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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. 
 
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see 
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-05): 
# 
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is: 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources. 
# 
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source 
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted, 
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. 
# 
# For data circa 1899, a common source is: 
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. 
# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359 
# 
# These tables use numeric abbreviations like -03 and -0330 for 
# integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier editions used 
# alphabetic time zone abbreviations, these abbreviations were 
# invented and did not reflect common practice. 
 
############################################################################### 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Argentina 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976. 
# Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19): 
# ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC 
 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# I am sending modifications to the Argentine time zone table... 
# AR was chosen because they are the ISO letters that represent Argentina. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Arg     1930    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1932    1940    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1932    1939    -       Nov      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1940    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Jun     15      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Dec     15      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1988    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    - 
# 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A., 
# obtaining the data from the: 
# Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina 
# (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute) 
Rule    Arg     1989    1993    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1989    1992    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    - 
# 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# From this moment on, the law that mandated the daylight saving 
# time corrections was derogated and no more modifications 
# to the time zones (for daylight saving) are now made. 
# 
# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10): 
# On October 3, 1999, 0:00 local, Argentina implemented daylight savings time, 
# which did not result in the switch of a time zone, as they stayed 9 hours 
# from the International Date Line. 
Rule    Arg     1999    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-12-28): 
# DST was set to expire on March 5, not March 3, but since it was converted 
# to standard time on March 3 it's more convenient for us to pretend that 
# it ended on March 3. 
Rule    Arg     2000    only    -       Mar     3       0:00    0       - 
# 
# From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01): 
# We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of 
# Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST. 
# So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times. 
# 
# From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04): 
# The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando 
# de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy 
# in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06): 
# one of the major newspapers here in Argentina said that the 1999 
# Timezone Law (which never was effectively applied) will (would?) be 
# in effect.... The article is at 
# http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-06/e-01701.htm 
# ... The Law itself is "Ley No. 25155", sanctioned on 1999-08-25, enacted 
# 1999-09-17, and published 1999-09-21.  The official publication is at: 
# http://www.boletin.jus.gov.ar/BON/Primera/1999/09-Septiembre/21/PDF/BO21-09-99LEG.PDF 
# Regretfully, you have to subscribe (and pay) for the on-line version.... 
# 
# (2001-06-12): 
# the timezone for Argentina will not change next Sunday. 
# Apparently it will do so on Sunday 24th.... 
# http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-12/s-03501.htm 
# 
# (2001-06-25): 
# Last Friday (yes, the last working day before the date of the change), the 
# Senate annulled the 1999 law that introduced the changes later postponed. 
# http://www.clarin.com.ar/diario/2001-06-22/s-03601.htm 
# It remains the vote of the Deputies..., but it will be the same.... 
# This kind of things had always been done this way in Argentina. 
# We are still -03:00 all year round in all of the country. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-12-21): 
# A user (Leonardo Chaim) reported that Argentina will adopt DST.... 
# all of the country (all Zone-entries) are affected.  News reports like 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/opinion/nota.asp?nota_id=973037 indicate 
# that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to 
# March, although exact rules are not given. 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26) 
# The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in 
# the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against. 
# By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to 
# the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are 
# clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval: 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22): 
# For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and 
# are quite possibly wrong, but are more likely than no DST at all. 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-09-05): 
# As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua), 
# Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008. 
# 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html 
# http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish) 
 
# From Juan Manuel Docile in https://bugs.gentoo.org/240339 (2008-10-07) 
# via Rodrigo Severo: 
# Argentinian law No. 25.155 is no longer valid. 
# http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm 
# The new one is law No. 26.350 
# http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm 
# So there is no summer time in Argentina for now. 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20): 
# Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST 
# in Argentina from 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15. 
# http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01 
# 
 
# Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer 
# 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La 
# Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego 
# http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01 
# 
# Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the 
# Province of Jujuy saying it will not apply DST either (even when it was not 
# included in Decree 1705/2008). 
# http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc 
 
# From fullinet (2009-10-18): 
# As announced in 
# http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356 
# (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora" 
# (English: "No hour change"). 
# 
# "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvió no modificar la hora 
# oficial, decisión que estaba en estudio para su implementación el 
# domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificación se anunció 
# que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorológicas, no necesita 
# la modificación del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con 
# crecimiento en la producción y distribución energética." 
 
Rule    Arg     2007    only    -       Dec     30      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Arg     2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     2008    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    - 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-05-21): 
# Today it was officially published that the Province of Mendoza is changing 
# its timezone this winter... starting tomorrow night.... 
# http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040521-27158-normas.pdf 
# From Paul Eggert (2004-05-24): 
# It's Law No. 7,210.  This change is due to a public power emergency, so for 
# now we'll assume it's for this year only. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-01-31): 
# Hora de verano para la República Argentina 
# http://buenasiembra.com.ar/esoterismo/astrologia/hora-de-verano-de-la-republica-argentina-27.html 
# says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31 
# to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25.  Go with this more-precise value 
# over Shanks & Pottenger.  It is upward compatible with Milne, who 
# says Córdoba time was -4:16:48.2. 
 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-05): 
# These media articles from a major newspaper mostly cover the current state: 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/27/de_604825.asp 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/28/de_605203.asp 
# 
# The following eight (8) provinces pulled clocks back to UTC-04:00 at 
# midnight Monday May 31st. (that is, the night between 05/31 and 06/01). 
# Apparently, all nine provinces would go back to UTC-03:00 at the same 
# time in October 17th. 
# 
# Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, 
# Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14): 
# ... this weekend, the Province of Tucumán decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00 
# yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's 
# annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained.... 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2004-06-14): 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/06/10/de_609078.asp ... 
#     "The time change in Tierra del Fuego was a conflicted decision from 
#   the start.  The government had decreed that the measure would take 
#   effect on June 1, but a normative error forced the new time to begin 
#   three days earlier, from a Saturday to a Sunday.... 
# Our understanding was that the change was originally scheduled to take place 
# on June 1 at 00:00 in Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego (and some other 
# provinces).  Sunday was May 30, only two days earlier.  So the article 
# contains a contradiction.  I would give more credence to the Saturday/Sunday 
# date than the "three days earlier" phrase, and conclude that Tierra del 
# Fuego set its clocks back at 2004-05-30 00:00. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-05): 
# The previous law 7210 which changed the province of Mendoza's time zone 
# back in May have been modified slightly in a new law 7277, which set the 
# new end date to 2004-09-26 (original date was 2004-10-17). 
# http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040924-27244-normas.pdf 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-10-05): 
# San Juan changed from UTC-03:00 to UTC-04:00 at midnight between 
# Sunday, May 30th and Monday, May 31st.  It changed back to UTC-03:00 
# at midnight between Saturday, July 24th and Sunday, July 25th.... 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000329.html 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000426.html 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000441.html 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-01-17): 
# Here are articles that Argentina Province San Luis is planning to end DST 
# as earlier as upcoming Monday January 21, 2008 or February 2008: 
# 
# Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del país 
# (Argentine Province delayed clock and mark difference with the rest of the 
# country) 
# http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel 
# 
# Es inminente que en San Luis atrasen una hora los relojes 
# (It is imminent in San Luis clocks one hour delay) 
# https://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/253414/Economia/Es-inminente-que-en-San-Luis-atrasen-una-hora-los-relojes.html 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-18): 
# The page of the San Luis provincial government 
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812 
# confirms what Alex Krivenyshev has earlier sent to the tz 
# emailing list about that San Luis plans to return to standard 
# time much earlier than the rest of the country. It also 
# confirms that upon request the provinces San Juan and Mendoza 
# refused to follow San Luis in this change. 
# 
# The change is supposed to take place Monday the 21st at 0:00 
# hours. As far as I understand it if this goes ahead, we need 
# a new timezone for San Luis (although there are also documented 
# independent changes in the southamerica file of San Luis in 
# 1990 and 1991 which has not been confirmed). 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-25): 
# Unfortunately the below page has become defunct, about the San Luis 
# time change. Perhaps because it now is part of a group of pages "Most 
# important pages of 2008." 
# 
# You can use 
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834 
# instead it seems. Or use "Buscador" from the main page of the San Luis 
# government, and fill in "huso" and click OK, and you will get 3 pages 
# from which the first one is identical to the above. 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2008-01-28): 
# I can confirm that the Province of San Luis (and so far only that 
# province) decided to go back to UTC-3 effective midnight Jan 20th 2008 
# (that is, Monday 21st at 0:00 is the time the clocks were delayed back 
# 1 hour), and they intend to keep UTC-3 as their timezone all year round 
# (that is, unless they change their mind any minute now). 
# 
# So we'll have to add yet another city to 'southamerica' (I think San 
# Luis city is the mos populated city in the Province, so it'd be 
# America/Argentina/San_Luis... of course I can't remember if San Luis's 
# history of particular changes goes along with Mendoza or San Juan :-( 
# (I only remember not being able to collect hard facts about San Luis 
# back in 2004, when these provinces changed to UTC-4 for a few days, I 
# mailed them personally and never got an answer). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12): 
# Unless otherwise specified, data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger through 
# 1992, from the IATA otherwise.  As noted below, Shanks & Pottenger say that 
# America/Cordoba split into 6 subregions during 1991/1992, one of which 
# was America/San_Luis, but we haven't verified this yet so for now we'll 
# keep America/Cordoba a single region rather than splitting it into the 
# other 5 subregions. 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2009-03-13): 
# Yesterday (with our usual 2-day notice) the Province of San Luis 
# decided that next Sunday instead of "staying" @utc-03:00 they will go 
# to utc-04:00 until the second Saturday in October... 
# 
# The press release is at 
# http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102 
# (I couldn't find the decree, but www.sanluis.gov.ar 
# is the official page for the Province Government.) 
# 
# There's also a note in only one of the major national papers ... 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1107912 
# 
# The press release says [quick and dirty translation]: 
# ... announced that next Sunday, at 00:00, Puntanos (the San Luis 
# inhabitants) will have to turn back one hour their clocks 
# 
# Since then, San Luis will establish its own Province timezone. Thus, 
# during 2009, this timezone change will run from 00:00 the third Sunday 
# in March until 24:00 of the second Saturday in October. 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2009-10-16): 
# ...the Province of San Luis is a case in itself. 
# 
# The Law at 
# http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276 
# is ambiguous because establishes a calendar from the 2nd Sunday in 
# October at 0:00 thru the 2nd Saturday in March at 24:00 and the 
# complement of that starting on the 2nd Sunday of March at 0:00 and 
# ending on the 2nd Saturday of March at 24:00. 
# 
# This clearly breaks every time the 1st of March or October is a Sunday. 
# 
# IMHO, the "spirit of the Law" is to make the changes at 0:00 on the 2nd 
# Sunday of October and March. 
# 
# The problem is that the changes in the rest of the Provinces that did 
# change in 2007/2008, were made according to the Federal Law and Decrees 
# that did so on the 3rd Sunday of October and March. 
# 
# In fact, San Luis actually switched from UTC-4 to UTC-3 last Sunday 
# (October 11th) at 0:00. 
# 
# So I guess a new set of rules, besides "Arg", must be made and the last 
# America/Argentina/San_Luis entries should change to use these... 
# ... 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-09): 
# According to news reports from El Diario de la República Province San 
# Luis, Argentina (standard time UTC-04) will keep Daylight Saving Time 
# after April 11, 2010 - will continue to have same time as rest of 
# Argentina (UTC-3) (no DST). 
# 
# Confirmaron la prórroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish) 
# http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9 
# or (some English translation): 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html 
 
# From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12): 
# yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling 
# UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg" 
# rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got 
# stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2018-01-23): 
# Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04 
# with perpetual daylight saving time, but ordinary usage typically seems to 
# just say it's at -03; see, for example, 
# https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina 
# We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to 
# standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC 
# offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor 
# plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ 
# setting for time stamps past 2038. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# 
# Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF), 
Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 
# 
# Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN), 
# Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE) 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified: 
# - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07. 
# - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29. 
# - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04. 
# - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01, 
#   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26. 
# 
Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 
# 
# Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquén (NQ), Rio Negro (RN) 
Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT     1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Tucumán (TM) 
Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 13 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 
# 
# La Rioja (LR) 
Zone America/Argentina/La_Rioja -4:27:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# San Juan (SJ) 
Zone America/Argentina/San_Juan -4:34:04 - LMT  1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Jujuy (JY) 
Zone America/Argentina/Jujuy -4:21:12 - LMT     1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 28 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar 17 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct  6 
                        -3:00   1:00    -02     1992 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH) 
Zone America/Argentina/Catamarca -4:23:08 - LMT 1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Mendoza (MZ) 
Zone America/Argentina/Mendoza -4:35:16 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     1992 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1992 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 23 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Sep 26 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# San Luis (SL) 
 
Rule    SanLuis 2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00    0       - 
Rule    SanLuis 2007    2008    -       Oct     Sun>=8  0:00    1:00    - 
 
Zone America/Argentina/San_Luis -4:25:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 
                        -3:00   1:00    -02     1990 Mar 14 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1991 Jun  1 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Jan 21 
                        -4:00   SanLuis -04/-03 2009 Oct 11 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Santa Cruz (SC) 
Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT      1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF) 
Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
 
# Aruba 
Link America/Curacao America/Aruba 
 
# Bolivia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT 
                        -4:32:36 1:00   BST     1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST 
                        -4:00   -       -04 
 
# Brazil 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18): 
# The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules 
# just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade. 
# The rule change lasted only part of the day; 
# the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business 
# was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon. 
 
# From IATA SSIM (1996-02): 
# _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS), 
# Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 
# Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO), 
# Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL]. 
# [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.] 
 
# From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07): 
# Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goiás until 1989), and other 
# sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were 
# always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST.... 
# The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91.  Each issue from then until 
# 9/95 says that DST is observed only in the ten states I quoted from 9/95, 
# along with Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), which are in BR2 
# (UTC-4)....  The other two time zones given for Brazil are BR3, which is 
# UTC-5, no DST, and applies only in the state of Acre (AC); and BR4, which is 
# UTC-2, and applies to Fernando de Noronha (formerly FN, but I believe it's 
# become part of the state of Pernambuco).  The boundary between BR1 and BR2 
# has never been clearly stated.  They've simply been called East and West. 
# However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline 
# Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil.  For each 
# airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM.  From that 
# information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapá (AP), Ceará (CE), 
# Maranhão (MA), Paraíba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Rio Grande do 
# Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Pará (PA) are all in BR1 without DST. 
 
# From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27): 
# Brazilian official page <http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html> 
 
# From Jesper Nørgaard (2000-11-03): 
# [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:] 
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm 
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm 
 
# From Celso Doria via David Madeo (2002-10-09): 
# The reason for the delay this year has to do with elections in Brazil. 
# 
# Unlike in the United States, elections in Brazil are 100% computerized and 
# the results are known almost immediately.  Yesterday, it was the first 
# round of the elections when 115 million Brazilians voted for President, 
# Governor, Senators, Federal Deputies, and State Deputies.  Nobody is 
# counting (or re-counting) votes anymore and we know there will be a second 
# round for the Presidency and also for some Governors.  The 2nd round will 
# take place on October 27th. 
# 
# The reason why the DST will only begin November 3rd is that the thousands 
# of electoral machines used cannot have their time changed, and since the 
# Constitution says the elections must begin at 8:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM, 
# the Government decided to postpone DST, instead of changing the Constitution 
# (maybe, for the next elections, it will be possible to change the clock)... 
 
# From Rodrigo Severo (2004-10-04): 
# It's just the biannual change made necessary by the much hyped, supposedly 
# modern Brazilian eletronic voting machines which, apparently, can't deal 
# with a time change between the first and the second rounds of the elections. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-20): 
# Brazil will start DST on 2007-10-14 00:00 and end on 2008-02-17 00:00: 
# http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do;jsessionid=BBA06811AFCAAC28F0285210913513DA?newsId=13975 
 
# From Paul Schulze (2008-06-24): 
# ...by law number 11.662 of April 24, 2008 (published in the "Diario 
# Oficial da União"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones, 
# effective today (00:00am at June 24, 2008) as follows: 
# 
# a) The timezone UTC+5 is extinguished, with all the Acre state and the 
# part of the Amazonas state that had this timezone now being put to the 
# timezone UTC+4 
# b) The whole Pará state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just 
# part of it, as was before. 
# 
# This change follows a proposal of senator Tiao Viana of Acre state, that 
# proposed it due to concerns about open television channels displaying 
# programs inappropriate to youths in the states that had the timezone 
# UTC+5 too early in the night. In the occasion, some more corrections 
# were proposed, trying to unify the timezones of any given state. This 
# change modifies timezone rules defined in decree 2.784 of 18 June, 
# 1913. 
 
# From Rodrigo Severo (2008-06-24): 
# Just correcting the URL: 
# https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008 
# 
# As a result of the above Decree I believe the America/Rio_Branco 
# timezone shall be modified from UTC-5 to UTC-4 and a new timezone shall 
# be created to represent the...west side of the Pará State. I 
# suggest this new timezone be called Santarem as the most 
# important/populated city in the affected area. 
# 
# This new timezone would be the same as the Rio_Branco timezone up to 
# the 2008/06/24 change which would be to UTC-3 instead of UTC-4. 
 
# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-24): 
# This is a quick reference page for New and Old Brazil Time Zones map. 
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php 
# 
# - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones - eliminating time zone UTC-05 
# (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT-04) - western 
# part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC-03 (from UTC-04). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10): 
# The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from 
# Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil. 
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-29): 
# As announced by the government and many newspapers in Brazil late 
# yesterday, Brazil will start DST on 2008-10-19 (need to change rule) and 
# it will end on 2009-02-15 (current rule for Brazil is fine). Based on 
# past years experience with the elections, there was a good chance that 
# the start was postponed to November, but it did not happen this year. 
# 
# It has not yet been posted to http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html 
# 
# An official page about it: 
# http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722 
# Note that this link does not always work directly, but must be accessed 
# by going to 
# http://www.mme.gov.br/first 
# 
# One example link that works directly: 
# http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54 
# (Portuguese) 
# 
# We have a written a short article about it as well: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html 
# 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-04): 
# State Bahia will return to Daylight savings time this year after 8 years off. 
# The announcement was made by Governor Jaques Wagner in an interview to a 
# television station in Salvador. 
 
# In Portuguese: 
# http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html 
# https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html 
 
# From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-07): 
# There is news in the media, however there is still no decree about it. 
# I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at http://pcdsh01.on.br/ the 
# official agency about time in Brazil, and she confirmed that the old rule is 
# still in force. 
 
# From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-14) 
# It's official, the President signed a decree that includes Bahia in summer 
# time. 
#        [ and in a second message (same day): ] 
# I found the decree. 
# 
# DECRETO No. 7.584, DE 13 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011 
# Link : 
# http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6 
 
# From Kelley Cook (2012-10-16): 
# The governor of state of Bahia in Brazil announced on Thursday that 
# due to public pressure, he is reversing the DST policy they implemented 
# last year and will not be going to Summer Time on October 21st.... 
# http://www.correio24horas.com.br/r/artigo/apos-pressoes-wagner-suspende-horario-de-verao-na-bahia 
 
# From Rodrigo Severo (2012-10-16): 
# Tocantins state will have DST. 
# https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI6232536-EI306.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-20): 
# Tocantins in Brazil is very likely not to observe DST from October.... 
# http://conexaoto.com.br/2013/09/18/ministerio-confirma-que-tocantins-esta-fora-do-horario-de-verao-em-2013-mas-falta-publicacao-de-decreto 
# We will keep this article updated when this is confirmed: 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-starts-dst-2013.html 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-10-17): 
# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/acre-amazonas-change-time-zone.html 
# Senator Jorge Viana announced that Acre will change time zone on November 10. 
# He did not specify the time of the change, nor if western parts of Amazonas 
# will change as well. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2013-10-17): 
# For now, assume western Amazonas will change as well. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Decree 20,466 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm> (1931-10-01) 
# Decree 21,896 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm> (1932-01-10) 
Rule    Brazil  1931    only    -       Oct      3      11:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1932    1933    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1932    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 23,195 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm> (1933-10-10) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree 27,496 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm> (1949-11-24) 
# Decree 27,998 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm> (1950-04-13) 
Rule    Brazil  1949    1952    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1950    only    -       Apr     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1951    1952    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 32,308 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm> (1953-02-24) 
Rule    Brazil  1953    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 34,724 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm> (1953-11-30) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree 52,700 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm> (1963-10-18) 
# established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00 
# in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought. 
# Decree 53,071 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm> (1963-12-03) 
# extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09. 
Rule    Brazil  1963    only    -       Dec      9       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 53,604 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm> (1964-02-25) 
# extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school). 
Rule    Brazil  1964    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 55,639 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm> (1965-01-27) 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Mar     31       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 57,303 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm> (1965-11-22) 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 57,843 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm> (1966-02-18) 
Rule    Brazil  1966    1968    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1966    1967    -       Nov      1       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 63,429 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm> (1968-10-15) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree 91,698 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm> (1985-09-27) 
Rule    Brazil  1985    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21) 
# Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13) 
Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01) 
Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Feb     14       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 94,922 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm> (1987-09-22) 
Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Feb      7       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 96,676 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm> (1988-09-12) 
# except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory) 
Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Jan     29       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 98,077 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm> (1989-08-21) 
# with the same exceptions 
Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Oct     15       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 99,530 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm> (1990-09-17) 
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF. 
# Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT. 
Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Feb     17       0:00   0       - 
# Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm> (1991-09-25) 
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF. 
Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Oct     20       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Feb      9       0:00   0       - 
# Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm> (1992-10-16) 
# adopted by same states. 
Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1993    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 942 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm> (1993-09-28) 
# adopted by same states, plus AM. 
# Decree 1,252 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm> (1994-09-22; 
# web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM. 
# Decree 1,636 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm> (1995-09-14) 
# adopted by same states, plus MT and TO. 
# Decree 1,674 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm> (1995-10-13) 
# adds AL, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  1993    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=11  0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1994    1995    -       Feb     Sun>=15  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 2,000 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm> (1996-09-04) 
# adopted by same states, minus AL, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Feb     16       0:00   0       - 
# From Daniel C. Sobral (1998-02-12): 
# In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that 
# because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS, 
# they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit. 
# This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1 
# to help dealing with the shortages of electric power. 
# 
# Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states. 
Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 2,495 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG> 
# (1998-02-10) 
Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 2,780 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg> (1998-09-11) 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Oct     11       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Feb     21       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 3,150 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif> 
# (1999-08-23) adopted by same states. 
# Decree 3,188 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif> (1999-09-30) 
# adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR. 
Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  2000    only    -       Feb     27       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 3,592 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm> (2000-09-06) 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
# Decree 3,630 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg> (2000-10-13) 
# repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00. 
# Decree 3,632 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg> (2000-10-17) 
# repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00. 
# Decree 3,916 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif> 
# (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  2000    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=8   0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  2001    2006    -       Feb     Sun>=15  0:00   0       - 
# Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE. 
# 4,399 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm> 
Rule    Brazil  2002    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO. 
# 4,844 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm> 
Rule    Brazil  2003    only    -       Oct     19       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT. 
# 5,223 <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm> 
Rule    Brazil  2004    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 5,539 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif> (2005-09-19), 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  2005    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    - 
# Decree 5,920 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif> (2006-10-03), 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  2006    only    -       Nov      5       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26), 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8   0:00   1:00    - 
# From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10): 
# According to this decree 
# http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm 
# [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the 
# 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is 
# the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday... 
Rule    Brazil  2008    2017    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
# Decree 7,584 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7584_20111013.jpg> (2011-10-13) 
# added Bahia. 
Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
# Decree 7,826 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7826_20121015.jpg> (2012-10-15) 
# removed Bahia and added Tocantins. 
# Decree 8,112 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto8112_20130930.JPG> (2013-09-30) 
# removed Tocantins. 
Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2016    2022    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-18): 
# According to many media sources, next year's DST start in Brazil will move to 
# the first Sunday of November, and it will stay like that for the years after. 
# ... https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-delays-dst-2018.html 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-20): 
# http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/D9242.htm 
Rule    Brazil  2018    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Brazil  2023    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2024    2025    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2026    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2027    2033    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2034    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2035    2036    -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Brazil  2037    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
# From Arthur David Olson (2008-09-29): 
# The next is wrong in some years but is better than nothing. 
Rule    Brazil  2038    max     -       Feb     Sun>=15 0:00    0       - 
 
# The latest ruleset listed above says that the following states observe DST: 
# DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP. 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# 
# Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE) 
Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914 
                        -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17 
                        -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30 
                        -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15 
                        -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13 
                        -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1 
                        -2:00   -       -02 
# Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement. 
# These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES), 
# Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE). 
# Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01; 
# it also included the Penedos. 
# 
# Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA) 
# East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu. 
# The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu. 
# In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess, 
# the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu. 
Zone America/Belem      -3:13:56 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1988 Sep 12 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# west Pará (PA) 
# West Pará includes Altamira, Óbidos, Prainha, Oriximiná, and Santarém. 
Zone America/Santarem   -3:38:48 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2008 Jun 24  0:00 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN), 
# Paraíba (PB) 
Zone America/Fortaleza  -2:34:00 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Pernambuco (PE) (except Atlantic islands) 
Zone America/Recife     -2:19:36 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 15 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Tocantins (TO) 
Zone America/Araguaina  -3:12:48 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1995 Sep 14 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2012 Oct 21 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2013 Sep 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE) 
Zone America/Maceio     -2:22:52 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1995 Oct 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1996 Sep  4 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Bahia (BA) 
# There are too many Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/Bahia instead 
# of America/Salvador. 
Zone America/Bahia      -2:34:04 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24 
                        -3:00   -       -03     2011 Oct 16 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2012 Oct 21 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
# 
# Goiás (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG), 
# Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR), 
# Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS) 
Zone America/Sao_Paulo  -3:06:28 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1963 Oct 23  0:00 
                        -3:00   1:00    -02     1964 
                        -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 
# 
# Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) 
Zone America/Campo_Grande -3:38:28 -    LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 
# 
# Mato Grosso (MT) 
Zone America/Cuiaba     -3:44:20 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2003 Sep 24 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2004 Oct  1 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 
# 
# Rondônia (RO) 
Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 -     LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       -04 
# 
# Roraima (RR) 
Zone America/Boa_Vista  -4:02:40 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1999 Sep 30 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2000 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   -       -04 
# 
# east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutaí, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto 
# The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides 
# east from west Amazonas. 
Zone America/Manaus     -4:00:04 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1993 Sep 28 
                        -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1994 Sep 22 
                        -4:00   -       -04 
# 
# west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant, 
#       Eirunepé, Envira, Ipixuna 
Zone America/Eirunepe   -4:39:28 -      LMT     1914 
                        -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1993 Sep 28 
                        -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1994 Sep 22 
                        -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10 
                        -5:00   -       -05 
# 
# Acre (AC) 
Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 -      LMT     1914 
                        -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12 
                        -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10 
                        -5:00   -       -05 
 
# Chile 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-04-03): 
# Shanks & Pottenger says America/Santiago introduced standard time in 
# 1890 and rounds its UT offset to 70W40; guess that in practice this 
# was the same offset as in 1916-1919.  It also says Pacific/Easter 
# standardized on 109W22 in 1890; assume this didn't change the clocks. 
# 
# Dates for America/Santiago from 1910 to 2004 are primarily from 
# the following source, cited by Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08): 
# [1] Chile Law 
# http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/chile.html 
# This contains a copy of this official table: 
# Cambios en la hora oficial de Chile desde 1900 (retrieved 2008-03-30) 
# https://web.archive.org/web/20080330200901/http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm 
# [1] needs several corrections, though. 
# 
# The first set of corrections is from: 
# [2] History of the Official Time of Chile 
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html (retrieved 2012-03-06).  See: 
# https://web.archive.org/web/20120306042032/http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html 
# This is an English translation of: 
# Historia de la hora oficial de Chile (retrieved 2012-10-24).  See: 
# https://web.archive.org/web/20121024234627/http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm 
# A fancier Spanish version (requiring mouse-clicking) is at: 
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/historia_hora.html 
# Conflicts between [1] and [2] were resolved as follows: 
# 
#  - [1] says the 1910 transition was Jan 1, [2] says Jan 10 and cites 
#    Boletín No. 1, Aviso No. 1 (1910).  Go with [2]. 
# 
#  - [1] says SMT was -4:42:45, [2] says Chile's official time from 
#    1916 to 1919 was -4:42:46.3, the meridian of Chile's National 
#    Astronomical Observatory (OAN), then located in what is now 
#    Quinta Normal in Santiago.  Go with [2], rounding it to -4:42:46. 
# 
#  - [1] says the 1918 transition was Sep 1, [2] says Sep 10 and cites 
#    Boletín No. 22, Aviso No. 129/1918 (1918-08-23).  Go with [2]. 
# 
#  - [1] does not give times for transitions; assume they occur 
#    at midnight mainland time, the current common practice.  However, 
#    go with [2]'s specification of 23:00 for the 1947-05-21 transition. 
# 
# Another correction to [1] is from Jesper Nørgaard Welen, who 
# wrote (2006-10-08), "I think that there are some obvious mistakes in 
# the suggested link from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66 
# says that GMT-4 ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at 
# 1990-09-15 (they should have been 1990-09-15 and 1990-09-16 
# respectively), but anyhow it clears up some doubts too." 
# 
# Data for Pacific/Easter from 1910 through 1967 come from Shanks & 
# Pottenger.  After that, for lack of better info assume 
# Pacific/Easter is always two hours behind America/Santiago; 
# this is known to work for DST transitions starting in 2008 and 
# may well be true for earlier transitions. 
 
# From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19): 
# The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY 
# of October....  The law is the same for March and October. 
# (1998-09-29): 
# Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into 
# DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ... 
# (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess). 
 
# From Julio I. Pacheco Troncoso (1999-03-18): 
# Because of the same drought, the government decided to end DST later, 
# on April 3, (one-time change). 
 
# From Germán Poo-Caamaño (2008-03-03): 
# Due to drought, Chile extends Daylight Time in three weeks.  This 
# is one-time change (Saturday 3/29 at 24:00 for America/Santiago 
# and Saturday 3/29 at 22:00 for Pacific/Easter) 
# The Supreme Decree is located at 
# http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf 
# 
# From José Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05): 
# http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm 
 
# From Angel Chiang (2010-03-04): 
# Subject: DST in Chile exceptionally extended to 3 April due to earthquake 
# http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098 
# 
# From Arthur David Olson (2010-03-06): 
# Angel Chiang's message confirmed by Julio Pacheco; Julio provided a patch. 
 
# From Glenn Eychaner (2011-03-28): 
# http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E} 
# In English: 
# Chile's clocks will go back an hour this year on the 7th of May instead 
# of this Saturday. They will go forward again the 3rd Saturday in 
# August, not in October as they have since 1968. 
 
# From Mauricio Parada (2012-02-22), translated by Glenn Eychaner (2012-02-23): 
# As stated in the website of the Chilean Energy Ministry 
# http://www.minenergia.cl/ministerio/noticias/generales/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de.html 
# The Chilean Government has decided to postpone the entrance into winter time 
# (to leave DST) from March 11 2012 to April 28th 2012.... 
# Quote from the website communication: 
# 
# 6. For the year 2012, the dates of entry into winter time will be as follows: 
# a. Saturday April 28, 2012, clocks should go back 60 minutes; that is, at 
# 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be 23:00 
# of the same day. 
# b. Saturday, September 1, 2012, clocks should go forward 60 minutes; that is, 
# at 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be 
# 01:00 on September 2. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-02-15): 
# According to several news sources, Chile has extended DST this year, 
# they will end DST later and start DST earlier than planned.  They 
# hope to save energy.  The new end date is 2013-04-28 00:00 and new 
# start date is 2013-09-08 00:00.... 
# http://www.gob.cl/informa/2013/02/15/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de-hora-para-el-ano-2013.htm 
 
# From José Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19): 
# Today appeared in the Diario Oficial a decree amending the time change 
# dates to 2014. 
# DST End: last Saturday of April 2014 (Sun 27 Apr 2014 03:00 UTC) 
# DST Start: first Saturday of September 2014 (Sun 07 Sep 2014 04:00 UTC) 
# http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl//media/2014/02/19/do-20140219.pdf 
 
# From Eduardo Romero Urra (2015-03-03): 
# Today has been published officially that Chile will use the DST time 
# permanently until March 25 of 2017 
# http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/media/2015/03/03/1-large.jpg 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03): 
# For now, assume that the extension will persist indefinitely. 
 
# From Juan Correa (2016-03-18): 
# The decree regarding DST has been published in today's Official Gazette: 
# http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/versiones-anteriores/do/20160318/ 
# http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1088502 
# It does consider the second Saturday of May and August as the dates 
# for the transition; and it lists DST dates until 2019, but I think 
# this scheme will stick. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): 
# For now, assume the pattern holds for the indefinite future. 
# The decree says transitions occur at 24:00; in practice this appears 
# to mean 24:00 mainland time, not 24:00 local time, so that Easter 
# Island is always two hours behind the mainland. 
 
# From Juan Correa (2016-12-04): 
# Magallanes region ... will keep DST (UTC -3) all year round.... 
# http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2016/12/04/433428/Bachelet-firmo-el-decreto-para-establecer-un-horario-unico-para-la-Region-de-Magallanes.aspx 
# 
# From Deborah Goldsmith (2017-01-19): 
# http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2017/01/17/41660/01/1169626.pdf 
# From Paul Eggert (2017-01-19): 
# The above says the Magallanes change expires 2019-05-11 at 24:00, 
# so in theory, they will revert to -04/-03 after that, which means 
# they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day. 
# For now, assume that they will not revert. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
# N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time, 
# which is used below in specifying the transition. 
Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16 4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23 3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2  4:00u   1:00    - 
Rule    Chile   2016    max     -       May     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   2016    max     -       Aug     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    - 
# IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14; 
# (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1 
                        -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00 
                        -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 
Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1 
                        -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00 
                        -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
Zone Pacific/Easter     -7:17:28 -      LMT     1890 
                        -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time 
                        -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time 
                        -6:00   Chile   -06/-05 
# 
# Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited. 
# Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is, 
# and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago. 
 
# Antarctic base using South American rules 
# (See the file 'antarctica' for more.) 
# 
# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968) 
# 
# From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06): 
# It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us 
# and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line.... 
# I verified with someone who was there that since 1980, 
# Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War, 
# Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965 
                        -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May 
                        -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
 
# Colombia 
 
# Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes, 
# "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare." 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13 
                        -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time 
                        -5:00   CO      -05/-04 
# Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres 
# no information; probably like America/Bogota 
 
# Curaçao 
 
# Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at 
# -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that 
# Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from 
# 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say 
# Saba Island has been like Curaçao. 
# This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though. 
# 
# By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become 
# associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba; 
# Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the 
# Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones 
# though, as far as we know. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad 
                        -4:30   -       -0430   1965 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15): 
# use links for places with new iso3166 codes. 
# The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters 
# and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below. 
 
Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten 
Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands 
 
# Ecuador 
# 
# Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15. 
# 
# From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15): 
# https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html 
# ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know. 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15): 
# https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html 
# This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which 
# established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition 
# times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did 
# not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics 
# that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin 
# sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class 
# without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás" 
# (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not 
# repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       - 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time 
                        -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04 
Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno 
                        -5:00   -       -05     1986 
                        -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05 
 
# Falklands 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except 
# the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22) 
# via Jesper Nørgaard: 
# ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15 
# April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2 
# September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2 
# am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on 
# Sunday 1 September. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-02-13): 
# 
# I have communicated several times with people there, and the last 
# time I had communications that was helpful was in 1998.  Here is 
# what was said then: 
# 
# "The general rule was that Stanley used daylight saving and the Camp 
# did not. However for various reasons many people in the Camp have 
# started to use daylight saving (known locally as 'Stanley Time') 
# There is no rule as to who uses daylight saving - it is a matter of 
# personal choice and so it is impossible to draw a map showing who 
# uses it and who does not. Any list would be out of date as soon as 
# it was produced. This year daylight saving ended on April 18/19th 
# and started again on September 12/13th.  I do not know what the rule 
# is, but can find out if you like.  We do not change at the same time 
# as UK or Chile." 
# 
# I did have in my notes that the rule was "Second Saturday in Sep at 
# 0:00 until third Saturday in Apr at 0:00".  I think that this does 
# not agree in some cases with Shanks; is this true? 
# 
# Also, there is no mention in the list that some areas in the 
# Falklands do not use DST.  I have found in my communications there 
# that these areas are on the western half of East Falkland and all of 
# West Falkland.  Stanley is the only place that consistently observes 
# DST.  Again, as in other places in the world, the farmers don't like 
# it.  West Falkland is almost entirely sheep farmers. 
# 
# I know one lady there that keeps a list of which farm keeps DST and 
# which doesn't each year.  She runs a shop in Stanley, and says that 
# the list changes each year.  She uses it to communicate to her 
# customers, catching them when they are home for lunch or dinner. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05): 
# For now, we'll just record the time in Stanley, since we have no 
# better info. 
 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-04-01): 
# The Falkland Islands will not turn back clocks this winter, but stay on 
# daylight saving time. 
# 
# One source: 
# http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3 
# 
# We have gotten this confirmed by a clerk of the legislative assembly: 
# Normally the clocks revert to Local Mean Time (UTC/GMT -4 hours) on the 
# third Sunday of April at 0200hrs and advance to Summer Time (UTC/GMT -3 
# hours) on the first Sunday of September at 0200hrs. 
# 
# IMPORTANT NOTE: During 2011, on a trial basis, the Falkland Islands 
# will not revert to local mean time, but clocks will remain on Summer 
# time (UTC/GMT - 3 hours) throughout the whole of 2011.  Any long term 
# change to local time following the trial period will be notified. 
# 
# From Andrew Newman (2012-02-24) 
# A letter from Justin McPhee, Chief Executive, 
# Cable & Wireless Falkland Islands (dated 2012-02-22) 
# states... 
#   The current Atlantic/Stanley entry under South America expects the 
#   clocks to go back to standard Falklands Time (FKT) on the 15th April. 
#   The database entry states that in 2011 Stanley was staying on fixed 
#   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or 
#   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting 
#   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years. 
# 
# For now we will assume permanent -03 for the Falklands 
# until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011 
# experiment was apparently successful.) 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9  0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890 
                        -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time 
                        -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May 
                        -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15 
                        -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
 
# French Guiana 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
 
# Guyana 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown 
                        -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1991 
# IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch. 
                        -4:00   -       -04 
 
# Paraguay 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00, 
# and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999 
# editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00. 
# 
# From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20): 
# No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally 
# adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates. 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1979    1991    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1989    only    -       Oct     22      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1990    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1991    only    -       Oct      6      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1993    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1993    1995    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    1994    1995    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1996    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (2000-02) says 1999-10-10; ignore this for now. 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-02): 
# I have three independent reports that Paraguay changed to DST this Sunday 
# (10-01). 
# 
# Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from 
# Noticias, a daily paper in Asunción, Paraguay (2000-10-01): 
# http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm 
# Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in 
# fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power....  The time change 
# system has been operating for several years.  Formerly there was a separate 
# decree each year; the new law has the same effect, but permanently.  Every 
# year, the time will change on the first Sunday of October; likewise, the 
# clock will be set back on the first Sunday of March. 
# 
Rule    Para    1996    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Mar 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Para    1997    only    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1999-02-28; IATA SSIM (1999-02) says 1999-02-27, but 
# (1999-09) reports no date; go with above sources and Gerd Knops (2001-02-27). 
Rule    Para    1998    2001    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
# From Rives McDow (2002-02-28): 
# A decree was issued in Paraguay (No. 16350) on 2002-02-26 that changed the 
# dst method to be from the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in 
# April. 
Rule    Para    2002    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    2002    2003    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
# 
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-01-02): 
# There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made 
# a timezone rule change in autumn 2004. 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05): 
# Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05) 
# From Carlos Raúl Perasso via Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-13) 
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf 
Rule    Para    2004    2009    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    2005    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00    0       - 
# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2010-02-18): 
# By decree number 3958 issued yesterday 
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf 
# Paraguay changes its DST schedule, postponing the March rule to April and 
# modifying the October date. The decree reads: 
# ... 
# Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of 
# April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes, 
# and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set 
# forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic. 
# ... 
Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8  0:00    0       - 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07): 
# Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00.... 
# http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075 
# 
# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15): 
# The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780 
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf 
# From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28): 
# Decree 1264 can be found at: 
# http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf 
Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22 0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890 
                        -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct 
                        -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr 
                        -4:00   Para    -04/-03 
 
# Peru 
# 
# From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26) 
# <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>: 
# When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over 
# sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
# IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    - 
Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time? 
                        -5:00   Peru    -05/-04 
 
# South Georgia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken 
                        -2:00   -       -02 
 
# South Sandwich Is 
# uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered 
 
# Suriname 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911 
                        -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time 
                        -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved? 
                        -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct 
                        -3:00   -       -03 
 
# Trinidad and Tobago 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970. 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part) 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US) 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent 
Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK) 
 
# Uruguay 
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18): 
# Uruguay wins the prize for the strangest peacetime manipulation of the rules. 
# 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-20), per Jeremie Bonjour (2018-01-31) and Michael 
# Deckers (2018-02-20): 
# ... At least they kept good records... 
# 
# http://www.armada.mil.uy/ContenidosPDFs/sohma/web/almanaque/almanaque_2018.pdf#page=36 
# Page 36 of Almanaque 2018, published by the Oceanography, Hydrography, and 
# Meteorology Service of the Uruguayan Navy, seems to give many transitions 
# with greater clarity than we've had before.  It directly references many laws 
# and decrees which are, in turn, referenced below.  They can be viewed in the 
# public archives of the Diario Oficial (in Spanish) at 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/ 
# 
# Ley No. 3920 of 1908-06-10 placed the determination of legal time under the 
# auspices of the National Institute for the Prediction of Time.  It is unclear 
# exactly what offset was used during this period, though Ley No. 7200 of 
# 1920-04-23 used the Observatory of the National Meteorological Institute in 
# Montevideo (34° 54' 33" S, 56° 12' 45" W) as its reference meridian, 
# retarding legal time by 15 minutes 9 seconds from 1920-04-30 24:00, 
# resulting in UT-04.  Assume the corresponding LMT of UT-03:44:51 (given on 
# page 725 of the Proceedings of the Second Pan-American Scientific Congress, 
# 1915-1916) was in use, and merely became official from 1908-06-10. 
# https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1908/06/18/12 
# https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1920/04/27/9 
# 
# Ley No. 7594 of 1923-06-28 specified legal time as Observatory time advanced 
# by 44 minutes 51 seconds (UT-03) "from 30 September to 31 March", and by 14 
# minutes 51 seconds (UT-03:30) "the rest of the year"; a message from the 
# National Council of Administration the same day, published directly below the 
# law in the Diario Oficial, specified the first transition to be 1923-09-30 
# 24:00.  This effectively established standard time at UT-03:30 with 30 
# minutes DST.  Assume transitions at 24:00 on the specified days until Ley No. 
# 7919 of 1926-03-05 ended this arrangement, repealing all "laws and other 
# provisions which oppose" it, resulting in year-round UT-03:30; a Resolución 
# of 1926-03-11 puts the final transition at 1926-03-31 24:00, the same as it 
# would have been under the previous law. 
# https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1923/07/02/2 
# https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/10/2 
# https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/18/2 
# 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Uruguay 1923    1925    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1924    1926    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1933/10/27/6 
# 
# It appears Ley No. 9122 of 1933 was never published as such in the Diario 
# Oficial, but instead appeared as Document 26 in the Diario on Friday 
# 1933-10-27 as a decree made Monday 1933-10-23 and filed under the Ministry of 
# National Defense.  It reinstituted a DST of 30 minutes (to UT-03) "from the 
# last Sunday of October...until the last Saturday of March."  In accordance 
# with this provision, the first transition was explicitly specified in Article 
# 2 of the decree as Saturday 1933-10-28 at 24:00; that is, Sunday 1933-10-29 
# at 00:00.  Assume transitions at 00:00 Sunday throughout. 
# 
# Departing from the matter-of-fact nature of previous timekeeping laws, the 
# 1933 decree "consider[s] the advantages of...the advance of legal time": 
# 
#   "Whereas: The measure adopted by almost all nations at the time of the last 
#    World War still persists in North America and Europe, precisely because of 
#    the economic, hygienic, and social advantages derived from such an 
#    emergency measure... 
# 
#    Whereas: The advance of the legal time during the summer seasons, by 
#    displacing social activity near sunrise, favors the citizen populations 
#    and especially the society that creates and works..." 
# 
# It further specified that "necessary measures" be taken to ensure that 
# "public spectacles finish, in general, before [01:00]." 
Rule    Uruguay 1933    1938    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1934    1941    -       Mar     lastSat 24:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Most of the Rules below, and their contemporaneous Zone lines, have been 
# updated simply to match the Almanaque 2018.  Although the document does not 
# list exact transition times, midnight transitions were already present in our 
# data here for all transitions through 2004-09, and this is both consistent 
# with prior transitions and verified in several decrees marked below between 
# 1939-09 and 2004-09, wherein the relevant text was typically of the form: 
# 
#   "From 0 hours on [date], the legal time of the entire Republic will be... 
# 
#    In accordance with [the preceding], on [previous date] at 24 hours, all 
#    clocks throughout the Republic will be [advanced/retarded] by..." 
# 
# It is possible that there is greater specificity to be found for the Rules 
# below, but it is buried in no fewer than 40 different decrees individually 
# referenced by the Almanaque for the period from 1939-09 to 2014-09. 
# Four-fifths of these were promulgated less than two weeks before taking 
# effect; more than half within a week and none more than 5 weeks.  Only the 
# handful with comments below have been checked with any thoroughness. 
Rule    Uruguay 1939    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1940    only    -       Oct     27       0:00   0:30    - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 1145 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1941-07-26, specified 
# UT-03 from Friday 1941-08-01 00:00, citing an "urgent...need to save fuel". 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1941/08/04/1 
Rule    Uruguay 1941    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0:30    - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 1866 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1942-12-09, specified 
# further advancement (to UT-02:30) from Sunday 1942-12-13 24:00.  Since clocks 
# never went back to UT-03:30 thereafter, this is modeled as advancing standard 
# time by 30 minutes to UT-03, while retaining 30 minutes of DST. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1942/12/16/3 
Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1943    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       May     24       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       Nov     15       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Jan     17       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Apr      4       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Sep     26       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 321/968 of 1968-05-25, citing emergency drought measures decreed the 
# day before, brought clocks forward 30 minutes from Monday 1968-05-27 00:00. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1968/05/30/5 
Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       May     27       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 188/970 of 1970-04-23 instituted restrictions on electricity 
# consumption "as a consequence of the current rainfall regime in the country". 
# Articles 13 and 14 advanced clocks by an hour from Saturday 1970-04-25 00:00. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1970/04/29/4 
Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Jun     14       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Apr     23       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Jul     16       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 29/974 of 1974-01-11, citing "the international rise in the price of 
# oil", advanced clocks by 90 minutes (to UT-01:30).  Decreto 163/974 of 
# 1974-03-04 returned 60 of those minutes (to UT-02:30), and the remaining 30 
# minutes followed in Decreto 679/974 of 1974-08-29. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/01/22/11 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/03/14/3 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/09/04/6 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Jan     13       0:00   1:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Mar     10       0:00   0:30    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Dec     22       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1975    only    -       Mar     30       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1976    only    -       Dec     19       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Dec      4       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1978    1979    -       Mar     Sun>=1   0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1978    only    -       Dec     17       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1979    only    -       Apr     29       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1980    only    -       Mar     16       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 725/987 of 1987-12-04 cited "better use of national tourist 
# attractions" to advance clocks one hour from Monday 1987-12-14 00:00. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1988/01/25/1 
Rule    Uruguay 1987    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Dec     11       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Mar      5       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1990    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Paul Eggert (1999-11-04): 
# IATA agrees as below for 1990-10 through 1993-02.  Per Almanaque 2018, the 
# 1992/1993 season appears to be the first in over half a century where DST 
# both began and ended pursuant to the same decree. 
Rule    Uruguay 1990    1991    -       Oct     Sun>=21  0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1991    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1   0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1992    only    -       Oct     18       0:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 1993    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       - 
# From Eduardo Cota (2004-09-20): 
# The Uruguayan government has decreed a change in the local time.... 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 328/004 of 2004-09-15. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2004/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1 
Rule    Uruguay 2004    only    -       Sep     19       0:00   1:00    - 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-03-11): 
# Uruguay's DST was scheduled to end on Sunday, 2005-03-13, but in order to 
# save energy ... it was postponed two weeks.... 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# This 2005 postponement is not in Almanaque 2018.  Go with the contemporaneous 
# reporting, which is confirmed by Decreto 107/005 of 2005-03-10 amending 
# Decreto 328/004: 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/03/15/documentos.pdf#page=1 
# The original decree specified a transition of 2005-03-12 24:00, but the new 
# one specified 2005-03-27 02:00. 
Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Mar     27       2:00   0       - 
# From Eduardo Cota (2005-09-27): 
# ...from 2005-10-09 at 02:00 local time, until 2006-03-12 at 02:00 local time, 
# official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2. 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 318/005 of 2005-09-19. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1 
Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Oct      9       2:00   1:00    - 
Rule    Uruguay 2006    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8   2:00   0       - 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-06): 
# Decreto 311/006 of 2006-09-04 established regular DST from the first Sunday 
# of October at 02:00 through the second Sunday of March at 02:00.  Almanaque 
# 2018 appears to have a few typoed dates through this period; ignore them. 
# http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2006/09/08/documentos.pdf#page=1 
Rule    Uruguay 2006    2014    -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00   1:00    - 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-06-30): 
# ... it looks like they will not be using DST the coming summer: 
# http://www.elobservador.com.uy/gobierno-resolvio-que-no-habra-cambio-horario-verano-n656787 
# http://www.republica.com.uy/este-ano-no-se-modificara-el-huso-horario-en-uruguay/523760/ 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-06-30): 
# Apparently restaurateurs complained that DST caused people to go to the beach 
# instead of out to dinner. 
# From Pablo Camargo (2015-07-13): 
# http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/sci/decretos/2015/06/cons_min_201.pdf 
# From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15): 
# Decreto 178/015 of 2015-06-29; repeals Decreto 311/006. 
 
# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z. 
Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:51 -      LMT     1908 Jun 10 
                        -3:44:51 -      MMT     1920 May  1 # Montevideo MT 
                        -4:00   -       -04     1923 Oct  1 
                        -3:30   Uruguay -0330/-03 1942 Dec 14 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1960 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1968 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1970 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1974 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0130 1974 Mar 10 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1974 Dec 22 
                        -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 
 
# Venezuela 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-28): 
# For the 1965 transition see Gaceta Oficial No. 27.619 (1964-12-15), p 205.533 
# http://www.pgr.gob.ve/dmdocuments/1964/27619.pdf 
# 
# From John Stainforth (2007-11-28): 
# ... the change for Venezuela originally expected for 2007-12-31 has 
# been brought forward to 2007-12-09.  The official announcement was 
# published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana 
# de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or 
# resolution publication) 
# http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208 
 
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15): 
# https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15): 
# Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30.... 
# "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water, 
# hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian 
# Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps 
# half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400 
# https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE 
# 
# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20): 
# ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here: 
# http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time? 
                        -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00 
                        -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00 
                        -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30 
                        -4:00   -       -04