
  
1862
  
1863
  
1864
  
1865
  
1866
  
1867
  
1868
  
1869
  
1870
  
1871
  
1872
  
1873
  
1874
  
1875
  
1876
  
1877
  
1878
  
1879
  
1880
  
1881
  
1882
  
1883
  
1884
  
1885
  
1886
  
1887
  
1888
  
1889
  
1890
  
1891
  
1892
  
1893
  
1894
  
1895
  
1896
  
1897
  
1898
  
1899
  
1900
  
1901
  
1902
  
1903
  
1904
  
1905
  
1906
  
1907
  
1908
  
1909
  
1910
  
1911
  
1912
  
1913
  
1914
  
1915
  
1916
  
1917
  
1918
  
1919
  
1920
  
1921
  
1922
  
1923
  
1924
  
1925
  
1926
  
1927
  
1928
  
1929
  
1930
  
1931
  
1932
  
1933
  
1934
  
1935
  
1936
  
1937
  
1938
  
1939
  
1940
  
1941
  
1942
  
1943
  
1944
  
1945
  
1946
  
1947
  
1948
  
1949
  
1950
  
1951
  
1952
  
1953
  
1954
  
1955
  
1956
  
1957
  
1958
  
1959
  
1960
  
1961
  
1962
  
1963
  
1964
  
1965
  
1966
  
1967
  
1968
  
1969
  
1970
  
1971
  
1972
  
1973
  
1974
  
1975
  
1976
  
1977
  
1978
  
1979
  
1980
  
1981
  
1982
  
1983
  
1984
  
1985
  
1986
  
1987
  
1988
  
1989
  
1990
  
1991
  
1992
  
1993
  
1994
  
1995
  
1996
  
1997
  
1998
  
1999
  
2000
  
2001
  
2002
  
2003
  
2004
  
2005
  
2006
  
2007
  
2008
  
2009
  
2010
  
2011
  
2012
  
2013
  
2014
  
2015
  
2016
  
2017
  
2018
  
2019
  
2020
  
2021
  
2022
  
2023
  
2024
  
2025
  
2026
  
2027
  
2028
  
2029
  
2030
  
2031
  
2032
  
2033
  
2034
  
2035
  
2036
  
2037
  
2038
  
2039
  
2040
  
2041
  
2042
  
2043
  
2044
  
2045
  
2046
  
2047
  
2048
  
2049
  
2050
  
2051
  
2052
  
2053
  
2054
  
2055
  
2056
  
2057
  
2058
  
2059
  
2060
  
2061
  
2062
  
2063
  
2064
  
2065
  
2066
  
2067
  
2068
  
2069
  
2070
  
2071
  
2072
  
2073
  
2074
  
2075
  
2076
  
2077
  
2078
  
2079
  
2080
  
2081
  
2082
  
2083
  
2084
  
2085
  
2086
  
2087
  
2088
  
2089
  
2090
  
2091
  
2092
  
2093
  
2094
  
2095
  
2096
  
2097
  
2098
  
2099
  
2100
  
2101
  
2102
  
2103
  
2104
  
2105
  
2106
  
2107
  
2108
  
2109
  
2110
  
2111
  
2112
  
2113
  
2114
  
2115
  
2116
  
2117
  
2118
  
2119
  
2120
  
2121
  
2122
  
2123
  
2124
  
2125
  
2126
  
2127
  
2128
  
2129
  
2130
  
2131
  
2132
  
2133
  
2134
  
2135
  
2136
  
2137
  
2138
  
2139
  
2140
  
2141
  
2142
  
2143
  
2144
  
2145
  
2146
  
2147
  
2148
  
2149
  
2150
  
2151
  
2152
  
2153
  
2154
  
2155
  
2156
  
2157
  
2158
  
2159
  
2160
  
2161
  
2162
  
2163
  
2164
  
2165
  
2166
  
2167
  
2168
  
2169
  
2170
  
2171
  
2172
  
2173
  
2174
  
2175
  
2176
  
2177
  
2178
  
2179
  
2180
  
2181
  
2182
  
2183
  
2184
  
2185
  
2186
  
2187
  
2188
  
2189
  
2190
  
2191
  
2192
  
2193
  
2194
  
2195
  
2196
  
2197
  
2198
  
2199
  
2200
  
2201
  
2202
  
2203
  
2204
  
2205
  
2206
  
2207
  
2208
  
2209
  
2210
  
2211
  
2212
  
2213
  
2214
  
2215
  
2216
  
2217
  
2218
  
2219
  
2220
  
2221
  
2222
  
2223
  
2224
  
2225
  
2226
  
2227
  
2228
  
2229
  
2230
  
2231
  
2232
  
2233
  
2234
  
2235
  
2236
  
2237
  
2238
  
2239
  
2240
  
2241
  
2242
  
2243
  
2244
  
2245
  
2246
  
2247
  
2248
  
2249
  
2250
  
2251
  
2252
  
2253
  
2254
  
2255
  
2256
  
2257
  
2258
  
2259
  
2260
  
2261
  
2262
  
2263
  
2264
  
2265
  
2266
  
2267
  
2268
  
2269
  
2270
  
2271
  
2272
  
2273
  
2274
  
2275
  
2276
  
2277
  
2278
  
2279
  
2280
  
2281
  
2282
  
2283
  
2284
  
2285
  
2286
  
2287
  
2288
  
2289
  
2290
  
2291
  
2292
  
2293
  
2294
  
2295
  
2296
  
2297
  
2298
  
2299
  
2300
  
2301
  
2302
  
2303
  
2304
  
2305
  
2306
  
2307
  
2308
  
2309
  
2310
  
2311
  
2312
  
2313
  
2314
  
2315
  
2316
  
2317
  
2318
  
2319
  
2320
  
2321
  
2322
  
2323
  
2324
  
2325
  
2326
  
2327
  
2328
  
2329
  
2330
  
2331
  
2332
  
2333
  
2334
  
2335
  
2336
  
2337
  
2338
  
2339
  
2340
  
2341
  
2342
  
2343
  
2344
  
2345
  
2346
  
2347
  
2348
  
2349
  
2350
  
2351
  
2352
  
2353
  
2354
  
2355
  
2356
  
2357
  
2358
  
2359
  
2360
  
2361
  
2362
  
2363
  
2364
  
2365
  
2366
  
2367
  
2368
  
2369
  
2370
  
2371
  
2372
  
2373
  
2374
  
2375
  
2376
  
2377
  
2378
  
2379
  
2380
  
2381
  
2382
  
2383
  
2384
  
2385
  
2386
  
2387
  
2388
  
2389
  
2390
  
2391
  
2392
  
2393
  
2394
  
2395
  
2396
  
2397
  
2398
  
2399
  
2400
  
2401
  
2402
  
2403
  
2404
  
2405
  
2406
  
2407
  
2408
  
2409
  
2410
  
2411
  
2412
  
2413
  
2414
  
2415
  
2416
  
2417
  
2418
  
2419
  
2420
  
2421
  
2422
  
2423
  
2424
  
2425
  
2426
  
2427
  
2428
  
2429
  
2430
  
2431
  
2432
  
2433
  
2434
  
2435
  
2436
  
2437
  
2438
  
2439
  
2440
  
2441
  
2442
  
2443
  
2444
  
2445
  
2446
  
2447
  
2448
  
2449
  
2450
  
2451
  
2452
  
2453
  
2454
  
2455
  
2456
  
2457
  
2458
  
2459
  
2460
  
2461
  
2462
  
2463
  
2464
  
2465
  
2466
  
2467
  
2468
  
2469
  
2470
  
2471
  
2472
  
2473
  
2474
  
2475
  
2476
  
2477
  
2478
  
2479
  
2480
  
2481
  
2482
  
2483
  
2484
  
2485
  
2486
  
2487
  
2488
  
2489
  
2490
  
2491
  
2492
  
2493
  
2494
  
2495
  
2496
  
2497
  
2498
  
2499
  
2500
  
2501
  
2502
  
2503
  
2504
  
2505
  
2506
  
2507
  
2508
  
2509
  
2510
  
2511
  
2512
  
2513
  
2514
  
2515
  
2516
  
2517
  
2518
  
2519
  
2520
  
2521
  
2522
  
2523
  
2524
  
2525
  
2526
  
2527
  
2528
  
2529
  
2530
  
2531
  
2532
  
2533
  
2534
  
2535
  
2536
  
2537
  
2538
  
2539
  
2540
  
2541
  
2542
  
2543
  
2544
  
2545
  
2546
  
2547
  
2548
  
2549
  
2550
  
2551
  
2552
  
2553
  
2554
  
2555
  
2556
  
2557
  
2558
  
2559
  
2560
  
2561
  
2562
  
2563
  
2564
  
2565
  
2566
  
2567
  
2568
  
2569
  
2570
  
2571
  
2572
  
2573
  
2574
  
2575
  
2576
  
2577
  
2578
  
2579
  
2580
  
2581
  
2582
  
2583
  
2584
  
2585
  
2586
  
2587
  
2588
  
2589
  
2590
  
2591
  
2592
  
2593
  
2594
  
2595
  
2596
  
2597
  
2598
  
2599
  
2600
  
2601
  
2602
  
2603
  
2604
  
2605
  
2606
  
2607
  
2608
  
2609
  
2610
  
2611
  
2612
  
2613
  
2614
  
2615
  
2616
  
2617
  
2618
  
2619
  
2620
  
2621
  
2622
  
2623
  
2624
  
2625
  
2626
  
2627
  
2628
  
2629
  
2630
  
2631
  
2632
  
2633
  
2634
  
2635
  
2636
  
2637
  
2638
  
2639
  
2640
  
2641
  
2642
  
2643
  
2644
  
2645
  
2646
  
2647
  
2648
  
2649
  
2650
  
2651
  
2652
  
2653
  
2654
  
2655
  
2656
  
2657
  
2658
  
2659
  
2660
  
2661
  
2662
  
2663
  
2664
  
2665
  
2666
  
2667
  
2668
  
2669
  
2670
  
2671
  
2672
  
2673
  
2674
  
2675
  
2676
  
2677
  
2678
  
2679
  
2680
  
2681
  
2682
  
2683
  
2684
  
2685
  
2686
  
2687
  
2688
  
2689
  
2690
  
2691
  
2692
  
2693
  
2694
  
2695
  
2696
  
2697
  
2698
  
2699
  
2700
  
2701
  
2702
  
2703
  
2704
  
2705
  
2706
  
2707
  
2708
  
2709
  
2710
  
2711
  
2712
  
2713
  
2714
  
2715
  
2716
  
2717
  
2718
  
2719
  
2720
  
2721
  
2722
  
2723
  
2724
  
2725
  
2726
  
2727
  
2728
  
2729
  
2730
  
2731
  
2732
  
2733
  
2734
  
2735
  
2736
  
2737
  
2738
  
2739
  
2740
  
2741
  
2742
  
2743
  
2744
  
2745
  
2746
  
2747
  
2748
  
2749
  
2750
  
2751
  
2752
  
2753
  
2754
  
2755
  
2756
  
2757
  
2758
  
2759
  
2760
  
2761
  
2762
  
2763
  
2764
  
2765
  
2766
  
2767
  
2768
  
2769
  
2770
  
2771
  
2772
  
2773
  
2774
  
2775
  
2776
  
2777
  
2778
  
2779
  
2780
  
2781
  
2782
  
2783
  
2784
  
2785
  
2786
  
2787
  
2788
  
2789
  
2790
  
2791
  
2792
  
2793
  
2794
  
2795
  
2796
  
2797
  
2798
  
2799
  
2800
  
2801
  
2802
  
2803
  
2804
  
2805
  
2806
  
2807
  
2808
  
2809
  
2810
  
2811
  
2812
  
2813
  
2814
  
2815
  
2816
  
2817
  
2818
  
2819
  
2820
  
2821
  
2822
  
2823
  
2824
  
2825
  
2826
  
2827
  
2828
  
2829
  
2830
  
2831
  
2832
  
2833
  
2834
  
2835
  
2836
  
2837
  
2838
  
2839
  
2840
  
2841
  
2842
  
2843
  
2844
  
2845
  
2846
  
2847
  
2848
  
2849
  
2850
  
2851
  
2852
  
2853
  
2854
  
2855
  
2856
  
2857
  
2858
  
2859
  
2860
  
2861
  
2862
  
2863
  
2864
  
2865
  
2866
  
2867
  
2868
  
2869
  
2870
  
2871
  
2872
  
2873
  
2874
  
2875
  
2876
  
2877
  
2878
  
2879
  
2880
  
2881
  
2882
  
2883
  
2884
  
2885
  
2886
  
2887
  
2888
  
2889
  
2890
  
2891
  
2892
  
2893
  
2894
  
2895
  
2896
  
2897
  
2898
  
2899
  
2900
  
2901
  
2902
  
2903
  
2904
  
2905
  
2906
  
2907
  
2908
  
2909
  
2910
  
2911
  
2912
  
2913
  
2914
  
2915
  
2916
  
2917
  
2918
  
2919
  
2920
  
2921
  
2922
  
2923
  
2924
  
2925
  
2926
  
2927
  
2928
  
2929
  
2930
  
2931
  
2932
  
2933
  
2934
  
2935
  
2936
  
2937
  
2938
  
2939
  
2940
  
2941
  
2942
  
2943
  
2944
  
2945
  
2946
  
2947
  
2948
  
2949
  
2950
  
2951
  
2952
  
2953
  
2954
  
2955
  
2956
  
2957
  
2958
  
2959
  
2960
  
2961
  
2962
  
2963
  
2964
  
2965
  
2966
  
2967
  
2968
  
2969
  
2970
  
2971
  
2972
  
2973
  
2974
  
2975
  
2976
  
2977
  
2978
  
2979
  
2980
  
2981
  
2982
  
2983
  
2984
  
2985
  
2986
  
2987
  
2988
  
2989
  
2990
  
2991
  
2992
  
2993
  
2994
  
2995
  
2996
  
2997
  
2998
  
2999
  
3000
  
3001
  
3002
  
3003
  
3004
  
3005
  
3006
  
3007
  
3008
  
3009
  
3010
  
3011
  
3012
  
3013
  
3014
  
3015
  
3016
  
3017
  
3018
  
3019
  
3020
  
3021
  
3022
  
3023
  
3024
  
3025
  
3026
  
3027
  
3028
  
3029
  
3030
  
3031
  
3032
  
3033
  
3034
  
3035
  
3036
  
3037
  
3038
  
3039
  
3040
  
3041
  
3042
  
3043
  
3044
  
3045
  
3046
  
3047
  
3048
  
3049
  
3050
  
3051
  
3052
  
3053
  
3054
  
3055
  
3056
  
3057
  
3058
  
3059
  
3060
  
3061
  
3062
  
3063
  
3064
  
3065
  
3066
  
3067
  
3068
  
3069
  
3070
  
3071
  
3072
  
3073
  
3074
  
3075
  
3076
  
3077
  
3078
  
3079
  
3080
  
3081
  
3082
  
3083
  
3084
  
3085
  
3086
  
3087
  
3088
  
3089
  
3090
  
3091
  
3092
  
3093
  
3094
  
3095
  
3096
  
3097
  
3098
  
3099
  
3100
  
3101
  
3102
  
3103
  
3104
  
3105
  
3106
  
3107
  
3108
  
3109
  
3110
  
3111
  
3112
  
3113
  
3114
  
3115
  
3116
  
3117
  
3118
  
3119
  
3120
  
3121
  
3122
  
3123
  
3124
  
3125
  
3126
  
3127
  
3128
  
3129
  
3130
  
3131
  
3132
  
3133
  
3134
  
3135
  
3136
  
3137
  
3138
  
3139
  
3140
  
3141
  
3142
  
3143
  
3144
  
3145
  
3146
  
3147
  
3148
  
3149
  
3150
  
3151
  
3152
  
3153
  
3154
  
3155
  
3156
  
3157
  
3158
  
3159
  
3160
  
3161
  
3162
  
3163
  
3164
  
3165
  
3166
  
3167
  
3168
  
3169
  
3170
  
3171
  
3172
  
3173
  
3174
  
3175
  
3176
  
3177
  
3178
  
3179
  
3180
  
3181
  
3182
  
3183
  
3184
  
3185
  
3186
  
3187
  
3188
  
3189
  
3190
  
3191
  
3192
  
3193
  
3194
  
3195
  
3196
  
3197
  
3198
  
3199
  
3200
  
3201
  
3202
  
3203
  
3204
  
3205
  
3206
  
3207
  
3208
  
3209
  
3210
  
3211
  
3212
  
3213
  
3214
  
3215
  
3216
  
3217
  
3218
  
3219
  
3220
  
3221
  
3222
  
3223
  
3224
  
3225
  
3226
  
3227
  
3228
  
3229
  
3230
  
3231
  
3232
  
3233
  
3234
  
3235
  
3236
  
3237
  
3238
  
3239
  
3240
  
3241
  
3242
  
3243
  
3244
  
3245
  
3246
  
3247
  
3248
  
3249
  
3250
  
3251
  
3252
  
3253
  
3254
  
3255
  
3256
  
3257
  
3258
  
3259
  
3260
  
3261
  
3262
  
3263
  
3264
  
3265
  
3266
  
3267
  
3268
  
3269
  
3270
  
3271
  
3272
  
3273
  
3274
  
3275
  
3276
  
3277
  
3278
  
3279
  
3280
  
3281
  
3282
  
3283
  
3284
  
3285
  
3286
  
3287
  
3288
  
3289
  
3290
  
3291
  
3292
  
3293
  
3294
  
3295
  
3296
  
3297
  
3298
  
3299
  
3300
  
3301
  
3302
  
3303
  
3304
  
3305
  
3306
  
3307
  
3308
  
3309
  
3310
  
3311
  
3312
  
3313
  
3314
  
3315
  
3316
  
3317
  
3318
  
3319
  
3320
  
3321
  
3322
  
3323
  
3324
  
3325
  
3326
  
3327
  
3328
  
3329
  
3330
  
3331
  
3332
  
3333
  
3334
  
3335
  
3336
  
3337
  
3338
  
3339
  
3340
  
3341
  
3342
  
3343
  
3344
  
3345
  
3346
  
3347
  
3348
  
3349
  
3350
  
3351
  
3352
  
3353
  
3354
  
3355
  
3356
  
3357
  
3358
  
3359
  
3360
  
3361
  
3362
  
3363
  
3364
  
3365
  
3366
  
3367
  
3368
  
3369
  
3370
  
3371
  
3372
  
3373
  
3374
  
3375
  
3376
  
3377
  
3378
  
3379
  
3380
  
3381
  
3382
  
3383
  
3384
  
3385
  
3386
  
3387
  
3388
  
3389
  
3390
  
3391
  
3392
  
3393
  
3394
  
3395
  
3396
  
3397
  
3398
  
3399
  
3400
  
3401
  
3402
  
3403
  
3404
  
3405
  
3406
  
3407
  
3408
  
3409
  
3410
  
3411
  
3412
  
3413
  
3414
  
3415
  
3416
  
3417
  
3418
  
3419
  
3420
  
3421
  
3422
  
3423
  
3424
  
3425
  
3426
  
3427
  
3428
  
3429
  
3430
  
3431
  
3432
  
3433
  
3434
  
3435
  
3436
  
3437
  
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# also includes Central America and the Caribbean 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22): 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# United States 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by 
# Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904), 
# Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY). 
# His pamphlet "A System of National Time for Railroads" (1870) 
# was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines 
# in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC, 
# but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-03-20): 
# Dowd's proposal left many details unresolved, such as where to draw 
# lines between time zones.  The key individual who made time zones 
# work in the US was William Frederick Allen - railway engineer, 
# managing editor of the Travelers' Guide, and secretary of the 
# General Time Convention, a railway standardization group.  Allen 
# spent months in dialogs with scientific and railway leaders, 
# developed a workable plan to institute time zones, and presented it 
# to the General Time Convention on 1883-04-11, saying that his plan 
# meant "local time would be practically abolished" - a plus for 
# railway scheduling.  By the next convention on 1883-10-11 nearly all 
# railroads had agreed and it took effect on 1883-11-18.  That Sunday 
# was called the "day of two noons", as some locations observed noon 
# twice.  Allen witnessed the transition in New York City, writing: 
# 
#   I heard the bells of St. Paul's strike on the old time.  Four 
#   minutes later, obedient to the electrical signal from the Naval 
#   Observatory ... the time-ball made its rapid descent, the chimes 
#   of old Trinity rang twelve measured strokes, and local time was 
#   abandoned, probably forever. 
# 
# Most of the US soon followed suit.  See: 
# Bartky IR. The adoption of standard time. Technol Cult 1989 Jan;30(1):25-56. 
# http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105430 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16): 
# That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time. 
# See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# A good source for time zone historical data in the US is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991). 
# Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it. 
# It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): 
# Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin 
# in his whimsical essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost 
# of Light" published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26). 
# Not everyone is happy with the results: 
# 
#       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some 
#       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving 
#       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind. 
#       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something 
#       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer 
#       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to 
#       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving 
#       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager 
#       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make 
#       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves. 
# 
#        -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks, 
#          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday 
# 
# For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see 
# Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint 
# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927). 
# http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html 
# 
# Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919. 
# However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which 
# was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently 
# time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time". 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974. 
# See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26 
# and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of 
# Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25): 
# Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama. 
# In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time." 
# An AltaVista search turned up: 
# https://web.archive.org/web/20000926032210/http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html 
# "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace 
# Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful." 
# (August 1945) by way of confirmation. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-09-23): 
# This was the V-J Day issue of the Clamdigger, a Rowayton, CT newsletter. 
 
# From Joseph Gallant citing 
# George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987): 
# At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set 
# to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people 
# never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account, 
# CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender, 
# but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word 
# of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in 
# London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From 
# Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times: 
# 
# ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender. 
# Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a 
# wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news. 
# Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out 
# typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental 
# importance." 
# 
# On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open 
# microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell, 
# before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over. 
# The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms." 
# 
# He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22): 
# Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations 
# that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of 
# U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed 
# in the latest release, other countries won't be affected. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
 
# From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19 
# We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with 
# obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory. 
# We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of 
# this time zone package. 
# We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if 
# a particular place changes whether it observes DST. 
# We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to 
# increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to 
# avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST 
Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST 
Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST 
Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT 
Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT 
Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT 
Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON 
# USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON 
# USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO 
# USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST) 
# USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT) 
# USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W 
# USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC 
# USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21): 
# The above dates are for 1988. 
# Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's 
# no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the 
# Aleutians. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and 
# Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names 
# up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 
# took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261: 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard eastern time 
#       United States standard mountain time 
#       United States standard central time 
#       United States standard Pacific time 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard Alaska time 
#       (none) 
# Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for 
# public law 98-181): 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Yukon standard time 
#       Alaska-Hawaii standard time 
#       Bering standard time 
# And after 1983-11-30: 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Alaska standard time 
#       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time 
#       Samoa standard time 
# The law doesn't give abbreviations. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-19): 
# Here are URLs for the 1918 and 1966 legislation: 
# http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=40&page=451 
# http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=80&page=108 
# Although the 1918 names were officially "United States Standard 
# Eastern Time" and similarly for "Central", "Mountain", "Pacific", 
# and "Alaska", in practice "Standard" was placed just before "Time", 
# as codified in 1966.  In practice, Alaska time was abbreviated "AST" 
# before 1968.  Summarizing the 1967 name changes: 
#       1918 names                      1967 names 
#  -08  Standard Pacific Time (PST)     Pacific standard time (PST) 
#  -09  (unofficial) Yukon (YST)        Yukon standard time (YST) 
#  -10  Standard Alaska Time (AST)      Alaska-Hawaii standard time (AHST) 
#  -11  (unofficial) Nome (NST)         Bering standard time (BST) 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow: 
# Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced ... "Chamorro Standard Time" 
# for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.  See the file "australasia". 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-04-17): 
# HST and HDT are standardized abbreviations for Hawaii-Aleutian 
# standard and daylight times.  See section 9.47 (p 234) of the 
# U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008) 
# https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf 
 
# From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09 
# The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08. 
# 
# H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS. 
#   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 
#   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended-- 
#     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second 
#     Sunday of March"; and 
#     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first 
#     Sunday of November'. 
#   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the 
#   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later. 
#   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective 
#   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress 
#   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United 
#   States. 
#   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the 
#   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the 
#   Department study is complete. 
 
# US eastern time, represented by New York 
 
# Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida, 
# Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky 
# (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
# New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, 
# Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, 
# Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia 
 
# From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02): 
# Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington 
# Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH].... 
# One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time 
# and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their 
# reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26): 
# According to today's Huntsville Times 
# http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1 
# a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City 
# in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County, 
# set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba" 
# Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central 
# time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work 
# in Columbus." 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22): 
# Four cities are involved.  The two not mentioned above are Smiths Station 
# and Valley.  Barbara Brooks, Valley's assistant treasurer, heard it started 
# because West Point Pepperell textile mills were in Alabama while the 
# corporate office was in Georgia, and residents voted to keep Eastern 
# time even after the mills closed.  See: Kazek K. Did you know which 
# Alabama towns are in a different time zone?  al.com 2017-02-06. 
# http://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2017/02/do_you_know_which_alabama_town.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06): 
# Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 44, 4 (1884-02-08), 208 
# says that New York City Hall time was 3 minutes 58.4 seconds fast of 
# Eastern time (i.e., -4:56:01.6) just before the 1883 switch.  Round to the 
# nearest second. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1920 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# US central time, represented by Chicago 
 
# Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, 
# Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and 
# Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana 
# (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer, 
# Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western 
# Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern 
# Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota, 
# western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-01-07): 
# In 1869 the Chicago Astronomical Society contracted with the city to keep 
# time.  Though delayed by the Great Fire, by 1880 a wire ran from the 
# Dearborn Observatory (on the University of Chicago campus) to City Hall, 
# which then sent signals to police and fire stations.  However, railroads got 
# their time signals from the Allegheny Observatory, the Madison Observatory, 
# the Ann Arbor Observatory, etc., so their clocks did not agree with each 
# other or with the city's official time.  The confusion took some years to 
# clear up.  See: 
# Moser M. How Chicago gave America its time zones. Chicago. 2018-01-04. 
# http://www.chicagomag.com/city-life/January-2018/How-Chicago-Gave-America-Its-Time-Zones/ 
 
# From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin: 
# https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/175.pdf 
# is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local 
# "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations 
# are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited 
# hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year.... 
# 
# From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12): 
# Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI 
# Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent.... 
# https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2007/related/acts/3 
 
# From an email administrator of the City of Fort Pierre, SD (2015-12-21): 
# Fort Pierre is technically located in the Mountain time zone as is 
# the rest of Stanley County.  Most of Stanley County and Fort Pierre 
# uses the Central time zone due to doing most of their business in 
# Pierre so it simplifies schedules.  I have lived in Stanley County 
# all my life and it has been that way since I can remember.  (43 years!) 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-12-25): 
# Assume this practice predates 1970, so Fort Pierre can use America/Chicago. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15  2:00 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25. 
Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on 
# 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time. 
# See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>. 
# Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and 
# Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota; 
# but in practice these other counties were already observing central time. 
# See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>. 
Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT      1883 Nov 18 12:14:21 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# From Josh Findley (2011-01-21): 
# ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the 
# mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from 
# daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010): 
# https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm 
# http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html 
 
# From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24): 
# ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although 
# it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next 
# largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall 
# at 47° 15' 51" N, 101° 46' 40" W, which yields an offset of 6h47'07". 
 
Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# US mountain time, represented by Denver 
# 
# Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western 
# Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City), 
# New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota, 
# western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County, 
# and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1920 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1946 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles 
# 
# California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater, 
# Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, Idaho county 
# north of the Salmon River, and the towns of Burgdorf and Warren), 
# Nevada (except West Wendover), Oregon (except the northern ¾ of 
# Malheur county), and Washington 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-20): 
# In early February 1948, in response to California's electricity shortage, 
# PG&E changed power frequency from 60 to 59.5 Hz during daylight hours, 
# causing electric clocks to lose six minutes per day.  (This did not change 
# legal time, and is not part of the data here.)  See: 
# Ross SA. An energy crisis from the past: Northern California in 1948. 
# Working Paper No. 8, Institute of Governmental Studies, UC Berkeley, 
# 1973-11.  https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8x22k30c 
# 
# In another measure to save electricity, DST was instituted from 1948-03-14 
# at 02:01 to 1949-01-16 at 02:00, with the governor having the option to move 
# the fallback transition earlier.  See pages 3-4 of: 
# http://clerk.assembly.ca.gov/sites/clerk.assembly.ca.gov/files/archive/Statutes/1948/48Vol1_Chapters.pdf 
# 
# In response: 
# 
#   Governor Warren received a torrent of objecting mail, and it is not too much 
#   to speculate that the objections to Daylight Saving Time were one important 
#   factor in the defeat of the Dewey-Warren Presidential ticket in California. 
#     -- Ross, p 25 
# 
# On December 8 the governor exercised the option, setting the date to January 1 
# (LA Times 1948-12-09).  The transition time was 02:00 (LA Times 1949-01-01). 
# 
# Despite the controversy, in 1949 California voters approved Proposition 12, 
# which established DST from April's last Sunday at 01:00 until September's 
# last Sunday at 02:00. This was amended by 1962's Proposition 6, which changed 
# the fall-back date to October's last Sunday. See: 
# https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1501&context=ca_ballot_props 
# https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1636&context=ca_ballot_props 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:01    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1946 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT 
 
# Alaska 
# AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -09 per USNO. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-06-15): 
# Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, 
# and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia. 
# On Friday, 1867-10-18 (Gregorian), at precisely 15:30 local time, the 
# Russian forts and fleet at Sitka fired salutes to mark the ceremony of 
# formal transfer.  See the Sacramento Daily Union (1867-11-14), p 3, col 2. 
# https://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SDU18671114.2.12.1 
# Sitka workers did not change their calendars until Sunday, 1867-10-20, 
# and so celebrated two Sundays that week.  See: Ahllund T (tr Hallamaa P). 
# From the memoirs of a Finnish workman. Alaska History. 2006 Fall;21(2):1-25. 
# http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Ahllund-2006-Memoirs-of-a-Finnish-Workman.pdf 
# Include only the time zone part of this transition, ignoring the switch 
# from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent the Julian calendar. 
# 
# As far as we know, of the locations mentioned below only Sitka was 
# permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar. 
# (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement was 
# destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  Many of Alaska's inhabitants 
# were unaware of the US acquisition of Alaska, much less of any calendar or 
# time change.  However, the Russian-influenced part of Alaska did observe 
# Russian time, and it is more accurate to model this than to ignore it. 
# The database format requires an exact transition time; use the Russian 
# salute as a somewhat-arbitrary time for the formal transfer of control for 
# all of Alaska.  Sitka's UTC offset is -9:01:13; adjust its 15:30 to the 
# local times of other Alaskan locations so that they change simultaneously. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18): 
# One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and 
# daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall: 
# "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century." 
# See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01. 
# http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html 
# 
# Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source: 
# Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response. 
# Alaska History 2001;16(1-2). 
# http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/ 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01): 
# Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article: 
# 
# On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27, 
# 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time. 
# Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on 
# Pacific Time. 
# 
# ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the 
# Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in 
# northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26. 
# 
# On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted 
# unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time. 
# 
# According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not 
# bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions. 
# 
# (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo 
# Nation.) 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09): 
# I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian 
# Community office (using contact information available at 
# http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla 
# It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States; 
# the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether 
# that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their 
# own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I 
# did not inquire about practices in the past. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17): 
# For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's 
# abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-11-09): 
# It seems Metlakatla did go off PST on Sunday, November 1, changing 
# their time to AKST and are going to follow Alaska's DST, switching 
# between AKST and AKDT from now on.... 
# https://www.krbd.org/2015/10/30/annette-island-times-they-are-a-changing/ 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:33:32 
                         -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1942 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1946 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1969 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26  2:00 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:30 
                         -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1942 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1946 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1969 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:44:55 
                         -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1942 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1946 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1969 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     2015 Nov  1  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:12:18 
                         -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1942 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1969 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 14:31:37 
                         -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -10:00  -       AST     1942 
                        -10:00  US      A%sT    1967 Apr 
                        -10:00  -       AHST    1969 
                        -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Nome        12:58:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 13:29:35 
                        -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Adak        12:13:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 12:44:35 
                        -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00 
                        -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30 
                        -10:00  US      H%sT 
# The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff. 
# 
# Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak) 
# switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00, 
# and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later. 
# 
# From David Flater (2004-11-09): 
# In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska 
# Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which 
# suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967 
# possibly until 1983: 
# 
#  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967: 
#  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important 
#  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was 
#  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it 
#  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard 
#  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday, 
#  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with 
#  three votes for and one against." 
 
# Hawaii 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09): 
# "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225 
# of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09, 
# the article is available at 
# https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf 
# and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January 
# 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight 
# saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the 
# last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the 
# act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect 
# from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for 
# when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes 
# effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of 
# day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes 
# cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933) 
# and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)." 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19): 
# The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the 
# Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of 
# 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act 
# 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each 
# year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one 
# hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th 
# day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of 
# Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is 
# hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon 
# which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to 
# that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90. 
# Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor 
# of the Territory of Hawaii." 
# 
# Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday. 
# We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00 
                        -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30  2:00 
                        -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00 
                        -10:30  -       HST     1942 Feb  9  2:00 
                        -10:30  1:00    HDT     1945 Sep 30  2:00 
                        -10:30  -       HST     1947 Jun  8  2:00 
                        -10:00  -       HST 
 
# Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970. 
 
# Arizona mostly uses MST. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20): 
# 
# The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the 
# Daylight Saving Time web page 
# <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23) 
# maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. 
# Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard 
# time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military 
# personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to 
# observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix 
# Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was 
# the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of 
# Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as 
# mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona 
# Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST. 
# 
# Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17. 
# Go with the Arizona State Library instead. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1  0:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1  0:01 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1  0:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc., 
# notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the 
# Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its 
# large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other 
# tribal nations don't use DST.) 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-26): 
# See America/Denver for a zone appropriate for the Navajo Nation. 
 
# Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine, 
# Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark, 
# Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome, 
# Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power, 
# Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern 
# quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County) 
# switched four weeks late in 1974. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13  2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1974 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3  2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# Indiana 
# 
# For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see: 
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17): 
# Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis, 
# with the following exceptions: 
# 
# - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer, 
#   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago. 
# 
# - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York. 
# 
# - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like 
#   America/Kentucky/Louisville. 
# 
# - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke, 
#   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below. 
# 
# Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history, 
# and wrote "Even newspaper reports present contradictory information." 
# Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people! 
# Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970. 
# 
# Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript 
# that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level. 
# So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26): 
# https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana 
# says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke, 
# Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the 
# Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of 
# this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the 
# changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time." 
# Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their 
# clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent 
# was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10): 
# The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is 
# going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007.... 
# http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT        1883 Nov 18 12:15:22 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29  2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974, 
# as well as from 1976 through 2005. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1951 
                        -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1976 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana, 
# switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back 
# in November 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# 
# Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977, 
# then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1955 
                        -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991, 
# then switched back in 2006. 
# From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28): 
# An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post 
# notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of 
# 1991-10-27. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1947 
                        -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# 
# Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in 
# April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-03-20): 
# The Louisville & Nashville Railroad's 1883-11-18 change occurred at 
# 10:00 old local time; train were supposed to come to a standstill 
# for precisely 18 minutes.  See Bartky Fig. 1 (page 50).  It is not 
# clear how this matched civil time in Louisville, so for now continue 
# to assume Louisville switched at noon new local time, like New York. 
# 
# Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974. 
# This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1921 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1968 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Wayne County, Kentucky 
# 
# From Lake Cumberland LIFE 
# http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml 
# (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7: 
# Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from 
# the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made 
# the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not 
# taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in 
# August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also. 
# The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S. 
# location in the Central time zone. 
# 
# From Rich Wales (2000-08-29): 
# After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion, 
# Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern 
# (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley, 
# The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400). 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16): 
# The final rule was published in the 
# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158. 
# https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-08-17/html/00-20854.htm 
# 
Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1968 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-08-30): 
# Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985. 
# Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central; 
#       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10 
# Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10 
# Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10 
# West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10 
# Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17): 
# We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS, 
# so omit that change for now. 
# See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change. 
# See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change. 
# West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on 
# 1999-10-31.  See the 
# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707. 
# https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-10-21/html/99-27240.htm 
# However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated 
# on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official; 
# hence a separate tz entry is not needed. 
 
# Michigan 
# 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18, 
# but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01) 
# that Detroit kept 
# 
#       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should 
#       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the 
#       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision 
#       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to 
#       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the 
#       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted 
#       by city vote. 
# 
# This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): 
# Garland (1927) writes "Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks 
# one hour in 1914."  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more 
# info, so omit this for now. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-07-26): 
# Although Shanks says Detroit observed DST in 1967 from 06-14 00:01 
# until 10-29 00:01, I now see multiple reports that this is incorrect. 
# For example, according to a 50-year anniversary report about the 1967 
# Detroit riots and a major-league doubleheader on 1967-07-23, "By the time 
# the last fly ball of the doubleheader settled into the glove of leftfielder 
# Lenny Green, it was after 7 p.m.  Detroit did not observe daylight saving 
# time, so light was already starting to fail.  Twilight was made even deeper 
# by billowing columns of smoke that ascended in an unbroken wall north of the 
# ballpark."  See: Dow B. Detroit '67: As violence unfolded, Tigers played two 
# at home vs. Yankees. Detroit Free Press 2017-07-23. 
# https://www.freep.com/story/sports/mlb/tigers/2017/07/23/detroit-tigers-1967-riot-new-york-yankees/499951001/ 
# 
# Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1975 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan, 
# switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29  2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# Navassa 
# administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service 
# claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act 
# also claimed by Haiti 
# occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co 
# US lighthouse 1917/1996-09 
# currently uninhabited 
# see Mark Fineman, "An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord", 
# _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites 
# Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994). 
 
################################################################################ 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# Other sources occasionally used include: 
# 
#       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
#       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), 
#       which I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
#       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition 
#       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf> 
#       [PDF] (1914-03) 
# 
#       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 
#       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. 
# 
# See the 'europe' file for Greenland. 
 
# Canada 
 
# From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14): 
# I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada 
# for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard.... 
# 
#       UTC     Standard time   Daylight saving time 
#       offset  French  English French  English 
#       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT 
#       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT 
#       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       - 
#       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT 
#       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT 
#       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT 
#       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT 
#       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT 
#       -9      HNY     YST     -       - 
# 
#       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time 
#       HA: Heure Avancée       DT: Daylight saving Time 
# 
#       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic 
#       C: du Centre            Central 
#       E: de l'Est             Eastern 
#       M:                      Mountain 
#       N:                      Newfoundland 
#       P: du Pacifique         Pacific 
#       R: des Rocheuses 
#       T: de Terre-Neuve 
#       Y: du Yukon             Yukon 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22): 
# Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software. 
 
# Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks 
# & Pottenger. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31, 
# 2007-03-01): 
# The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will 
# adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the 
# U.S. and the rest of Canada.... 
# https://archive.news.gov.bc.ca/releases/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm 
# ... 
# Nova Scotia 
# Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007.... 
# https://www.novascotia.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf 
# 
# [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to 
# be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01. 
# https://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf 
# ... 
# Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00. 
# As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00. 
# https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php 
# ... 
# [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules. 
# http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM 
# http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm 
# http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF 
# ... 
# P.E.I. will follow US rules.... 
# http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf 
# ... 
# Province of Newfoundland and Labrador.... 
# http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm 
# ... 
# Yukon 
# https://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf 
# ... 
# N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site 
# does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the 
# following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the 
# "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using 
# JavaScript. 
# http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive 
# ... 
# Nunavut 
# An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007.... 
# http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-18): 
# H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map 
# "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998) 
# http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/alacarte.asp 
# contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard 
# time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998. 
# 
# National Research Council Canada maintains info about time zones and DST. 
# https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/time_zones.html 
# https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/faq/index.html#Q5 
# Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27): 
# For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the 
# new US DST rules, 
 
# From Chris Walton (2011-12-01) 
# In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles 
# http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260 
# she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review. 
# The quote includes these two statements: 
# 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...' 
# '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,' 
# These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time 
# that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was 
# also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star. 
 
# In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed 
# Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day 
# than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
 
 
# Newfoundland and Labrador 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-14): 
# Legally Labrador should observe Newfoundland time; see: 
# McLeod J. Labrador time - legal or not? St. John's Telegram, 2017-10-07 
# http://www.thetelegram.com/news/local/labrador-time--legal-or-not-154860/ 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that the only part of Labrador 
# that follows the rules is the southeast corner, including Port Hope 
# Simpson and Mary's Harbour, but excluding, say, Black Tickle. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S 
# Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S 
# For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1  23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S 
# For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks & 
# Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2  0:00    0       S 
# Whitman gives the following transitions: 
# 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07 
# but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules. 
# For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives 
# Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches 
# at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987. 
 
# From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12): 
# We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the 
# changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed. 
# The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings 
# Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time 
# now occurs at 2:00AM. 
# ... 
# http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm 
# ... 
# MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery 
# Office of the Chief Information Officer 
# Executive Council 
# Government of Newfoundland & Labrador 
 
Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    2:00    DD 
Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1  0:01    0       S 
# 
# St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918 
                        -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11 
                        -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov 
                        -3:30   Canada  N%sT 
 
# most of east Labrador 
 
# The name 'Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use 'Goose Bay'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay 
                        -3:30:52 -      NST     1918 
                        -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919 
                        -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   -       NST     1936 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11 
                        -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15  2:00 
                        -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
 
 
# west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I 
 
# From Brian Inglis (2015-07-20): 
# From the historical weather station records available at: 
# https://weatherspark.com/history/28351/1971/Sydney-Nova-Scotia-Canada 
# Sydney shares the same time history as Glace Bay, so was 
# likely to be the same across the island.... 
# Sydney, as the capital and most populous location, or Cape Breton, would 
# have been better names for the zone had we known this in 1996. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-20): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like 
# Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972; 
# the Cape Breton area, represented by Glace Bay, is the largest we know of 
# (Glace Bay was perhaps not the best name choice but no point changing now). 
# Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town 
# in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume 
# this is a typo. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1972 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
 
# New Brunswick 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31): 
# The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf> 
# says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and 
# <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it 
# clear that this was the case since at least 1993. 
# For now, assume it started in 1993. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8  1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8  1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1  1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1  1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21 1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
 
# Quebec 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-03-24): 
# See America/Toronto for most of Quebec, including Montreal. 
# 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63 
# meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as 
# Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST. 
# The Quebec department of justice writes in 
# "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord" 
# http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm 
# that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon 
# observes Atlantic standard time all year round. 
# https://www.assnat.qc.ca/Media/Process.aspx?MediaId=ANQ.Vigie.Bll.DocumentGenerique_8845en 
# says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007. 
# For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to 
# Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Ontario 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like 
# Toronto. 
# Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973. 
# Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974; 
# Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of. 
# Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax. 
 
# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26): 
# [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST 
# effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that 
# Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw 
# have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday, 
# 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable 
# hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after 
# only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but 
# presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters 
# earlier in June). 
# 
# Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21). 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-07-08): 
# For more on Orillia, see: Daubs K. Bold attempt at daylight saving 
# time became a comic failure in Orillia. Toronto Star 2017-07-08. 
# https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2017/07/08/bold-attempt-at-daylight-saving-time-became-a-comic-failure-in-orillia.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17): 
# Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star 
# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST, 
# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT. 
# He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9) 
# http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html 
# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT. 
# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report 
# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and 
# New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes 
# CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in 
# violation of the official Ontario rules. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the 
# 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said: 
# 
#       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round. 
#       This means they spend about half the time on central time and 
#       the other half on eastern time. 
# 
#       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said. 
# 
#       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern 
#       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he 
#       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here." 
# 
# Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang 
# [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice." 
 
# From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton: 
# I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory 
# and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he 
# can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current 
# time keeping since 1952, at least. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River 
# ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from 
# McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan 
# switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time 
# ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour 
# entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move 
# America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file. 
 
# From Mark Brader (2010-03-06): 
# 
# Currently the database has: 
# 
# # Ontario 
# 
# # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like 
# # Toronto. 
# # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973. 
# # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974; 
# # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of. 
# 
# In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom 
# right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard 
# time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that: 
# 
#     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario, 
#     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year. 
# 
# Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon. 
# 
# I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began 
# observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date. 
# 
# By the way, the article continues by noting that: 
# 
#     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back 
#     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17): 
# 
# "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in 
# The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 
# volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17, 
# was available at 
# http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S 
# 
# It includes the text below (starting on page 57): 
# 
#   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would 
# require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by 
# the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities 
# and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav- 
# ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite, 
# for the other provinces only approximate: 
# 
#       Province        Daylight saving time used 
# Prince Edward Island  Not used. 
# Nova Scotia           In Halifax only. 
# New Brunswick         In St. John only. 
# Quebec                In the following places: 
#                       Montreal        Lachine 
#                       Quebec          Mont-Royal 
#                       Lévis           Iberville 
#                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madelèine 
#                       Verdun          Loretteville 
#                       Westmount       Richmond 
#                       Outremont       St. Jérôme 
#                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park 
#                       Arvida          Waterloo 
#                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu 
#                       Melbourne       La Tuque 
#                       St. Théophile   Buckingham 
# Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along 
#                       the southerly part of the province. Not 
#                       used in the northwesterly part. 
# Manitoba              Not used. 
# Saskatchewan          In Regina only. 
# Alberta               Not used. 
# British Columbia      Not used. 
# 
#   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited 
# to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16" 
# was meant. 
Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as 
# Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25 2:00    0       S 
# Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25 
# (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle). 
Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971, 
# namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this 
# is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30 
# Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual. 
Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27): 
# Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and 
# Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in 
# operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw, 
# Saskatchewan, for one year." 
 
# From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator, 
# Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12): 
# There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight 
# savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur 
# before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central 
# Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to 
# include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight 
# savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so 
# already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World 
# War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer 
# months for the remainder of the war years. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919 
                        -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1910 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1942 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970 
                        -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
 
# Manitoba 
 
# From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06): 
# the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to 
# March 27, 1987 ... said ... 
# "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of 
# the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central 
# Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next 
# following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."... 
# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had 
# been assented to (March 22, 1967).... 
# Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying 
# the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of 
# the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central 
# Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s) 
# starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume 
# it was also 02:00s in 1966. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16 
                        -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
 
 
# Saskatchewan 
 
# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26): 
# The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal 
# level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people 
# elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight, 
# the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook." 
# DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned: 
# presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of 
# the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad 
# time was noted. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27): 
# Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the 
# City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year." 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina. 
# Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972. 
# Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton 
# are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law. 
 
# From W. Jones (1992-11-06): 
# The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the 
# provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department. 
# A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and 
# since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother. 
# 
# Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years 
# the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated 
# their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial 
# referendum favoured legislating common time practices. 
# 
# On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of 
# Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern 
# part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in 
# northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to 
# follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and 
# zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would 
# by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST. 
# 
# It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town 
# on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to 
# serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only 
# a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT 
# rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round 
# since sometime in the 1960s. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2006-06-26): 
# The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages 
# long and rather painful to read. 
# http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun  2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun  2:00 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950 
                        -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun  2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
 
 
# Alberta 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep 
                        -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
 
 
# British Columbia 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has 
# been like Vancouver. 
# Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek. 
 
# It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct: 
 
# From Chris Walton (2011-12-01): 
# There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia 
# that do not currently observe daylight saving: 
# a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area) 
# b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District 
# (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John) 
 
# Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time 
# keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the 
# manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009. 
# http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260 
# According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918. 
# i.e. Creston has been stuck on UT-7 for 93 years. 
# Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972. 
 
# Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains 
# unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months 
# ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just 
# as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing 
# the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the 
# subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010. 
# http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56 
 
# Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history: 
# 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7) 
# Exact date unknown 
# 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8) 
# Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess. 
# 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7) 
# Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess. 
# note 1: 
# On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada, 
# Creston did not change its clocks. 
# note 2: 
# During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change, 
# Creston did not oblige. 
# note 3: 
# There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time 
# (UTC-7) forever. 
# The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council. 
# http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html 
 
# During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada. 
# In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying 
# summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before 
# the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this 
# period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough 
# (to anyone) to further complicate the rules. 
 
# The transition dates (and times) are guesses. 
 
# From Matt Johnson (2015-09-21): 
# Fort Nelson, BC, Canada will cancel DST this year.  So while previously they 
# were aligned with America/Vancouver, they're now aligned with 
# America/Dawson_Creek. 
# http://www.northernrockies.ca/EN/meta/news/archives/2015/northern-rockies-time-change.html 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2015-09-23): 
# This requires a new zone for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, 
# America/Fort_Nelson.  The resolution of 2014-12-08 was reached following a 
# 2014-11-15 poll with nearly 75% support.  Effectively, the municipality has 
# been on MST (-0700) like Dawson Creek since it advanced its clocks on 
# 2015-03-08. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23): 
# Shanks says Fort Nelson did not observe DST in 1946, unlike Vancouver. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30  2:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
Zone America/Fort_Nelson        -8:10:47 -      LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1946 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1947 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT    2015 Mar  8  2:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
 
# Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979. 
# Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs: 
#       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68, 
#       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9.... 
#       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1). 
#       [https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-i-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-i-21.html] 
#       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00. 
#       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST. 
#       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00. 
 
# From Brian Inglis (2015-04-14): 
# 
# I tried to trace the history of Yukon time and found the following 
# regulations, giving the reference title and URL if found, regulation name, 
# and relevant quote if available.  Each regulation specifically revokes its 
# predecessor.  The final reference is to the current Interpretation Act 
# authorizing and resulting from these regulatory changes. 
# 
# Only recent regulations were retrievable via Yukon government site search or 
# index, and only some via Canadian legal sources.  Other sources used include 
# articles titled "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" from JRASC via ADS 
# Abstracts, cited by ADO for 1932 ..., and updated versions from 1958 and 
# 1970 quoted below; each article includes current extracts from provincial 
# and territorial ST and DST regulations at the end, summaries and details of 
# standard times and daylight saving time at many locations across Canada, 
# with time zone maps, tables and calculations for Canadian Sunrise, Sunset, 
# and LMST; they also cover many countries and global locations, with a chart 
# and table showing current Universal Time offsets, and may be useful as 
# another source of information for 1970 and earlier. 
# 
# * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; JRASC, Vol. 26, 
#   pp.49-77; February 1932; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) 
#   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932JRASC..26...49S from p.75: 
#   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance 
#   Yukon standard time is the local mean time at the one hundred and 
#   thirty-fifth meridian. 
# 
# * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; Thomson, Malcolm M.; 
#   JRASC, Vol. 52, pp.193-223; October 1958; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System 
#   (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958JRASC..52..193S from pp.220-1: 
#   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance, 1955, Chap. 16. 
# 
#     (1) Subject to this section, standard time shall be reckoned as nine 
#     hours behind Greenwich Time and called Yukon Standard Time. 
# 
#     (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Commissioner may make regulations 
#     varying the manner of reckoning standard time. 
# 
# * Yukon Territory Commissioner's Order 1966-20 Interpretation Ordinance 
#   http://? - no online source found 
# 
# * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Thomson, Malcolm M.; JRASC, 
#   Vol. 64, pp.129-162; June 1970; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) 
#   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970JRASC..64..129T from p.156: Yukon 
#   Territory Commissioner's Order 1967-59 Interpretation Ordinance ... 
# 
#     1. Commissioner's Order 1966-20 dated at Whitehorse in the Yukon 
#     Territory on 27th January, 1966, is hereby revoked. 
# 
#     2. Yukon (East) Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the 
#     Interpretation Ordinance from and after mid-night on the 28th day of May, 
#     1967 shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that 
#     is to say, eight hours behind Greenwich Time in the area of the Yukon 
#     Territory lying east of the 138th degree longitude west. 
# 
#     3. In the remainder of the Territory, lying west of the 138th degree 
#     longitude west, Yukon (West) Standard Time shall be reckoned as nine 
#     hours behind Greenwich Time. 
# 
# * Yukon Standard Time defined as Pacific Standard Time, YCO 1973/214 
#   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yco-1973-214/latest/yco-1973-214.html 
#   C.O. 1973/214 INTERPRETATION ACT ... 
# 
#     1. Effective October 28, 1973 Commissioner's Order 1967/59 is hereby 
#     revoked. 
# 
#     2. Yukon Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the Interpretation 
#     Act from and after midnight on the twenty-eighth day of October, 1973 
#     shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that is 
#     to say eight hours behind Greenwich Time. 
# 
# * O.I.C. 1980/02 INTERPRETATION ACT 
#   http://? - no online source found 
# 
# * Yukon Daylight Saving Time, YOIC 1987/56 
#   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-1987-56/latest/yoic-1987-56.html 
#   O.I.C. 1987/056 INTERPRETATION ACT ... 
# 
#   In every year between 
#     (a) two o'clock in the morning in the first Sunday in April, and 
#     (b) two o'clock in the morning in the last Sunday in October, 
#   Standard Time shall be reckoned as seven hours behind Greenwich Time and 
#   called Yukon Daylight Saving Time. 
#   ... 
#   Dated ... 9th day of March, A.D., 1987. 
# 
# * Yukon Daylight Saving Time 2006, YOIC 2006/127 
#   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-2006-127/latest/yoic-2006-127.html 
#   O.I.C. 2006/127 INTERPRETATION ACT ... 
# 
#     1. In Yukon each year the time for general purposes shall be 7 hours 
#     behind Greenwich mean time during the period commencing at two o'clock 
#     in the forenoon on the second Sunday of March and ending at two o'clock 
#     in the forenoon on the first Sunday of November and shall be called 
#     Yukon Daylight Saving Time. 
# 
#     2. Order-in-Council 1987/56 is revoked. 
# 
#     3. This order comes into force January 1, 2007. 
# 
# * Interpretation Act, RSY 2002, c 125 
# https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/stat/rsy-2002-c-125/latest/rsy-2002-c-125.html 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-09-04): 
# Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone. 
# Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31 
# http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html 
# 
# From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06): 
# We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut 
# to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): 
# Basic Facts: The New Territory 
# http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html 
# (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time, 
# and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when 
# Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): 
# On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time, 
# Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble: 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time: 
# 
#       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP, 
#       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time: 
# 
#       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator 
# 
# This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news. 
# No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to 
# change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not 
# really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally. 
# They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart, 
# so it appears that the situation will last at least that long. 
# The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to 
# their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with 
# the current state of affairs. 
 
# From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the 
# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19): 
# http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html 
# Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones, 
# central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time 
# for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then] 
# made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories 
# for these potential new Zones. 
# 
# The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the 
# handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central 
# zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the 
# Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time. 
# Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of 
# Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not 
# required to use daylight savings. 
 
# From <http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html> 
# Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10): 
# The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and 
# Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them 
# one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter. 
# At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against 
# Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with 
# the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on 
# central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to 
# mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's 
# unified time zone in 1999. 
# 
# From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government: 
# The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# Let's just keep track of the official times for now. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-03-07): 
# The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising 
# that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert 
# back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the 
# cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that 
# has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm 
# checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with 
# more. 
# [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).] 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21): 
# According to ... 
# http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp 
# (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time 
# for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year 
# round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this. 
# I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it 
# predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years.... 
# The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-17): 
# For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed 
# daylight saving only during wartime.  Gwillim Law's email also 
# mentioned maps now maintained by National Research Council Canada; 
# see above for an up-to-date link. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2007-03-01): 
# ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in 
# Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November. 
# Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of 
# daylight saving.... 
# http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html 
 
# From Chris Walton (2011-03-21): 
# Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute 
# Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of 
# the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had 
# decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007. 
# 
# According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay 
# went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008... 
# 
# On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March 
# 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I 
# talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able 
# to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was 
# explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone 
# (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT). 
# i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks 
# had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in 
# so they could follow the correct TV schedule... 
# 
# On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I 
# phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature 
# of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of 
# information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of 
# Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for 
# Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived 
# and worked in Resolute Bay... 
# 
# On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that 
# Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of 
# 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead 
# on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay 
# had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not 
# tell me when the practice had stopped. 
# 
# On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of 
# somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went 
# off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz 
# used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the 
# businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on 
# Aziz: 
# http://www.uphere.ca/node/493 
# 
# I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using 
# Eastern Standard Time. 
# 
# Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the 
# 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way 
# of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in 
# the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs" 
# 
# This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008. 
# 
# I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz 
# responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You 
# may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a 
# search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site" 
# 
# If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would 
# never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I 
# obtained in November 2008 should be ignored... 
# I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# aka Panniqtuuq 
Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       -00     1921 # trading post est. 
                        -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
# formerly Frobisher Bay 
Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       -00     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est. 
                        -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
# aka Qausuittuq 
Zone America/Resolute   0       -       -00     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded 
                        -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11  3:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
# aka Kangiqiniq 
Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       -00     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded 
                        -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
# aka Iqaluktuuttiaq 
Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       -00     1920 # trading post est.? 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5  0:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1  3:00 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       -00     1935 # Yellowknife founded? 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       -00     1953 # Inuvik founded 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun  2:00 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1967 May 28  0:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28  0:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Mexico 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07): 
# The Investigation and Analysis Service of the 
# Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a 
# history of Mexican local time (in Spanish) 
# http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm 
# 
# Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC. 
# (In all cases we go with the MLoC.) 
# S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923. 
# S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16. 
# S&P report no DST during summer 1931. 
# S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20): 
# There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the 
# tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that 
# the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of 
# the relevant documents. 
 
# From Alan Perry (1996-02-15): 
# A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree 
# outlining the timezone changes in Mexico. 
# 
# ------------- Begin Forwarded Message ------------- 
# 
# I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the 
# rules for the DST changes. The rules are: 
# 
# 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones: 
#    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ) 
#    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ) 
#    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ) 
# 
# 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October 
#    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+7 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+6 
#    General:   GMT+5 
# 
# 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+8 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+7 
#    General:   GMT+6 
# 
# The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th. 
# 
# -------------- End Forwarded Message -------------- 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# For an English translation of the decree, see 
# "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04). 
# http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html 
 
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): 
# The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times 
# (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02). 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10): 
# Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time 
# zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight 
# savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of 
# Arizona year round. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard, translating 
# <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17): 
# In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National 
# Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each 
# year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the 
# whole year. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19): 
# <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says 
# (translated):... 
# January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced 
# that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting 
# this year.... 
# http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001 
# [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday 
# in May, and end on the last Sunday of September. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25): 
# The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one 
# story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."... 
# http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html 
# ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep 
# Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than 
# the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish 
# observation of Daylight Saving Time. 
 
# Official statute published by the Energy Department 
# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre 
# (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules, 
# and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03): 
# 
# http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html 
# James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times 
# * Sonora will continue to observe standard time. 
# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that 
#   the Federal District will not adopt DST. 
# * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree. 
# * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including 
#   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools. 
# 
# For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01): 
# I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight 
# saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier 
# that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight 
# saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California 
# (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight 
# saving all year) will follow the original decree of president 
# Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending 
# September 30, 2001. 
# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp> 
# Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31) 
 
# From Reuters (2001-09-04): 
# Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was 
# unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the 
# capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation 
# next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00 
# a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to 
# standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not 
# subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12): 
# ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted 
# that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico.... 
# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20) 
# confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28): 
# 
# Steffen Thorsen wrote: 
# > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern 
# > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as 
# > the United States. 
# Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from 
# 2010, some border regions will be the same: 
# http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/ 
# http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939 
# (Spanish) 
# 
# Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here: 
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf 
# (Gaceta Parlamentaria) 
# 
# There is also a list of the votes here: 
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html 
# 
# Our page: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20): 
# The page 
# http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010 
# includes this text: 
# En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California; 
# Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila; 
# Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en 
# Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto 
# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos 
# horas del primer domingo de noviembre. 
# En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja 
# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea 
# internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte 
# kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el 
# interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá 
# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a 
# las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law: 
# The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015. 
# 
# http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo 
# "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios 
# of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an 
# end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change 
# was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time 
# zone along with the rest of the country." 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law: 
# http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html 
# "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday 
# of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current 
# time..." 
# Also, the new zone will not use DST. 
# 
# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2015-02-02): 
# The decree that modifies the Mexican Hour System Law has finally 
# been published at the Diario Oficial de la Federación 
# http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5380123&fecha=31/01/2015 
# It establishes 5 zones for Mexico: 
# 1- Zona Centro (Central Zone): Corresponds to longitude 90 W, 
#    includes most of Mexico, excluding what's mentioned below. 
# 2- Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone): Longitude 105 W, includes the 
#    states of Baja California Sur; Chihuahua; Nayarit (excluding Bahía 
#    de Banderas which lies in Central Zone); Sinaloa and Sonora. 
# 3- Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone): Longitude 120 W, includes the 
#    state of Baja California. 
# 4- Zona Sureste (Southeast Zone): Longitude 75 W, includes the state 
#    of Quintana Roo. 
# 5- The islands, reefs and keys shall take their timezone from the 
#    longitude they are located at. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún 
Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23 
                        -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2015 Feb  1  2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
# Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida 
Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border) 
# This includes the following municipalities: 
#   in Coahuila: Ocampo, Acuña, Zaragoza, Jiménez, Piedras Negras, Nava, 
#     Guerrero, Hidalgo. 
#   in Nuevo León: Anáhuac, Los Aldama. 
#   in Tamaulipas: Nuevo Laredo, Guerrero, Mier, Miguel Alemán, Camargo, 
#     Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Reynosa, Río Bravo, Valle Hermoso, Matamoros. 
# See: Inicia mañana Horario de Verano en zona fronteriza, El Universal, 
# 2016-03-12 
# http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulo/estados/2016/03/12/inicia-manana-horario-de-verano-en-zona-fronteriza 
Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1988 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1989 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Durango; Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border) 
Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1988 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1989 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Central Mexico 
Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30  2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Chihuahua (near US border) 
# This includes the municipalities of Janos, Ascensión, Juárez, Guadalupe, 
# Práxedis G Guerrero, Coyame del Sotol, Ojinaga, and Manuel Benavides. 
# (See the 2016-03-12 El Universal source mentioned above.) 
Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:02:20 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
# Chihuahua (away from US border) 
Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
# Sonora 
Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21): 
# According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit) 
# changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to 
# share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco). 
# 
# (Spanish) 
# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del 
# país, a partir de este domingo 
# http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748 
# 
# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del 
# País 
# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50 
# 
# (English) 
# Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone 
# http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html 
# 
# "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that 
# will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time 
# zone ..." 
# Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01): 
# Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters. 
 
# Mazatlán 
Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
 
# Bahía de Banderas 
Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr  4  2:00 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
 
# Baja California 
Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1924 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u 
                        -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1954 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1976 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1996 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from 
# America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976 
# through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say 
# Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports 
# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and 
# Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that 
# DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns 
# data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone 
# other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its 
# name or contents should be. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-10-08): 
# Formerly there was an America/Santa_Isabel zone, but this appears to 
# have come from a misreading of 
# http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010 
# It has been moved to the 'backward' file. 
# 
# 
# Revillagigedo Is 
# no information 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Anguilla 
# Antigua and Barbuda 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# Bahamas 
# 
# For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that. 
# 
# From Sue Williams (2006-12-07): 
# The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST 
# rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007.... 
# http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# Barbados 
 
# For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924 # Bridgetown 
                        -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time 
                        -4:00   Barb    A%sT 
 
# Belize 
# Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0:30    -0530 
Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9  0:00    0       CST 
Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    CDT 
Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       CST 
Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    CDT 
Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       CST 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr 
                        -6:00   Belize  %s 
 
# Bermuda 
 
# For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower, 
# Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that. 
 
# From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26): 
 
# Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday 
# in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone 
# (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on 
# Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda. 
# http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28  2:00 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1976 
                        -4:00   US      A%sT 
 
# Cayman Is 
# See America/Panama. 
 
# Costa Rica 
 
# Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890        # San José 
                        -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time 
                        -6:00   CR      C%sT 
# Coco 
# no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica 
 
# Cuba 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): 
# Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57 
# for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations. 
# For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29): 
# The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between 
# the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on 
# the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC. 
# During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that 
# "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving 
# Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of 
# sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched 
# to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have 
# returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.) 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11): 
# DST start in Cuba in 2004 ... does not follow the same rules as the 
# years before.  The correct date should be Sunday 2004-03-28 00:00 ... 
# https://web.archive.org/web/20040402060750/http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2004/marzo/sab27/reloj.html 
 
# From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28): 
# Cuba is not going back to standard time this year. 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html 
# says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras 
# thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return 
# to normal hours (after daylight saving time)". 
# For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure. 
 
# From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12): 
# This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone 
# adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time: 
# http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21): 
# An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end 
# the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see 
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html 
# "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00, 
# watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning 
# to the normal schedule.... 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02): 
# <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday, 
# says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10. 
# For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules, 
# except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25): 
# Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week 
# earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006. 
# 
# He supplied these references: 
# 
# http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES 
# http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm 
# 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25): 
# Here is also article from Granma (Cuba): 
# 
# Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre 
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09): 
# I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight 
# Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to 
# http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj 
# a Cuban information station, and heard 
# the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"), 
# indicating that Cuba is still on standard time. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12): 
# It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16... 
# It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish): 
# http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm 
# 
# Some more background information is posted here: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html 
# 
# The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963, 
# while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the 
# 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been 
# observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception 
# which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to 
# change some historic records as well. 
# 
# One example: 
# http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13): 
# The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative 
# web site, the Granma.  Please check out 
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html 
# 
# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change 
# will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12): 
# Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04) 
# According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on 
# midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009- 
# not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought. 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html 
# (in Spanish) 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09) 
# I listened over the Internet to 
# http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj 
# this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the 
# the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating 
# that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08): 
# Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00 
# this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has 
# changed at all). 
# 
# Source: 
# http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html 
# 
# Our info: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30) 
# Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back 
# tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00. 
# 
# One source (Spanish) 
# http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html 
# 
# Our page: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01) 
# According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March 
# 31 and April 1. 
# 
# Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish): 
# http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril 
# 
# Our info on it: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03): 
# Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back 
# to standard time on 2012-11-04: 
# http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre 
# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03): 
# For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2000    2003    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2004    only    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00s   1:00    D 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT 
                        -5:00   Cuba    C%sT 
 
# Dominica 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# Dominican Republic 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30): 
# Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the 
# time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am.... 
# http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01): 
# Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday, 
# November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the 
# Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date 
# Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they 
# decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going 
# to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president 
# decided to revert. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    EDT 
Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       EST 
Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -0430 
Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       EST 
Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       EST 
Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       EST 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890 
                        -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT 
                        -5:00   DR      %s      1974 Oct 27 
                        -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3  1:00 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# El Salvador 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador 
# instead of America/San_Salvador. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921 # San Salvador 
                        -6:00   Salv    C%sT 
 
# Grenada 
# Guadeloupe 
# St Barthélemy 
# St Martin (French part) 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# Guatemala 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen: 
# Diario Co Latino, at 
# <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>, 
# says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had 
# decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the 
# impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from 
# 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified). 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22): 
# The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006 
# (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See 
# http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5 
                        -6:00   Guat    C%sT 
 
# Haiti 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15): 
# Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST. 
# I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release 
# on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31), 
# <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says: 
# 
#  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general 
#   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior 
#   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the 
#   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next 
#   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd. 
# 
#  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform 
#   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour 
#   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in 
#   October 2005. 
# 
#  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005" 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04): 
# I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like 
# last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a 
# "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST 
# next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year). 
# 
# I have found this article about it (in French): 
# http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612 
# 
# The reason seems to be an energy crisis. 
 
# From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22): 
# Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11): 
# According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year, 
# apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada. 
# So this means they have already changed their time. 
# 
# http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510 
# http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253 
# 
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11): 
# The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to 
# 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight. 
# Assume a US-style fall back as well. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10): 
# It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules 
# as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they 
# are going to observe DST every year now... 
# 
# http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/ 
# http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-12): 
# Jean Antoine, editor of www.haiti-reference.com informed us that Haiti 
# are not going on DST this year.  Several other resources confirm this: ... 
# https://www.radiotelevisioncaraibes.com/presse/heure_d_t_pas_de_changement_d_heure_pr_vu_pour_cet_ann_e.html 
# https://www.vantbefinfo.com/changement-dheure-pas-pour-haiti/ 
# http://news.anmwe.com/haiti-lheure-nationale-ne-sera-ni-avancee-ni-reculee-cette-annee/ 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2017-03-12): 
# We have received 4 mails from different people telling that Haiti 
# has started DST again today, and this source seems to confirm that, 
# I have not been able to find a more authoritative source: 
# https://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-20319-haiti-notices-time-change-in-haiti.html 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s. 
# Go with IATA. 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  1:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S 
Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890 
                        -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT 
                        -5:00   Haiti   E%sT 
 
# Honduras 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05): 
# worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article 
# saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4 
# months until September.  La Tribuna reported today 
# <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president 
# of Honduras, refused to back down on this. 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08): 
# It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at 
# 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration). 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08): 
# Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08). 
# http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12 
# It mentions executive decree 18-2006. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17): 
# Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not 
# published, I have located this authoritative source: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30): 
# http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386 
# So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year.... 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1  0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr 
                        -6:00   Hond    C%sT 
# 
# Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972 
 
# Jamaica 
# Shanks & Pottenger give -5:07:12, but Milne records -5:07:10.41 from an 
# unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the 
# island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic. 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger give April 28 for the 1974 spring-forward transition, but 
# Lance Neita writes that Prime Minister Michael Manley decreed it January 5. 
# Assume Neita meant Jan 6 02:00, the same as the US.  Neita also writes that 
# Manley's supporters associated this act with Manley's nickname "Joshua" 
# (recall that in the Bible the sun stood still at Joshua's request), 
# and with the Rod of Correction which Manley said he had received from 
# Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.  See: 
# Neita L. The politician in all of us. Jamaica Observer 2014-09-20 
# http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/The-politician-in-all-of-us_17573647 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:10 -      LMT     1890        # Kingston 
                        -5:07:10 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1984 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Martinique 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890        # Fort-de-France 
                        -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6 
                        -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Montserrat 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# Nicaragua 
# 
# This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12): 
# I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started 
# DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of 
# expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet 
# announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September". 
# Some background information is available on the President's official site: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm 
# The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01): 
# The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's 
# assume that it is daylight saving.... 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21): 
# The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at 
# http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html 
# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last 
# time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000 
# during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."... 
# The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously 
# since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time 
# changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to 
# the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000. 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02): 
# Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time). 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm 
# (2005-09-26) 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05): 
# http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410 
# (my informal translation) 
# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua 
# advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the 
# morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September. 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30): 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf 
# My informal translation runs: 
# The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the 
# time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time? 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1973 May 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16 
                        -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1  4:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1993 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1997 
                        -6:00   Nic     C%sT 
 
# Panama 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
Link America/Panama America/Cayman 
 
# Puerto Rico 
# There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3 
                        -4:00   US      A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Kitts-Nevis 
# St Lucia 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# St Pierre and Miquelon 
# There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15 # St Pierre 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 May 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1987 
                        -3:00   Canada  -03/-02 
 
# St Vincent and the Grenadines 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
# Turks and Caicos 
# 
# From Chris Dunn in 
# https://bugs.debian.org/415007 
# (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the 
# daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match 
# the recent U.S. change of dates. 
# 
# From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28): 
# http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26] 
# there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three 
# rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct: 
# "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007 
# Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time" 
# indicating that the normal ET rules are followed. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19): 
# The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UT -04 year-round.  See: 
# http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm 
# Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST ... 
# From Chris Walton (2014-11-04): 
# ... the TCI government appears to have delayed the switch to 
# "permanent daylight saving time" by one year.... 
# http://tcweeklynews.com/time-change-to-go-ahead-this-november-p5437-127.htm 
# 
# From the Turks & Caicos Cabinet (2017-07-20), heads-up from Steffen Thorsen: 
# ... agreed to the reintroduction in TCI of Daylight Saving Time (DST) 
# during the summer months and Standard Time, also known as Local 
# Time, during the winter months with effect from April 2018 ... 
# https://www.gov.uk/government/news/turks-and-caicos-post-cabinet-meeting-statement--3 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-08-26): 
# The date of effect of the spring 2018 change appears to be March 11, 
# which makes more sense.  See: Hamilton D. Time change back 
# by March 2018 for TCI. Magnetic Media. 2017-08-25. 
# http://magneticmediatv.com/2017/08/time-change-back-by-march-2018-for-tci/ 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:07:10 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1979 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    2015 Nov Sun>=1 2:00 
                        -4:00   -       AST     2018 Mar 11 3:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# British Virgin Is 
# Virgin Is 
# See America/Port_of_Spain. 
 
 
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