1
  
2
  
3
  
4
  
5
  
6
  
7
  
8
  
9
  
10
  
11
  
12
  
13
  
14
  
15
  
16
  
17
  
18
  
19
  
20
  
21
  
22
  
23
  
24
  
25
  
26
  
27
  
28
  
29
  
30
  
31
  
32
  
33
  
34
  
35
  
36
  
37
  
38
  
39
  
40
  
41
  
42
  
43
  
44
  
45
  
46
  
47
  
48
  
49
  
50
  
51
  
52
  
53
  
54
  
55
  
56
  
57
  
58
  
59
  
60
  
61
  
62
  
63
  
64
  
65
  
66
  
67
  
68
  
69
  
70
  
71
  
72
  
73
  
74
  
75
  
76
  
77
  
78
  
79
  
80
  
81
  
82
  
83
  
84
  
85
  
86
  
87
  
88
  
89
  
90
  
91
  
92
  
93
  
94
  
95
  
96
  
97
  
98
  
99
  
100
  
101
  
102
  
103
  
104
  
105
  
106
  
107
  
108
  
109
  
110
  
111
  
112
  
113
  
114
  
115
  
116
  
117
  
118
  
119
  
120
  
121
  
122
  
123
  
124
  
125
  
126
  
127
  
128
  
129
  
130
  
131
  
132
  
133
  
134
  
135
  
136
  
137
  
138
  
139
  
140
  
141
  
142
  
143
  
144
  
145
  
146
  
147
  
148
  
149
  
150
  
151
  
152
  
153
  
154
  
155
  
156
  
157
  
158
  
159
  
160
  
161
  
162
  
163
  
164
  
165
  
166
  
167
  
168
  
169
  
170
  
171
  
172
  
173
  
174
  
175
  
176
  
177
  
178
  
179
  
180
  
181
  
182
  
183
  
184
  
185
  
186
  
187
  
188
  
189
  
190
  
191
  
192
  
193
  
194
  
195
  
196
  
197
  
198
  
199
  
200
  
201
  
202
  
203
  
204
  
205
  
206
  
207
  
208
  
209
  
210
  
211
  
212
  
213
  
214
  
215
  
216
  
217
  
218
  
219
  
220
  
221
  
222
  
223
  
224
  
225
  
226
  
227
  
228
  
229
  
230
  
231
  
232
  
233
  
234
  
235
  
236
  
237
  
238
  
239
  
240
  
241
  
242
  
243
  
244
  
245
  
246
  
247
  
248
  
249
  
250
  
251
  
252
  
253
  
254
  
255
  
256
  
257
  
258
  
259
  
260
  
261
  
262
  
263
  
264
  
265
  
266
  
267
  
268
  
269
  
270
  
271
  
272
  
273
  
274
  
275
  
276
  
277
  
278
  
279
  
280
  
281
  
282
  
283
  
284
  
285
  
286
  
287
  
288
  
289
  
290
  
291
  
292
  
293
  
294
  
295
  
296
  
297
  
298
  
299
  
300
  
301
  
302
  
303
  
304
  
305
  
306
  
307
  
308
  
309
  
310
  
311
  
312
  
313
  
314
  
315
  
316
  
317
  
318
  
319
  
320
  
321
  
322
  
323
  
324
  
325
  
326
  
327
  
328
  
329
  
330
  
331
  
332
  
333
  
334
  
335
  
336
  
337
  
338
  
339
  
340
  
341
  
342
  
343
  
344
  
345
  
346
  
347
  
348
  
349
  
350
  
351
  
352
  
353
  
354
  
355
  
356
  
357
  
358
  
359
  
360
  
361
  
362
  
363
  
364
  
365
  
366
  
367
  
368
  
369
  
370
  
371
  
372
  
373
  
374
  
375
  
376
  
377
  
378
  
379
  
380
  
381
  
382
  
383
  
384
  
385
  
386
  
387
  
388
  
389
  
390
  
391
  
392
  
393
  
394
  
395
  
396
  
397
  
398
  
399
  
400
  
401
  
402
  
403
  
404
  
405
  
406
  
407
  
408
  
409
  
410
  
411
  
412
  
413
  
414
  
415
  
416
  
417
  
418
  
419
  
420
  
421
  
422
  
423
  
424
  
425
  
426
  
427
  
428
  
429
  
430
  
431
  
432
  
433
  
434
  
435
  
436
  
437
  
438
  
439
  
440
  
441
  
442
  
443
  
444
  
445
  
446
  
447
  
448
  
449
  
450
  
451
  
452
  
453
  
454
  
455
  
456
  
457
  
458
  
459
  
460
  
461
  
462
  
463
  
464
  
465
  
466
  
467
  
468
  
469
  
470
  
471
  
472
  
473
  
474
  
475
  
476
  
477
  
478
  
479
  
480
  
481
  
482
  
483
  
484
  
485
  
486
  
487
  
488
  
489
  
490
  
491
  
492
  
493
  
494
  
495
  
496
  
497
  
498
  
499
  
500
  
501
  
502
  
503
  
504
  
505
  
506
  
507
  
508
  
509
  
510
  
511
  
512
  
513
  
514
  
515
  
516
  
517
  
518
  
519
  
520
  
521
  
522
  
523
  
524
  
525
  
526
  
527
  
528
  
529
  
530
  
531
  
532
  
533
  
534
  
535
  
536
  
537
  
538
  
539
  
540
  
541
  
542
  
543
  
544
  
545
  
546
  
547
  
548
  
549
  
550
  
551
  
552
  
553
  
554
  
555
  
556
  
557
  
558
  
559
  
560
  
561
  
562
  
563
  
564
  
565
  
566
  
567
  
568
  
569
  
570
  
571
  
572
  
573
  
574
  
575
  
576
  
577
  
578
  
579
  
580
  
581
  
582
  
583
  
584
  
585
  
586
  
587
  
588
  
589
  
590
  
591
  
592
  
593
  
594
  
595
  
596
  
597
  
598
  
599
  
600
  
601
  
602
  
603
  
604
  
605
  
606
  
607
  
608
  
609
  
610
  
611
  
612
  
613
  
614
  
615
  
616
  
617
  
618
  
619
  
620
  
621
  
622
  
623
  
624
  
625
  
626
  
627
  
628
  
629
  
630
  
631
  
632
  
633
  
634
  
635
  
636
  
637
  
638
  
639
  
640
  
641
  
642
  
643
  
644
  
645
  
646
  
647
  
648
  
649
  
650
  
651
  
652
  
653
  
654
  
655
  
656
  
657
  
658
  
659
  
660
  
661
  
662
  
663
  
664
  
665
  
666
  
667
  
668
  
669
  
670
  
671
  
672
  
673
  
674
  
675
  
676
  
677
  
678
  
679
  
680
  
681
  
682
  
683
  
684
  
685
  
686
  
687
  
688
  
689
  
690
  
691
  
692
  
693
  
694
  
695
  
696
  
697
  
698
  
699
  
700
  
701
  
702
  
703
  
704
  
705
  
706
  
707
  
708
  
709
  
710
  
711
  
712
  
713
  
714
  
715
  
716
  
717
  
718
  
719
  
720
  
721
  
722
  
723
  
724
  
725
  
726
  
727
  
728
  
729
  
730
  
731
  
732
  
733
  
734
  
735
  
736
  
737
  
738
  
739
  
740
  
741
  
742
  
743
  
744
  
745
  
746
  
747
  
748
  
749
  
750
  
751
  
752
  
753
  
754
  
755
  
756
  
757
  
758
  
759
  
760
  
761
  
762
  
763
  
764
  
765
  
766
  
767
  
768
  
769
  
770
  
771
  
772
  
773
  
774
  
775
  
776
  
777
  
778
  
779
  
780
  
781
  
782
  
783
  
784
  
785
  
786
  
787
  
788
  
789
  
790
  
791
  
792
  
793
  
794
  
795
  
796
  
797
  
798
  
799
  
800
  
801
  
802
  
803
  
804
  
805
  
806
  
807
  
808
  
809
  
810
  
811
  
812
  
813
  
814
  
815
  
816
  
817
  
818
  
819
  
820
  
821
  
822
  
823
  
824
  
825
  
826
  
827
  
828
  
829
  
830
  
831
  
832
  
833
  
834
  
835
  
836
  
837
  
838
  
839
  
840
  
841
  
842
  
843
  
844
  
845
  
846
  
847
  
848
  
849
  
850
  
851
  
852
  
853
  
854
  
855
  
856
  
857
  
858
  
859
  
860
  
861
  
862
  
863
  
864
  
865
  
866
  
867
  
868
  
869
  
870
  
871
  
872
  
873
  
874
  
875
  
876
  
877
  
878
  
879
  
880
  
881
  
882
  
883
  
884
  
885
  
886
  
887
  
888
  
889
  
890
  
891
  
892
  
893
  
894
  
895
  
896
  
897
  
898
  
899
  
900
  
901
  
902
  
903
  
904
  
905
  
906
  
907
  
908
  
909
  
910
  
911
  
912
  
913
  
914
  
915
  
916
  
917
  
918
  
919
  
920
  
921
  
922
  
923
  
924
  
925
  
926
  
927
  
928
  
929
  
930
  
931
  
932
  
933
  
934
  
935
  
936
  
937
  
938
  
939
  
940
  
941
  
942
  
943
  
944
  
945
  
946
  
947
  
948
  
949
  
950
  
951
  
952
  
953
  
954
  
955
  
956
  
957
  
958
  
959
  
960
  
961
  
962
  
963
  
964
  
965
  
966
  
967
  
968
  
969
  
970
  
971
  
972
  
973
  
974
  
975
  
976
  
977
  
978
  
979
  
980
  
981
  
982
  
983
  
984
  
985
  
986
  
987
  
988
  
989
  
990
  
991
  
992
  
993
  
994
  
995
  
996
  
997
  
998
  
999
  
1000
  
1001
  
1002
  
1003
  
1004
  
1005
  
1006
  
1007
  
1008
  
1009
  
1010
  
1011
  
1012
  
1013
  
1014
  
1015
  
1016
  
1017
  
1018
  
1019
  
1020
  
1021
  
1022
  
1023
  
1024
  
1025
  
1026
  
1027
  
1028
  
1029
  
1030
  
1031
  
1032
  
1033
  
1034
  
1035
  
1036
  
1037
  
1038
  
1039
  
1040
  
1041
  
1042
  
1043
  
1044
  
1045
  
1046
  
1047
  
1048
  
1049
  
1050
  
1051
  
1052
  
1053
  
1054
  
1055
  
1056
  
1057
  
1058
  
1059
  
1060
  
1061
  
1062
  
1063
  
1064
  
1065
  
1066
  
1067
  
1068
  
1069
  
1070
  
1071
  
1072
  
1073
  
1074
  
1075
  
1076
  
1077
  
1078
  
1079
  
1080
  
1081
  
1082
  
1083
  
1084
  
1085
  
1086
  
1087
  
1088
  
1089
  
1090
  
1091
  
1092
  
1093
  
1094
  
1095
  
1096
  
1097
  
1098
  
1099
  
1100
  
1101
  
1102
  
1103
  
1104
  
1105
  
1106
  
1107
  
1108
  
1109
  
1110
  
1111
  
1112
  
1113
  
1114
  
1115
  
1116
  
1117
  
1118
  
1119
  
1120
  
1121
  
1122
  
1123
  
1124
  
1125
  
1126
  
1127
  
1128
  
1129
  
1130
  
1131
  
1132
  
1133
  
1134
  
1135
  
1136
  
1137
  
1138
  
1139
  
1140
  
1141
  
1142
  
1143
  
1144
  
1145
  
1146
  
1147
  
1148
  
1149
  
1150
  
1151
  
1152
  
1153
  
1154
  
1155
  
1156
  
1157
  
1158
  
1159
  
1160
  
1161
  
1162
  
1163
  
1164
  
1165
  
1166
  
1167
  
1168
  
1169
  
1170
  
1171
  
1172
  
1173
  
1174
  
1175
  
1176
  
1177
  
1178
  
1179
  
1180
  
1181
  
1182
  
1183
  
1184
  
1185
  
1186
  
1187
  
1188
  
1189
  
1190
  
1191
  
1192
  
1193
  
1194
  
1195
  
1196
  
1197
  
1198
  
1199
  
1200
  
1201
  
1202
  
1203
  
1204
  
1205
  
1206
  
1207
  
1208
  
1209
  
1210
  
1211
  
1212
  
1213
  
1214
  
1215
  
1216
  
1217
  
1218
  
1219
  
1220
  
1221
  
1222
  
1223
  
1224
  
1225
  
1226
  
1227
  
1228
  
1229
  
1230
  
1231
  
1232
  
1233
  
1234
  
1235
  
1236
  
1237
  
1238
  
1239
  
1240
  
1241
  
1242
  
1243
  
1244
  
1245
  
1246
  
1247
  
1248
  
1249
  
1250
  
1251
  
1252
  
1253
  
1254
  
1255
  
1256
  
1257
  
1258
  
1259
  
1260
  
1261
  
1262
  
1263
  
1264
  
1265
  
1266
  
1267
  
1268
  
1269
  
1270
  
1271
  
1272
  
1273
  
1274
  
1275
  
1276
  
1277
  
1278
  
1279
  
1280
  
1281
  
1282
  
1283
  
1284
  
1285
  
1286
  
1287
  
1288
  
1289
  
1290
  
1291
  
1292
  
1293
  
1294
  
1295
  
1296
  
1297
  
1298
  
1299
  
1300
  
1301
  
1302
  
1303
  
1304
  
1305
  
1306
  
1307
  
1308
  
1309
  
1310
  
1311
  
1312
  
1313
  
1314
  
1315
  
1316
  
1317
  
1318
  
1319
  
1320
  
1321
  
1322
  
1323
  
1324
  
1325
  
1326
  
1327
  
1328
  
1329
  
1330
  
1331
  
1332
  
1333
  
1334
  
1335
  
1336
  
1337
  
1338
  
1339
  
1340
  
1341
  
1342
  
1343
  
1344
  
1345
  
1346
  
1347
  
1348
  
1349
  
1350
  
1351
  
1352
  
1353
  
1354
  
1355
  
1356
  
1357
  
1358
  
1359
  
1360
  
1361
  
1362
  
1363
  
1364
  
1365
  
1366
  
1367
  
1368
  
1369
  
1370
  
1371
  
1372
  
1373
  
1374
  
1375
  
1376
  
1377
  
1378
  
1379
  
1380
  
1381
  
1382
  
1383
  
1384
  
1385
  
1386
  
1387
  
1388
  
1389
  
1390
  
1391
  
1392
  
1393
  
1394
  
1395
  
1396
  
1397
  
1398
  
1399
  
1400
  
1401
  
1402
  
1403
  
1404
  
1405
  
1406
  
1407
  
1408
  
1409
  
1410
  
1411
  
1412
  
1413
  
1414
  
1415
  
1416
  
1417
  
1418
  
1419
  
1420
  
1421
  
1422
  
1423
  
1424
  
1425
  
1426
  
1427
  
1428
  
1429
  
1430
  
1431
  
1432
  
1433
  
1434
  
1435
  
1436
  
1437
  
1438
  
1439
  
1440
  
1441
  
1442
  
1443
  
1444
  
1445
  
1446
  
1447
  
1448
  
1449
  
1450
  
1451
  
1452
  
1453
  
1454
  
1455
  
1456
  
1457
  
1458
  
1459
  
1460
  
1461
  
1462
  
1463
  
1464
  
1465
  
1466
  
1467
  
1468
  
1469
  
1470
  
1471
  
1472
  
1473
  
1474
  
1475
  
1476
  
1477
  
1478
  
1479
  
1480
  
1481
  
1482
  
1483
  
1484
  
1485
  
1486
  
1487
  
1488
  
1489
  
1490
  
1491
  
1492
  
1493
  
1494
  
1495
  
1496
  
1497
  
1498
  
1499
  
1500
  
1501
  
1502
  
1503
  
1504
  
1505
  
1506
  
1507
  
1508
  
1509
  
1510
  
1511
  
1512
  
1513
  
1514
  
1515
  
1516
  
1517
  
1518
  
1519
  
1520
  
1521
  
1522
  
1523
  
1524
  
1525
  
1526
  
1527
  
1528
  
1529
  
1530
  
1531
  
1532
  
1533
  
1534
  
1535
  
1536
  
1537
  
1538
  
1539
  
1540
  
1541
  
1542
  
1543
  
1544
  
1545
  
1546
  
1547
  
1548
  
1549
  
1550
  
1551
  
1552
  
1553
  
1554
  
1555
  
1556
  
1557
  
1558
  
1559
  
1560
  
1561
  
1562
  
1563
  
1564
  
1565
  
1566
  
1567
  
1568
  
1569
  
1570
  
1571
  
1572
  
1573
  
1574
  
1575
  
1576
  
1577
  
1578
  
1579
  
1580
  
1581
  
1582
  
1583
  
1584
  
1585
  
1586
  
1587
  
1588
  
1589
  
1590
  
1591
  
1592
  
1593
  
1594
  
1595
  
1596
  
1597
  
1598
  
1599
  
1600
  
1601
  
1602
  
1603
  
1604
  
1605
  
1606
  
1607
  
1608
  
1609
  
1610
  
1611
  
1612
  
1613
  
1614
  
1615
  
1616
  
1617
  
1618
  
1619
  
1620
  
1621
  
1622
  
1623
  
1624
  
1625
  
1626
  
1627
  
1628
  
1629
  
1630
  
1631
  
1632
  
1633
  
1634
  
1635
  
1636
  
1637
  
1638
  
1639
  
1640
  
1641
  
1642
  
1643
  
1644
  
1645
  
1646
  
1647
  
1648
  
1649
  
1650
  
1651
  
1652
  
1653
  
1654
  
1655
  
1656
  
1657
  
1658
  
1659
  
1660
  
1661
  
1662
  
1663
  
1664
  
1665
  
1666
  
1667
  
1668
  
1669
  
1670
  
1671
  
1672
  
1673
  
1674
  
1675
  
1676
  
1677
  
1678
  
1679
  
1680
  
1681
  
1682
  
1683
  
1684
  
1685
  
1686
  
1687
  
1688
  
1689
  
1690
  
1691
  
1692
  
1693
  
1694
  
1695
  
1696
  
1697
  
1698
  
1699
  
1700
  
1701
  
1702
  
1703
  
1704
  
1705
  
1706
  
1707
  
1708
  
1709
  
1710
  
1711
  
1712
  
1713
  
1714
  
1715
  
1716
  
1717
  
1718
  
1719
  
1720
  
1721
  
1722
  
1723
  
1724
  
1725
  
1726
  
1727
  
1728
  
1729
  
1730
  
1731
  
1732
  
1733
  
1734
  
1735
  
1736
  
1737
  
1738
  
1739
  
1740
  
1741
  
1742
  
1743
  
1744
  
1745
  
1746
  
1747
  
1748
  
1749
  
1750
  
1751
  
1752
  
1753
  
1754
  
1755
  
1756
  
1757
  
1758
  
1759
  
1760
  
1761
  
1762
  
1763
  
1764
  
1765
  
1766
  
1767
  
1768
  
1769
  
1770
  
1771
  
1772
  
1773
  
1774
  
1775
  
1776
  
1777
  
1778
  
1779
  
1780
  
1781
  
1782
  
1783
  
1784
  
1785
  
1786
  
1787
  
1788
  
1789
  
1790
  
1791
  
1792
  
1793
  
1794
  
1795
  
1796
  
1797
  
1798
  
1799
  
1800
  
1801
  
1802
  
1803
  
1804
  
1805
  
1806
  
1807
  
1808
  
1809
  
1810
  
1811
  
1812
  
1813
  
1814
  
1815
  
1816
  
1817
  
1818
  
1819
  
1820
  
1821
  
1822
  
1823
  
1824
  
1825
  
1826
  
1827
  
1828
  
1829
  
1830
  
1831
  
1832
  
1833
  
1834
  
1835
  
1836
  
1837
  
1838
  
1839
  
1840
  
1841
  
1842
  
1843
  
1844
  
1845
  
1846
  
1847
  
1848
  
1849
  
1850
  
1851
  
1852
  
1853
  
1854
  
1855
  
1856
  
1857
  
1858
  
1859
  
1860
  
1861
  
1862
  
1863
  
1864
  
1865
  
1866
  
1867
  
1868
  
1869
  
1870
  
1871
  
1872
  
1873
  
1874
  
1875
  
1876
  
1877
  
1878
  
1879
  
1880
  
1881
  
1882
  
1883
  
1884
  
1885
  
1886
  
1887
  
1888
  
1889
  
1890
  
1891
  
1892
  
1893
  
1894
  
1895
  
1896
  
1897
  
1898
  
1899
  
1900
  
1901
  
1902
  
1903
  
1904
  
1905
  
1906
  
1907
  
1908
  
1909
  
1910
  
1911
  
1912
  
1913
  
1914
  
1915
  
1916
  
1917
  
1918
  
1919
  
1920
  
1921
  
1922
  
1923
  
1924
  
1925
  
1926
  
1927
  
1928
  
1929
  
1930
  
1931
  
1932
  
1933
  
1934
  
1935
  
1936
  
1937
  
1938
  
1939
  
1940
  
1941
  
1942
  
1943
  
1944
  
1945
  
1946
  
1947
  
1948
  
1949
  
1950
  
1951
  
1952
  
1953
  
1954
  
1955
  
1956
  
1957
  
1958
  
1959
  
1960
  
1961
  
1962
  
1963
  
1964
  
1965
  
1966
  
1967
  
1968
  
1969
  
1970
  
1971
  
1972
  
1973
  
1974
  
1975
  
1976
  
1977
  
1978
  
1979
  
1980
  
1981
  
1982
  
1983
  
1984
  
1985
  
1986
  
1987
  
1988
  
1989
  
1990
  
1991
  
1992
  
1993
  
1994
  
1995
  
1996
  
1997
  
1998
  
1999
  
2000
  
2001
  
2002
  
2003
  
2004
  
2005
  
2006
  
2007
  
2008
  
2009
  
2010
  
2011
  
2012
  
2013
  
2014
  
2015
  
2016
  
2017
  
2018
  
2019
  
2020
  
2021
  
2022
  
2023
  
2024
  
2025
  
2026
  
2027
  
2028
  
2029
  
2030
  
2031
  
2032
  
2033
  
2034
  
2035
  
2036
  
2037
  
2038
  
2039
  
2040
  
2041
  
2042
  
2043
  
2044
  
2045
  
2046
  
2047
  
2048
  
2049
  
2050
  
2051
  
2052
  
2053
  
2054
  
2055
  
2056
  
2057
  
2058
  
2059
  
2060
  
2061
  
2062
  
2063
  
2064
  
2065
  
2066
  
2067
  
2068
  
2069
  
2070
  
2071
  
2072
  
2073
  
2074
  
2075
  
2076
  
2077
  
2078
  
2079
  
2080
  
2081
  
2082
  
2083
  
2084
  
2085
  
2086
  
2087
  
2088
  
2089
  
2090
  
2091
  
2092
  
2093
  
2094
  
2095
  
2096
  
2097
  
2098
  
2099
  
2100
  
2101
  
2102
  
2103
  
2104
  
2105
  
2106
  
2107
  
2108
  
2109
  
2110
  
2111
  
2112
  
2113
  
2114
  
2115
  
2116
  
2117
  
2118
  
2119
  
2120
  
2121
  
2122
  
2123
  
2124
  
2125
  
2126
  
2127
  
2128
  
2129
  
2130
  
2131
  
2132
  
2133
  
2134
  
2135
  
2136
  
2137
  
2138
  
2139
  
2140
  
2141
  
2142
  
2143
  
2144
  
2145
  
2146
  
2147
  
2148
  
2149
  
2150
  
2151
  
2152
  
2153
  
2154
  
2155
  
2156
  
2157
  
2158
  
2159
  
2160
  
2161
  
2162
  
2163
  
2164
  
2165
  
2166
  
2167
  
2168
  
2169
  
2170
  
2171
  
2172
  
2173
  
2174
  
2175
  
2176
  
2177
  
2178
  
2179
  
2180
  
2181
  
2182
  
2183
  
2184
  
2185
  
2186
  
2187
  
2188
  
2189
  
2190
  
2191
  
2192
  
2193
  
2194
  
2195
  
2196
  
2197
  
2198
  
2199
  
2200
  
2201
  
2202
  
2203
  
2204
  
2205
  
2206
  
2207
  
2208
  
2209
  
2210
  
2211
  
2212
  
2213
  
2214
  
2215
  
2216
  
2217
  
2218
  
2219
  
2220
  
2221
  
2222
  
2223
  
2224
  
2225
  
2226
  
2227
  
2228
  
2229
  
2230
  
2231
  
2232
  
2233
  
2234
  
2235
  
2236
  
2237
  
2238
  
2239
  
2240
  
2241
  
2242
  
2243
  
2244
  
2245
  
2246
  
2247
  
2248
  
2249
  
2250
  
2251
  
2252
  
2253
  
2254
  
2255
  
2256
  
2257
  
2258
  
2259
  
2260
  
2261
  
2262
  
2263
  
2264
  
2265
  
2266
  
2267
  
2268
  
2269
  
2270
  
2271
  
2272
  
2273
  
2274
  
2275
  
2276
  
2277
  
2278
  
2279
  
2280
  
2281
  
2282
  
2283
  
2284
  
2285
  
2286
  
2287
  
2288
  
2289
  
2290
  
2291
  
2292
  
2293
  
2294
  
2295
  
2296
  
2297
  
2298
  
2299
  
2300
  
2301
  
2302
  
2303
  
2304
  
2305
  
2306
  
2307
  
2308
  
2309
  
2310
  
2311
  
2312
  
2313
  
2314
  
2315
  
2316
  
2317
  
2318
  
2319
  
2320
  
2321
  
2322
  
2323
  
2324
  
2325
  
2326
  
2327
  
2328
  
2329
  
2330
  
2331
  
2332
  
2333
  
2334
  
2335
  
2336
  
2337
  
2338
  
2339
  
2340
  
2341
  
2342
  
2343
  
2344
  
2345
  
2346
  
2347
  
2348
  
2349
  
2350
  
2351
  
2352
  
2353
  
2354
  
2355
  
2356
  
2357
  
2358
  
2359
  
2360
  
2361
  
2362
  
2363
  
2364
  
2365
  
2366
  
2367
  
2368
  
2369
  
2370
  
2371
  
2372
  
2373
  
2374
  
2375
  
2376
  
2377
  
2378
  
2379
  
2380
  
2381
  
2382
  
2383
  
2384
  
2385
  
2386
  
2387
  
2388
  
2389
  
2390
  
2391
  
2392
  
2393
  
2394
  
2395
  
2396
  
2397
  
2398
  
2399
  
2400
  
2401
  
2402
  
2403
  
2404
  
2405
  
2406
  
2407
  
2408
  
2409
  
2410
  
2411
  
2412
  
2413
  
2414
  
2415
  
2416
  
2417
  
2418
  
2419
  
2420
  
2421
  
2422
  
2423
  
2424
  
2425
  
2426
  
2427
  
2428
  
2429
  
2430
  
2431
  
2432
  
2433
  
2434
  
2435
  
2436
  
2437
  
2438
  
2439
  
2440
  
2441
  
2442
  
2443
  
2444
  
2445
  
2446
  
2447
  
2448
  
2449
  
2450
  
2451
  
2452
  
2453
  
2454
  
2455
  
2456
  
2457
  
2458
  
2459
  
2460
  
2461
  
2462
  
2463
  
2464
  
2465
  
2466
  
2467
  
2468
  
2469
  
2470
  
2471
  
2472
  
2473
  
2474
  
2475
  
2476
  
2477
  
2478
  
2479
  
2480
  
2481
  
2482
  
2483
  
2484
  
2485
  
2486
  
2487
  
2488
  
2489
  
2490
  
2491
  
2492
  
2493
  
2494
  
2495
  
2496
  
2497
  
2498
  
2499
  
2500
  
2501
  
2502
  
2503
  
2504
  
2505
  
2506
  
2507
  
2508
  
2509
  
2510
  
2511
  
2512
  
2513
  
2514
  
2515
  
2516
  
2517
  
2518
  
2519
  
2520
  
2521
  
2522
  
2523
  
2524
  
2525
  
2526
  
2527
  
2528
  
2529
  
2530
  
2531
  
2532
  
2533
  
2534
  
2535
  
2536
  
2537
  
2538
  
2539
  
2540
  
2541
  
2542
  
2543
  
2544
  
2545
  
2546
  
2547
  
2548
  
2549
  
2550
  
2551
  
2552
  
2553
  
2554
  
2555
  
2556
  
2557
  
2558
  
2559
  
2560
  
2561
  
2562
  
2563
  
2564
  
2565
  
2566
  
2567
  
2568
  
2569
  
2570
  
2571
  
2572
  
2573
  
2574
  
2575
  
2576
  
2577
  
2578
  
2579
  
2580
  
2581
  
2582
  
2583
  
2584
  
2585
  
2586
  
2587
  
2588
  
2589
  
2590
  
2591
  
2592
  
2593
  
2594
  
2595
  
2596
  
2597
  
2598
  
2599
  
2600
  
2601
  
2602
  
2603
  
2604
  
2605
  
2606
  
2607
  
2608
  
2609
  
2610
  
2611
  
2612
  
2613
  
2614
  
2615
  
2616
  
2617
  
2618
  
2619
  
2620
  
2621
  
2622
  
2623
  
2624
  
2625
  
2626
  
2627
  
2628
  
2629
  
2630
  
2631
  
2632
  
2633
  
2634
  
2635
  
2636
  
2637
  
2638
  
2639
  
2640
  
2641
  
2642
  
2643
  
2644
  
2645
  
2646
  
2647
  
2648
  
2649
  
2650
  
2651
  
2652
  
2653
  
2654
  
2655
  
2656
  
2657
  
2658
  
2659
  
2660
  
2661
  
2662
  
2663
  
2664
  
2665
  
2666
  
2667
  
2668
  
2669
  
2670
  
2671
  
2672
  
2673
  
2674
  
2675
  
2676
  
2677
  
2678
  
2679
  
2680
  
2681
  
2682
  
2683
  
2684
  
2685
  
2686
  
2687
  
2688
  
2689
  
2690
  
2691
  
2692
  
2693
  
2694
  
2695
  
2696
  
2697
  
2698
  
2699
  
2700
  
2701
  
2702
  
2703
  
2704
  
2705
  
2706
  
2707
  
2708
  
2709
  
2710
  
2711
  
2712
  
2713
  
2714
  
2715
  
2716
  
2717
  
2718
  
2719
  
2720
  
2721
  
2722
  
2723
  
2724
  
2725
  
2726
  
2727
  
2728
  
2729
  
2730
  
2731
  
2732
  
2733
  
2734
  
2735
  
2736
  
2737
  
2738
  
2739
  
2740
  
2741
  
2742
  
2743
  
2744
  
2745
  
2746
  
2747
  
2748
  
2749
  
2750
  
2751
  
2752
  
2753
  
2754
  
2755
  
2756
  
2757
  
2758
  
2759
  
2760
  
2761
  
2762
  
2763
  
2764
  
2765
  
2766
  
2767
  
2768
  
2769
  
2770
  
2771
  
2772
  
2773
  
2774
  
2775
  
2776
  
2777
  
2778
  
2779
  
2780
  
2781
  
2782
  
2783
  
2784
  
2785
  
2786
  
2787
  
2788
  
2789
  
2790
  
2791
  
2792
  
2793
  
2794
  
2795
  
2796
  
2797
  
2798
  
2799
  
2800
  
2801
  
2802
  
2803
  
2804
  
2805
  
2806
  
2807
  
2808
  
2809
  
2810
  
2811
  
2812
  
2813
  
2814
  
2815
  
2816
  
2817
  
2818
  
2819
  
2820
  
2821
  
# <pre> 
# @(#)northamerica      8.31 
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# also includes Central America and the Caribbean 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22): 
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is 
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# United States 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by 
# Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904), 
# Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY). 
# His pamphlet ``A System of National Time for Railroads'' (1870) 
# was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines 
# in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC, 
# but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich. 
# His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00, 
# and the most of the country soon followed suit. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16): 
# That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time. 
# See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# A good source for time zone historical data in the US is 
# Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991). 
# Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it. 
# It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): 
# Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin 
# in his whimsical essay ``An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost 
# of Light'' published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26). 
# Not everyone is happy with the results: 
# 
#       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some 
#       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving 
#       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind. 
#       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something 
#       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer 
#       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to 
#       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving 
#       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager 
#       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make 
#       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves. 
# 
#       -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks, 
#          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday 
# 
# For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see 
# Robert Garland's <a href="http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html"> 
# Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint 
# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)</a>. 
# 
# Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919. 
# However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which 
# was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently 
# time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time". 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974. 
# See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26 
# and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of 
# Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25): 
# Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama. 
# In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time." 
# An AltaVista search turned up 
# <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">: 
# "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace 
# Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful." 
# </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation. 
 
# From Joseph Gallant citing 
# George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987): 
# At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set 
# to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people 
# never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account, 
# CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender, 
# but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word 
# of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in 
# London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From 
# Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times: 
# 
# ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender. 
# Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a 
# wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news. 
# Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out 
# typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental 
# importance." 
# 
# On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open 
# microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell, 
# before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over. 
# The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms." 
# 
# He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22): 
# Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations 
# that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of 
# U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed 
# in the latest release, other countries won't be affected. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
 
# From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19 
# We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with 
# obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory. 
# We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of 
# this time zone package. 
# We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if 
# a particular place changes whether it observes DST. 
# We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to 
# increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to 
# avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST 
Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST 
Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST 
Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT 
Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT 
Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT 
Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967. 
#    old                         new 
#    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same- 
#    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same- 
#    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST) 
#    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST) 
# 
# ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz. 
#    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part 
#    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): 
# The tables below use `NST', not `NT', for Nome Standard Time. 
# I invented `CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON 
# USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON 
# USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER 
# USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO 
# USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST) 
# USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT) 
# USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W 
# USA  - " -         9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 
# USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC 
# USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21): 
# The above dates are for 1988. 
# Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's 
# no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the 
# Aleutians. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and 
# Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names 
# up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 
# took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261: 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard eastern time 
#       United States standard mountain time 
#       United States standard central time 
#       United States standard Pacific time 
#       (none) 
#       United States standard Alaska time 
#       (none) 
# Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for 
# public law 98-181): 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Yukon standard time 
#       Alaska-Hawaii standard time 
#       Bering standard time 
# And after 1983-11-30: 
#       Atlantic standard time 
#       eastern standard time 
#       central standard time 
#       mountain standard time 
#       Pacific standard time 
#       Alaska standard time 
#       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time 
#       Samoa standard time 
# The law doesn't give abbreviations. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow: 
# Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced the abbreviation 
# "Chamorro Standard Time" for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas. 
# See the file "australasia". 
 
# From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09 
# The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08. 
# 
# H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS. 
#   (a) Amendment- Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 
#   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended-- 
#     (1) by striking `first Sunday of April' and inserting `second 
#     Sunday of March'; and 
#     (2) by striking `last Sunday of October' and inserting `first 
#     Sunday of November'. 
#   (b) Effective Date- Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the 
#   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later. 
#   (c) Report to Congress- Not later than 9 months after the effective 
#   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress 
#   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United 
#   States. 
#   (d) Right to Revert- Congress retains the right to revert the 
#   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the 
#   Department study is complete. 
 
# US eastern time, represented by New York 
 
# Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida, 
# Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky 
# (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
# New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, 
# Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, 
# Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia 
 
# From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02): 
# Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington 
# Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH].... 
# One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time 
# and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their 
# reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26): 
# According to today's Huntsville Times 
# <http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1> 
# a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City 
# in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County, 
# set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba" 
# Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central 
# time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work 
# in Columbus." 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1920 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# US central time, represented by Chicago 
 
# Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, 
# Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and 
# Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana 
# (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer, 
# Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western 
# Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern 
# Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota, 
# western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin 
 
# From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin: 
# http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/Stat0175.pdf ... 
# is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local 
# "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations 
# are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited 
# hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year.... 
# 
# From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12): 
# Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI 
# Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent.... 
# http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2007/data/acts/07Act3.pdf 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15 2:00 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25. 
Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25 02:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on 
# 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time. 
# See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>. 
# Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and 
# Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota; 
# but in practice these other counties were already observing central time. 
# See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>. 
Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:21 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26 02:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# US mountain time, represented by Denver 
# 
# Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western 
# Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City), 
# New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota, 
# western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County, 
# and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1920 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1946 
                        -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles 
# 
# California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater, 
# Idaho, Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, 
# and the northern three-quarters of Idaho county), 
# most of Nevada, most of Oregon, and Washington 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1946 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT 
 
# Alaska 
# AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30): 
# Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, 
# and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia. 
# This was on 1867-10-18, a Friday; the previous day was 1867-10-06 Julian, 
# also a Friday.  Include only the time zone part of this transition, 
# ignoring the switch from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent 
# the Julian calendar. 
# 
# As far as we know, none of the exact locations mentioned below were 
# permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar. 
# (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement 
# was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there 
# were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps 
# it's best to simply use the official transition. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18 
                         -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1942 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1946 
                         -8:00  -       PST     1969 
                         -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18 
                         -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1942 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946 
                         -9:00  -       YST     1969 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18 
                         -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -10:00  -       CAT     1942 
                        -10:00  US      CAT/CAWT 1945 Aug 14 23:00u 
                        -10:00  US      CAT/CAPT 1946 # Peace 
                        -10:00  -       CAT     1967 Apr 
                        -10:00  -       AHST    1969 
                        -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Nome        12:58:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18 
                        -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                         -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30 
                         -9:00  US      AK%sT 
Zone America/Adak        12:13:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18 
                        -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1942 
                        -11:00  US      N%sT    1946 
                        -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr 
                        -11:00  -       BST     1969 
                        -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00 
                        -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30 
                        -10:00  US      HA%sT 
# The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff. 
# 
# Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak) 
# switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00, 
# and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later. 
# 
# From David Flater (2004-11-09): 
# In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska 
# Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which 
# suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967 
# possibly until 1983: 
# 
#  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967: 
#  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important 
#  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was 
#  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson:  Be it 
#  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard 
#  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday, 
#  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with 
#  three votes for and one against." 
 
# Hawaii 
# 
# From Arthur David Olson: 
# And then there's Hawaii. 
# DST was observed for one day in 1933; 
# standard time was changed by half an hour in 1947; 
# it's always standard as of 1986. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert: 
# Shanks says the 1933 experiment lasted for three weeks.  Go with Shanks. 
# 
Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1900 Jan  1 12:00 
                        -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30 2:00 
                        -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 2:00 
                        -10:30  US      H%sT    1947 Jun  8 2:00 
                        -10:00  -       HST 
 
# Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970. 
 
# Arizona mostly uses MST. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20): 
# 
# The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the 
# <a href="http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm"> 
# Daylight Saving Time web page (2002-01-23)</a> maintained by the 
# Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. 
# Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard 
# time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military 
# personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to 
# observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix 
# Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was 
# the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of 
# Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as 
# mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona 
# Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST. 
# 
# Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17. 
# Go with the Arizona State Library instead. 
 
Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1 00:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1 00:01 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1 00:01 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1967 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13): 
# A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc., 
# notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the 
# Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its 
# large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other 
# tribal nations don't use DST.) 
 
Link America/Denver America/Shiprock 
 
# Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine, 
# Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark, 
# Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome, 
# Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power, 
# Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern 
# quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County) 
# switched four weeks late in 1974. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13 2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT    1974 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3 2:00 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
 
# Indiana 
# 
# For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see: 
# <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html"> 
# What time is it in Indiana? 
# </a> (2006-03-01) 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17): 
# Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis, 
# with the following exceptions: 
# 
# - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer, 
#   Vandenburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago. 
# 
# - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York. 
# 
# - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like 
#   America/Kentucky/Louisville. 
# 
# - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke, 
#   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below. 
# 
# Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history, 
# and wrote ``Even newspaper reports present contradictory information.'' 
# Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people! 
# Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970. 
# 
# Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript 
# that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the `America' level. 
# So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory `America/Indiana'. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16): 
# http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html says that Indiana will use DST starting 2006. 
 
# From Nathan Stratton Treadway (2006-03-30): 
# http://www.dot.gov/affairs/dot0406.htm [3705 B] 
# From Deborah Goldsmith (2006-01-18): 
# http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/pdf95/382329_web.pdf [2.9 MB] 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-01-20): 
# It says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke, 
# Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the 
# Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of 
# this rule is 2:OO a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the 
# changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time." 
# Strictly speaking, this means the affected counties will change their 
# clocks twice that night, but this obviously is in error.  The intent 
# is that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10): 
# The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is 
# going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007.... 
# http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:22 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1920 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974, 
# as well as from 1976 through 2005. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1951 
                        -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1976 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana, 
# switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back 
# in November 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# 
# Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977, 
# then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1955 
                        -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991, 
# then switched back in 2006. 
# From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28): 
# An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post 
# notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of 
# 1991-10-27. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1947 
                        -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# 
# Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in 
# April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1971 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1969 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2006 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974. 
# This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1921 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1968 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Wayne County, Kentucky 
# 
# From 
# <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml"> 
# Lake Cumberland LIFE 
# </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7: 
# Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from 
# the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made 
# the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not 
# taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in 
# August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also. 
# The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S. 
# location in the Central time zone. 
# 
# From Rich Wales (2000-08-29): 
# After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion, 
# Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern 
# (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley, 
# The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400). 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16): 
# The final rule was published in the 
# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22"> 
# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), page 50154-50158. 
# </a> 
# 
Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1968 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-08-30): 
# Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985. 
# Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central; 
#       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10 
# Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10 
# Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10 
# West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10 
# Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17): 
# We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS, 
# so omit that change for now. 
# See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change. 
# See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change. 
# West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on 
# 1999-10-31.  See the 
# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15"> 
# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), page 56705-56707. 
# </a> 
# However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated 
# on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official; 
# hence a separate tz entry is not needed. 
 
# Michigan 
# 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31): 
# Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18, 
# but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01) 
# that Detroit kept 
# 
#       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should 
#       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the 
#       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision 
#       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to 
#       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the 
#       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted 
#       by city vote. 
# 
# This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): 
# Garland (1927) writes ``Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks 
# one hour in 1914.''  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more 
# info, so omit this for now. 
# 
# Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Jun     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1942 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1975 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
# 
# Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan, 
# switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1946 
                        -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29 2:00 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
 
# Navassa 
# administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service 
# claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act 
# also claimed by Haiti 
# occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co 
# US lighthouse 1917/1996-09 
# currently uninhabited 
# see Mark Fineman, ``An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord'', 
# _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites 
# Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994). 
 
################################################################################ 
 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# 
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for 
# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. 
# 
# Other sources occasionally used include: 
# 
#       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, 
#       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), 
#       which I found in the UCLA library. 
# 
#       <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf"> 
#       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition 
#       </a> (1914-03) 
# 
# See the `europe' file for Greenland. 
 
# Canada 
 
# From Alain LaBont<e'> (1994-11-14): 
# I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada 
# for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard.... 
# 
#       UTC     Standard time   Daylight savings time 
#       offset  French  English French  English 
#       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT 
#       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT 
#       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       - 
#       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT 
#       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT 
#       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT 
#       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT 
#       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT 
#       -9      HNY     YST     -       - 
# 
#       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time 
#       HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e    DT: Daylight saving Time 
# 
#       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic 
#       C: du Centre            Central 
#       E: de l'Est             Eastern 
#       M:                      Mountain 
#       N:                      Newfoundland 
#       P: du Pacifique         Pacific 
#       R: des Rocheuses 
#       T: de Terre-Neuve 
#       Y: du Yukon             Yukon 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22): 
# Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software. 
 
# Unless otherwise specified, the data for Canada are all from Shanks 
# & Pottenger. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31, 
# 2007-03-01): 
# The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will 
# adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the 
# U.S. and the rest of Canada.... 
# http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm 
# ... 
# Nova Scotia 
# Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007.... 
# http://www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf 
# 
# [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to 
# be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01. 
# http://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf 
# ... 
# Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00. 
# As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00. 
# http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php 
# ... 
# [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules. 
# http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM 
# http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm 
# http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF 
# ... 
# P.E.I. will follow US rules.... 
# http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf 
# ... 
# Province of Newfoundland and Labrador.... 
# http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm 
# ... 
# Yukon 
# http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf 
# ... 
# N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site 
# does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the 
# following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the 
# "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using 
# JavaScript. 
# http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive 
# ... 
# Nunavut 
# An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007.... 
# http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25): 
# H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map 
# <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp"> 
# "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998) 
# </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard 
# time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998. 
# 
# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has <a 
# href="http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php"> 
# information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada. 
# </a> (updated periodically). 
# Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27): 
# For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the 
# new US DST rules, 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
 
 
# Newfoundland and Labrador 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT, 
# but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the 
# southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour, 
# but excluding, say, Black Tickle. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S 
# Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S 
# For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1  23:00   1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S 
# For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks & 
# Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2  0:00    0       S 
# Whitman gives the following transitions: 
# 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07 
# but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules. 
# For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives 
# Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2  2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches 
# at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987. 
Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S 
Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    2:00    DD 
Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    StJohns 2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  0:01    0       S 
# 
# St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918 
                        -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919 
                        -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11 
                        -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT 
 
# most of east Labrador 
 
# The name `Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use `Goose Bay'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay 
                        -3:30:52 -      NST     1918 
                        -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919 
                        -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30 
                        -3:30   -       NST     1936 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11 
                        -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946 
                        -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15 2:00 
                        -4:00   StJohns A%sT 
 
 
# west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like 
# Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972; 
# Glace Bay, NS is the largest that we know of. 
# Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town 
# in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume 
# this is a typo. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1972 
                        -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
 
# New Brunswick 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31): 
# The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf> 
# says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and 
# <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it 
# clear that this was the case since at least 1993. 
# For now, assume it started in 1993. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8  1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8  1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1  1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1  1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21 1:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:01    1:00    D 
Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993 
                        -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT 
 
# Quebec 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Quebec has been 
# like Montreal. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63 
# meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as 
# Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST. 
# In "Official time in Quebec" the Quebec department of justice writes in 
# http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-regl-1-a.htm 
# that "The residents of the Municipality of the 
# Cote-Nord-du-Golfe-Saint-Laurent and the municipalities of Saint-Augustin, 
# Bonne-Esperance and Blanc-Sablon apply the Official Time Act as it is 
# written and use Atlantic standard time all year round. The same applies to 
# the residents of the Native facilities along the lower North Shore." 
# <http://www.assnat.qc.ca/eng/37legislature2/Projets-loi/Publics/06-a002.htm> 
# says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007. 
# For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to 
# Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Apr     24      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Mar     31      2:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Oct     25      2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1920    only    -       May      2      2:30    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1920    1922    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1921    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1922    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1924    only    -       May     17      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1924    1926    -       Sep     lastSun 2:30    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1925    1926    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# The 1927-to-1937 rules can be expressed more simply as 
# Rule  Mont    1927    1937    -       Apr     lastSat 24:00   1:00    D 
# Rule  Mont    1927    1937    -       Sep     lastSat 24:00   0       S 
# The rules below avoid use of 24:00 
# (which pre-1998 versions of zic cannot handle). 
Rule    Mont    1927    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1932    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1933    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1946    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mont    1945    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mont    1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884 
                        -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
Zone America/Montreal   -4:54:16 -      LMT     1884 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1918 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
 
 
# Ontario 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like 
# Toronto. 
# Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973. 
# Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974; 
# Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of. 
# Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax. 
 
# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26): 
# [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST 
# effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that 
# Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw 
# have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday, 
# 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable 
# hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after 
# only two weeks -- I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but 
# presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters 
# earlier in June). 
# 
# Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17): 
# Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star 
# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST, 
# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT. 
# He also writes that the 
# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html"> 
# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9) 
# </a> 
# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT. 
# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report 
# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and 
# New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes 
# CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in 
# violation of the official Ontario rules. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09): 
# Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the 
# 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said: 
# 
#       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round. 
#       This means they spend about half the time on central time and 
#       the other half on eastern time. 
# 
#       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said. 
# 
#       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern 
#       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he 
#       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here." 
# 
# Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang 
# [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice." 
 
# From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton: 
# I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory 
# and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he 
# can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current 
# time keeping since 1952, at least. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River 
# ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from 
# McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan 
# switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time 
# ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour 
# entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move 
# America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16" 
# was meant. 
Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as 
# Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25 2:00    0       S 
# Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25 
# (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle). 
Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971, 
# namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this 
# is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30 
# Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual. 
Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27): 
# Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and 
# Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in 
# operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw, 
# Saskatchewan, for one year." 
 
# From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator, 
# Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12): 
# There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight 
# savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur 
# before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central 
# Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to 
# include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight 
# savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so 
# already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World 
# War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer 
# months for the remainder of the war years. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919 
                        -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946 
                        -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1910 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1942 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970 
                        -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1973 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29 
                        -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
 
# Manitoba 
 
# From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06): 
# the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to 
# March 27, 1987 ... said ... 
# "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of 
# the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central 
# Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next 
# following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."... 
# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had = 
# been assented to (March 22, 1967).... 
# Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying 
# the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of 
# the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central 
# Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s) 
# starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume 
# it was also 02:00s in 1966. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S 
Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16 
                        -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
 
 
# Saskatchewan 
 
# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26): 
# The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal 
# level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people 
# elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight, 
# the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook." 
# DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned: 
# presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of 
# the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad 
# time was noted. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27): 
# Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the 
# City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year." 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina. 
# Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972. 
# Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton 
# are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law. 
 
# From W. Jones (1992-11-06): 
# The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the 
# provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department. 
# A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and 
# since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother. 
# 
# Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years 
# the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated 
# their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial 
# referendum favoured legislating common time practices. 
# 
# On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of 
# Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern 
# part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in 
# northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to 
# follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and 
# zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would 
# by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST. 
# 
# It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town 
# on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to 
# serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only 
# a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT 
# rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round 
# since sometime in the 1960s. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2006-06-26): 
# The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages 
# long and rather painful to read. 
# http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950 
                        -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST 
 
 
# Alberta 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep 
                        -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
 
 
# British Columbia 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has 
# been like Vancouver. 
# Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton. 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947 
                        -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30 2:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
 
 
# Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979. 
# Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs: 
#       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68, 
#       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9.  This is still valid; 
#       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1). 
#       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00. 
#       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST. 
#       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00. 
# Shanks & Pottenger say Yukon's 1973-10-28 switch was at 2:00; go 
# with Englander. 
# From Chris Walton (2006-06-26): 
# Here is a link to the old daylight saving portion of the interpretation 
# act which was last updated in 1987: 
# http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic1987_056.pdf 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-09-04): 
# Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone. 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html"> 
# Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31 
# </a> 
# 
# From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06): 
# We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut 
# to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): 
# <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html"> 
# Basic Facts: The New Territory 
# </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time, 
# and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when 
# Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995. 
 
# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): 
# On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time, 
# Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble: 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time: 
# 
#       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP, 
#       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist 
# 
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time: 
# 
#       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator 
# 
# This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news. 
# No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to 
# change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not 
# really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally. 
# They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart, 
# so it appears that the situation will last at least that long. 
# The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to 
# their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with 
# the current state of affairs. 
 
# From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html"> 
# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>: 
# Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones, 
# central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time 
# for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then] 
# made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): 
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories 
# for these potential new Zones. 
# 
# The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the 
# handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central 
# zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the 
# Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time. 
# Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of 
# Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not 
# required to use daylight savings. 
 
# From 
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html"> 
# Nunavut now has two time zones 
# </a> (2000-11-10): 
# The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and 
# Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them 
# one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter. 
# At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against 
# Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with 
# the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on 
# central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to 
# mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's 
# unified time zone in 1999. 
# 
# From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government: 
# The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# Let's just keep track of the official times for now. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-03-07): 
# The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising 
# that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert 
# back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the 
# cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that 
# has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm 
# checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with 
# more. 
# [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).] 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21): 
# According to maps at 
# http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SWE.jpg 
# http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SSE.jpg 
# (both dated 2003), and 
# http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp 
# (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time 
# for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year 
# round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this. 
# I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it 
# predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years.... 
# The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26): 
# For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed 
# daylight saving only during wartime. 
 
# From Chris Walton (2007-03-01): 
# ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in 
# Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November. 
# Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of 
# daylight saving.... 
# http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html 
 
# From Chris Walton (2007-03-14): 
# Today I phoned the "hamlet office" to find out what Resolute was doing with 
# its clocks. 
# 
# The individual that answered the phone confirmed that the clocks did not 
# move at the end of daylight saving on October 29/2006.  He also told me that 
# the clocks did not move this past weekend (March 11/2007).... 
 
# From Chris Walton (2008-11-13): 
# ...the residents of Resolute believe that they are changing "time zones" 
# twice a year.  In winter months, local time is qualified with "Eastern 
# Time" which is really "Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5)".  In summer 
# months, local time is qualified with "Central Time" which is really 
# "Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)"... 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace 
Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD 
Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# aka Panniqtuuq 
Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       zzz     1921 # trading post est. 
                        -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1 2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
# formerly Frobisher Bay 
Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       zzz     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est. 
                        -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   Canada  E%sT 
# aka Qausuittuq 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Resolute 2006   max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       ES 
Rule    Resolute 2007   max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    0       CD 
Zone America/Resolute   0       -       zzz     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded 
                        -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1 3:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   Resolute        %sT 
# aka Kangiqiniq 
Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       zzz     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded 
                        -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1 3:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT 
# aka Iqaluktuuttiaq 
Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       zzz     1920 # trading post est.? 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00 
                        -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5 0:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1 3:00 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       zzz     1935 # Yellowknife founded? 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       zzz     1953 # Inuvik founded 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun 2:00 
                        -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980 
                        -7:00   Canada  M%sT 
Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1966 Jul 1 2:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20 
                        -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28 0:00 
                        -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980 
                        -8:00   Canada  P%sT 
 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Mexico 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05): 
# The Investigation and Analysis Service of the 
# Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a 
# <a href="http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/"> 
# history of Mexican local time (in Spanish) 
# </a>. 
# 
# Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC. 
# (In all cases we go with the MLoC.) 
# S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923. 
# S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16. 
# S&P report no DST during summer 1931. 
# S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20): 
# There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the 
# tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that 
# the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of 
# the relevant documents. 
 
# From Alan Perry (1996-02-15): 
# A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree 
# outlining the timezone changes in Mexico. 
# 
# ------------- Begin Forwarded Message ------------- 
# 
# I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the 
# rules for the DST changes. The rules are: 
# 
# 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones: 
#    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ) 
#    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ) 
#    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ) 
# 
# 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October 
#    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+7 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+6 
#    General:   GMT+5 
# 
# 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows: 
#    BajaNorte: GMT+8 
#    BajaSur:   GMT+7 
#    General:   GMT+6 
# 
# The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th. 
# 
# -------------- End Forwarded Message -------------- 
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12): 
# For an English translation of the decree, see 
# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html"> 
# ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'' (1996-01-04). 
# </a> 
 
# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): 
# The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times 
# (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02). 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10): 
# Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time 
# zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight 
# savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of 
# Arizona year round. 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard, translating 
# <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17): 
# In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National 
# Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each 
# year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the 
# whole year. 
 
# From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19): 
# <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says 
# (translated):... 
# January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced 
# that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting 
# this year.... 
# <http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001> 
# [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday 
# in May, and end on the last Sunday of September. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25): 
# The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one 
# story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."... 
# http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html 
# ... Mexico City Mayor Lopez Obrador "...is threatening to keep 
# Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than 
# the rest of the country..." In particular, Lopez Obrador would abolish 
# observation of Daylight Saving Time. 
 
# <a href="http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre"> 
# Official statute published by the Energy Department 
# </a> (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules, 
# and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Norgaard (2001-02-03). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03): 
# 
# <a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html"> 
# James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times 
# </a> 
# * Sonora will continue to observe standard time. 
# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador decreed that 
#   the Federal District will not adopt DST. 
# * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree. 
# * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including 
#   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools. 
# 
# For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules. 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard (2001-04-01): 
# I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight 
# saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier 
# that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight 
# saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California 
# (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight 
# saving all year) will follow the original decree of president 
# Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending 
# September 30, 2001. 
# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp> 
# Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31) 
 
# From Reuters (2001-09-04): 
# Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was 
# unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the 
# capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation 
# next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00 
# a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to 
# standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not 
# subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said. 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2002-03-12): 
# ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted 
# that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico.... 
# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20) 
# confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28): 
# 
# Steffen Thorsen wrote: 
# > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern 
# > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as 
# > the United States. 
# Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from 
# 2010, some border regions will be the same: 
# <a href="http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/"> 
# http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/ 
# </a> 
# <a href="http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939"> 
# http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939 
# </a> 
# (Spanish) 
# 
# Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here: 
# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf"> 
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf 
# </a> 
# (Gaceta Parlamentaria) 
# 
# There is also a list of the votes here: 
# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html"> 
# http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html 
# </a> 
# 
# Our page: 
# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html"> 
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html 
# </a> 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20): 
# The page 
# <a href="http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010"> 
# http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010 
# </a> 
# includes this text: 
# En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California; 
# Ju&aacute;rez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acu&ntilde;a y Piedras Negras en Coahuila; 
# An&aacute;huac en Nuevo Le&oacute;n; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en 
# Tamaulipas, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute; efecto 
# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a las dos 
# horas del primer domingo de noviembre. 
# En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja 
# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la l&iacute;nea 
# internacional y la l&iacute;nea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte 
# kil&oacute;metros, as&iacute; como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el 
# interior del pa&iacute;s, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute; 
# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a 
# las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War 
Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# Quintana Roo 
Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23 
                        -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Campeche, Yucatan 
Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (near US border) 
Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1988 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1989 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT 
# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (away from US border) 
Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1988 
                        -6:00   US      C%sT    1989 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Central Mexico 
Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1 0:23:24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30 02:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
# Chihuahua (near US border) 
Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan 1 0:02:20 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 
                        -7:00   US      M%sT 
# Chihuahua (away from US border) 
Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1996 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
# Sonora 
Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999 
                        -7:00   -       MST 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21): 
# According to news, Bah&iacute;a de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit) 
# changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to 
# share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco). 
# 
# (Spanish) 
# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del 
# pa&iacute;s, a partir de este domingo 
# <a href="http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748"> 
# http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748 
# </a> 
# 
# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del 
# Pa&iacute;s 
# <a href="http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50"> 
# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50" 
# </a> 
# 
# (English) 
# Puerto Vallarta and Bah&iacute;a de Banderas: One Time Zone 
# <a href="http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml"> 
# http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml 
# </a> 
# 
# or 
# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html"> 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html 
# </a> 
# 
# "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that 
# will allow Bah&iacute;a de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time 
# zone ..." 
# Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01): 
# Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters. 
 
Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT 
 
Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1970 
                        -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr 4 
                        -6:00   Mexico  C%sT 
 
# Baja California (near US border) 
Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1924 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u 
                        -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1954 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1976 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1996 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT 
# Baja California (away from US border) 
Zone America/Santa_Isabel       -7:39:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:20:32 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1924 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00 
                        -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24 
                        -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u 
                        -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5 
                        -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1954 
                        -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961 
                        -8:00   -       PST     1976 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    1996 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001 
                        -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20 
                        -8:00   Mexico  P%sT 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from 
# America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976 
# through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say 
# Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports 
# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and 
# Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that 
# DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns 
# data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone 
# other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its 
# name or contents should be. 
# 
# Revillagigedo Is 
# no information 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Anguilla 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Anguilla   -4:12:16 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Antigua and Barbuda 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Antigua -4:07:12 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1951 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Bahamas 
# 
# From Sue Williams (2006-12-07): 
# The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST 
# rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007.... 
# http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:24 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT 
 
# Barbados 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S 
Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:28 -      LMT     1924            # Bridgetown 
                        -3:58:28 -      BMT     1932      # Bridgetown Mean Time 
                        -4:00   Barb    A%sT 
 
# Belize 
# Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr 
                        -6:00   Belize  C%sT 
 
# Bermuda 
 
# From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26): 
 
# Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday 
# in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone 
# (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on 
# Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda. 
# http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:04 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1 2:00    # Hamilton 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28 2:00 
                        -4:00   Bahamas A%sT    1976 
                        -4:00   US      A%sT 
 
# Cayman Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Cayman  -5:25:32 -      LMT     1890            # Georgetown 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Costa Rica 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00; 
# go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S 
Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use `Costa Rica'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:20 -      LMT     1890            # San Jose 
                        -5:36:20 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time 
                        -6:00   CR      C%sT 
# Coco 
# no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica 
 
# Cuba 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29): 
# The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between 
# the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on 
# the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC. 
# During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that 
# "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving 
# Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of 
# sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched 
# to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have 
# returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.) 
 
# From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28): 
# Cuba is not going back to standard time this year. 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html 
# says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras 
# thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return 
# to normal hours (after daylight saving time)". 
# For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure. 
 
# From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12): 
# This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone 
# adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time: 
# http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-21): 
# An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end 
# the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see 
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html 
# "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00, 
# watches should be set back one hour -- going back to 00:00 hours -- returning 
# to the normal schedule.... 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02): 
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html, dated yesterday, 
# says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10. 
# For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules, 
# except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25): 
# Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week  
# earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006. 
#  
# He supplied these references: 
#  
# http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES 
# http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm 
#  
# From Alex Kryvenishev (2007-10-25): 
# Here is also article from Granma (Cuba): 
#  
# [Regira] el Horario Normal desde el [proximo] domingo 28 de octubre 
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html 
#  
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09): 
# I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight 
# Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to 
# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj"> 
# http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj 
# </a>, a Cuban information station, and heard 
# the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"), 
# indicating that Cuba is still on standard time. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12): 
# It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16... 
# It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish): 
# <a href="http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm"> 
# http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm 
# </a> 
# 
# Some more background information is posted here: 
# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html"> 
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html 
# </a> 
# 
# The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963, 
# while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the 
# 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been 
# observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception 
# which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to 
# change some historic records as well. 
# 
# One example: 
# <a href="http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm"> 
# http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm 
# </a> 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-03-13): 
# The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative 
# web site, the Granma.  Please check out 
# <a href="http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html"> 
# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html 
# </a> 
# 
# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsens information, the change 
# will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday. 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12): 
# Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04) 
# According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on 
# midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009- 
# not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought. 
# 
# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html"> 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html 
# (in Spanish) 
# </a> 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09) 
# I listened over the Internet to 
# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj"> 
# http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj 
# </a> 
# this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the 
# the time was announced as "diez cinco"--the same time as here, indicating 
# that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2000    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2006    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S 
Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Cuba    2009    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00s   1:00    D 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT 
                        -5:00   Cuba    C%sT 
 
# Dominica 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Dominica   -4:05:36 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01         # Roseau 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Dominican Republic 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30): 
# Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the 
# time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am.... 
# http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04): 
# That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01): 
# Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday, 
# November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the 
# Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date 
# Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they 
# decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going 
# to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president 
# decided to revert. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HD 
Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       S 
Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890 
                        -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT 
                        -5:00   DR      E%sT    1974 Oct 27 
                        -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29 02:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3 01:00 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# El Salvador 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador 
# instead of America/San_Salvador. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921            # San Salvador 
                        -6:00   Salv    C%sT 
 
# Grenada 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Grenada -4:07:00 -      LMT     1911 Jul        # St George's 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Guadeloupe 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guadeloupe -4:06:08 -      LMT     1911 Jun 8      # Pointe a Pitre 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
# St Barthelemy 
Link America/Guadeloupe America/St_Barthelemy 
# St Martin (French part) 
Link America/Guadeloupe America/Marigot 
 
# Guatemala 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen: 
# Diario Co Latino, at 
# http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079, 
# says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had 
# decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the 
# impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from 
# 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified). 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22): 
# The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006 
# (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See 
# <http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf>. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S 
Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5 
                        -6:00   Guat    C%sT 
 
# Haiti 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15): 
# Risto O. Nykanen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST. 
# I searched for confirmation, and I found a 
# <a href="http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc"> press release 
# on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31), 
# </a>.  Translated from French, it says: 
# 
#  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general 
#   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior 
#   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the 
#   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next 
#   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd. 
# 
#  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform 
#   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour 
#   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in 
#   October 2005. 
# 
#  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005" 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04): 
# I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like 
# last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a 
# "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST 
# next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year). 
# 
# I have found this article about it (in French): 
# http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612 
# 
# The reason seems to be an energy crisis. 
 
# From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22): 
# Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007. 
 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s. 
# Go with IATA. 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1  1:00s   1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S 
Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890 
                        -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT 
                        -5:00   Haiti   E%sT 
 
# Honduras 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05): 
# worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article 
# saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4 
# months until September.  La Tribuna reported today 
# <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president 
# of Honduras, refused to back down on this. 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-08-08): 
# It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at 
# 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration). 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08): 
# Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08) 
# <http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12>. 
# It mentions executive decree 18-2006. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17): 
# Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not 
# published, I have located this authoritative source: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30): 
# http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386 
# So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year.... 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1  0:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr 
                        -6:00   Hond    C%sT 
# 
# Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972 
 
# Jamaica 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Follows US rules. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19): 
# JAMAICA             5 H  BEHIND UTC 
 
# From Shanks & Pottenger: 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:12 -      LMT     1890            # Kingston 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1974 Apr 28 2:00 
                        -5:00   US      E%sT    1984 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Martinique 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890            # Fort-de-France 
                        -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May     # Fort-de-France MT 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6 
                        -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Montserrat 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# In 1995 volcanic eruptions forced evacuation of Plymouth, the capital. 
# world.gazetteer.com says Cork Hill is the most populous location now. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Montserrat -4:08:52 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01   # Cork Hill 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Nicaragua 
# 
# This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12): 
# I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started 
# DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of 
# expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet 
# announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September". 
# Some background information is available on the President's official site: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm 
# The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here: 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01): 
# The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's 
# assume that it is daylight saving.... 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21): 
# The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at 
# http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html 
# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish):  "The last 
# time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000 
# during the Arnoldo Aleman administration."... 
# The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously 
# since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time 
# changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to 
# the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000. 
# 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-11-02): 
# Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time). 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm 
# (2005-09-26) 
# 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-05-05): 
# http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410 
# (my informal translation) 
# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolanos, Nicaragua 
# advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the 
# morning, and will stay that way until 30.th. of september. 
# 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-30): 
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf 
# My informal translation runs: 
# The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the 
# time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16 0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23 0:00    0       S 
Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    0       S 
Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time? 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1973 May 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16 
                        -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1 4:00 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24 
                        -6:00   -       CST     1993 
                        -5:00   -       EST     1997 
                        -6:00   Nic     C%sT 
 
# Panama 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22   # Colon Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       EST 
 
# Puerto Rico 
# There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use `Puerto_Rico'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00    # San Juan 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3 
                        -4:00   US      A%sT    1946 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Kitts-Nevis 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Kitts   -4:10:52 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2      # Basseterre 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Lucia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Lucia   -4:04:00 -      LMT     1890            # Castries 
                        -4:04:00 -      CMT     1912        # Castries Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# St Pierre and Miquelon 
# There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use `Miquelon'. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15     # St Pierre 
                        -4:00   -       AST     1980 May 
                        -3:00   -       PMST    1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time 
                        -3:00   Canada  PM%sT 
 
# St Vincent and the Grenadines 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Vincent -4:04:56 -      LMT     1890            # Kingstown 
                        -4:04:56 -      KMT     1912       # Kingstown Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Turks and Caicos 
# 
# From Chris Dunn in 
# <http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007> 
# (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the 
# daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match 
# the recent U.S. change of dates. 
# 
# From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28): 
# http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26] 
# there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three 
# rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct: 
# "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007 
# Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time" 
# indicating that the normal ET rules are followed. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-01): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998) 
# says they switch at midnight.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    TC      1979    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    TC      1979    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S 
Rule    TC      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    TC      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D 
Rule    TC      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time 
                        -5:00   TC      E%sT 
 
# British Virgin Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Tortola    -4:18:28 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Road Town 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Virgin Is 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/St_Thomas  -4:19:44 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Charlotte Amalie 
                        -4:00   -       AST