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# @(#)southamerica      8.8 
# <pre> 
 
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, 
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to 
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is 
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), 
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). 
# 
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source 
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport 
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), 
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries 
# of the IATA's data after 1990. 
# 
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for 
# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. 
# 
# Earlier editions of these tables used the North American style (e.g. ARST and 
# ARDT for Argentine Standard and Daylight Time), but the following quote 
# suggests that it's better to use European style (e.g. ART and ARST). 
#       I suggest the use of _Summer time_ instead of the more cumbersome 
#       _daylight-saving time_.  _Summer time_ seems to be in general use 
#       in Europe and South America. 
#       -- E O Cutler, _New York Times_ (1937-02-14), quoted in 
#       H L Mencken, _The American Language: Supplement I_ (1960), p 466 
# 
# Earlier editions of these tables also used the North American style 
# for time zones in Brazil, but this was incorrect, as Brazilians say 
# "summer time".  Reinaldo Goulart, a Sao Paulo businessman active in 
# the railroad sector, writes (1999-07-06): 
#       The subject of time zones is currently a matter of discussion/debate in 
#       Brazil.  Let's say that "the Brasilia time" is considered the 
#       "official time" because Brasilia is the capital city. 
#       The other three time zones are called "Brasilia time "minus one" or 
#       "plus one" or "plus two".  As far as I know there is no such 
#       name/designation as "Eastern Time" or "Central Time". 
# So I invented the following (English-language) abbreviations for now. 
# Corrections are welcome! 
#               std     dst 
#       -2:00   FNT     FNST    Fernando de Noronha 
#       -3:00   BRT     BRST    Brasilia 
#       -4:00   AMT     AMST    Amazon 
#       -5:00   ACT     ACST    Acre 
 
############################################################################### 
 
############################################################################### 
 
# Argentina 
 
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): 
# Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976. 
# Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight. 
 
# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-199): 
# ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC 
 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# I am sending modifications to the Argentine time zone table... 
# AR was chosen because they are the ISO letters that represent Argentina. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Arg     1930    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1932    1940    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1932    1939    -       Nov      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1940    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Jun     15      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Dec     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1988    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S 
# 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A., 
# obtaining the data from the: 
# Talleres de Hidrografia Naval Argentina 
# (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute) 
Rule    Arg     1989    1993    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Arg     1989    1992    -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
# 
# From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26): 
# From this moment on, the law that mandated the daylight saving 
# time corrections was derogated and no more modifications 
# to the time zones (for daylight saving) are now made. 
# 
# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10): 
# On October 3, 1999, 0:00 local, Argentina implemented daylight savings time, 
# which did not result in the switch of a time zone, as they stayed 9 hours 
# from the International Date Line. 
Rule    Arg     1999    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Arg     2000    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
# 
# From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01): 
# We just checked with our Sao Paulo office and they say the government of 
# Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST. 
# So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times. 
# 
# From Fabian L. Arce Jofre (2000-04-04): 
# The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando 
# de la Rua on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy 
# in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06): 
# one of the major newspapers here in Argentina said that the 1999 
# Timezone Law (which never was effectively applied) will (would?) be 
# in effect.... The article is at 
# http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-06/e-01701.htm 
# ... The Law itself is "Ley No 25155", sanctioned on 1999-08-25, enacted 
# 1999-09-17, and published 1999-09-21.  The official publication is at: 
# http://www.boletin.jus.gov.ar/BON/Primera/1999/09-Septiembre/21/PDF/BO21-09-99LEG.PDF 
# Regretfully, you have to subscribe (and pay) for the on-line version.... 
# 
# (2001-06-12): 
# the timezone for Argentina will not change next Sunday. 
# Apparently it will do so on Sunday 24th.... 
# http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-12/s-03501.htm 
# 
# (2001-06-25): 
# Last Friday (yes, the last working day before the date of the change), the 
# Senate annulled the 1999 law that introduced the changes later postponed. 
# http://www.clarin.com.ar/diario/2001-06-22/s-03601.htm 
# It remains the vote of the Deputies..., but it will be the same.... 
# This kind of things had always been done this way in Argentina. 
# We are still -03:00 all year round in all of the country. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-05-21): 
# Today it was officially published that the Province of Mendoza is changing 
# its timezone this winter... starting tomorrow night.... 
# http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040521-27158-normas.pdf 
# From Paul Eggert (2004-05-24): 
# It's Law No. 7,210.  This change is due to a public power emergency, so for 
# now we'll assume it's for this year only. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# <a href="http://www.spicasc.net/horvera.html"> 
# Hora de verano para la Republica Argentina (2003-06-08) 
# </a> says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31 
# to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25.  Go with this more-precise value 
# over Shanks & Pottenger. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-05): 
# These media articles from a major newspaper mostly cover the current state: 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/27/de_604825.asp 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/28/de_605203.asp 
# 
# The following eight (8) provinces pulled clocks back to UTC-04:00 at 
# midnight Monday May 31st. (that is, the night between 05/31 and 06/01). 
# Apparently, all nine provinces would go back to UTC-03:00 at the same 
# time in October 17th. 
# 
# Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, 
# Tierra del Fuego, Tucuman. 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14): 
# ... this weekend, the Province of Tucuman decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00 
# yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's 
# annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained.... 
# 
# From Gwillim Law (2004-06-14): 
# http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/06/10/de_609078.asp ... 
#     "The time change in Tierra del Fuego was a conflicted decision from 
#   the start.  The government had decreed that the measure would take 
#   effect on June 1, but a normative error forced the new time to begin 
#   three days earlier, from a Saturday to a Sunday.... 
# Our understanding was that the change was originally scheduled to take place 
# on June 1 at 00:00 in Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego (and some other 
# provinces).  Sunday was May 30, only two days earlier.  So the article 
# contains a contradiction.  I would give more credence to the Saturday/Sunday 
# date than the "three days earlier" phrase, and conclude that Tierra del 
# Fuego set its clocks back at 2004-05-30 00:00. 
# 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-05): 
# The previous law 7210 which changed the province of Mendoza's time zone 
# back in May have been modified slightly in a new law 7277, which set the 
# new end date to 2004-09-26 (original date was 2004-10-17). 
# http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040924-27244-normas.pdf 
# 
# From Mariano Absatz (2004-10-05): 
# San Juan changed from UTC-03:00 to UTC-04:00 at midnight between 
# Sunday, May 30th and Monday, May 31st.  It changed back to UTC-03:00 
# at midnight between Saturday, July 24th and Sunday, July 25th.... 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000329.html 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000426.html 
# http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000441.html 
 
# Unless otherwise specified, data are from Shanks & Pottenger through 1992, 
# from the IATA otherwise.  As noted below, Shanks & Pottenger say that 
# America/Cordoba split into 6 subregions during 1991/1992, but we 
# haven't verified this yet so for now we'll keep it a single region. 
# 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# 
# Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF), 
Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT 1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Santa Fe (SF), Entre Rios (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN), Chaco (CC), 
# Formosa (FM), Salta (SA), Santiago del Estero (SE), Cordoba (CB), 
# San Luis (SL), La Pampa (LP), Neuquen (NQ), Rio Negro (RN) 
# 
# Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified: 
# - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07. 
# - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29. 
# - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04. 
# - San Luis switched to -4:00 on 1990-03-14, then to -3:00 on 1990-10-15, 
#   then to -4:00 on 1991-03-01, then to -3:00 on 1991-06-01. 
# - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01, 
#   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26. 
# 
Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Tucuman (TM) 
Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jun 13 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# La Rioja (LR) 
Zone America/Argentina/La_Rioja -4:27:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 May  7 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# San Juan (SJ) 
Zone America/Argentina/San_Juan -4:34:04 - LMT  1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 May  7 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 May 31 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jul 25 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Jujuy (JY) 
Zone America/Argentina/Jujuy -4:21:12 - LMT     1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1990 Mar  4 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1990 Oct 28 
                        -4:00   1:00    WARST   1991 Mar 17 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 Oct  6 
                        -3:00   1:00    ARST    1992 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH) 
Zone America/Argentina/Catamarca -4:23:08 - LMT 1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1991 Mar  3 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 Oct 20 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Mendoza (MZ) 
Zone America/Argentina/Mendoza -4:35:16 - LMT   1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1990 Mar  4 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1990 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    WARST   1991 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1991 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   1:00    WARST   1992 Mar  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    1992 Oct 18 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 May 23 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Sep 26 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Santa Cruz (SC) 
Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT 1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 Jun  1 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
# 
# Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (TF) 
Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT 1894 Oct 31 
                        -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May # Cordoba Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       ART     1930 Dec 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   1969 Oct  5 
                        -3:00   Arg     AR%sT   1999 Oct  3 
                        -4:00   Arg     AR%sT   2000 Mar  3 
                        -3:00   -       ART     2004 May 30 
                        -4:00   -       WART    2004 Jun 20 
                        -3:00   -       ART 
 
# Aruba 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Aruba   -4:40:24 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12     # Oranjestad 
                        -4:30   -       ANT     1965 # Netherlands Antilles Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Bolivia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT 
                        -4:32:36 1:00   BOST    1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST 
                        -4:00   -       BOT     # Bolivia Time 
 
# Brazil 
 
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18): 
# The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules 
# just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade. 
# The rule change lasted only part of the day; 
# the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business 
# was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon. 
 
# From IATA SSIM (1996-02): 
# _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS), 
# Santa Catarina (SC), Parana (PR), Sao Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), 
# Espirito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goias (GO), 
# Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL]. 
# [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.] 
 
# From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07): 
# Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goias until 1989), and other 
# sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were 
# always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST.... 
# The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91.  Each issue from then until 
# 9/95 says that DST is observed only in the ten states I quoted from 9/95, 
# along with Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), which are in BR2 
# (UTC-4)....  The other two time zones given for Brazil are BR3, which is 
# UTC-5, no DST, and applies only in the state of Acre (AC); and BR4, which is 
# UTC-2, and applies to Fernando de Noronha (formerly FN, but I believe it's 
# become part of the state of Pernambuco).  The boundary between BR1 and BR2 
# has never been clearly stated.  They've simply been called East and West. 
# However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline 
# Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil.  For each 
# airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM.  From that 
# information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapa (AP), Ceara (CE), 
# Maranhao (MA), Paraiba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piaui (PI), and Rio Grande do 
# Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Para (PA) are all in BR1 without DST. 
 
# From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27): 
# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html"> 
# Brazilian official page 
# </a> 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard (2000-11-03): 
# [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:] 
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm 
# http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm 
 
# From Celso Doria via David Madeo (2002-10-09): 
# The reason for the delay this year has to do with elections in Brazil. 
# 
# Unlike in the United States, elections in Brazil are 100% computerized and 
# the results are known almost immediately.  Yesterday, it was the first 
# round of the elections when 115 million Brazilians voted for President, 
# Governor, Senators, Federal Deputies, and State Deputies.  Nobody is 
# counting (or re-counting) votes anymore and we know there will be a second 
# round for the Presidency and also for some Governors.  The 2nd round will 
# take place on October 27th. 
# 
# The reason why the DST will only begin November 3rd is that the thousands 
# of electoral machines used cannot have their time changed, and since the 
# Constitution says the elections must begin at 8:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM, 
# the Government decided to postpone DST, instead of changing the Constitution 
# (maybe, for the next elections, it will be possible to change the clock)... 
 
# From Rodrigo Severo (2004-10-04): 
# It's just the biannual change made necessary by the much hyped, supposedly 
# modern Brazilian eletronic voting machines which, apparently, can't deal 
# with a time change between the first and the second rounds of the elections. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10): 
# The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from 
# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html"> 
# Decretos sobre o Horario de Verao no Brasil 
# </a>. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm">20,466</a> (1931-10-01) 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm">21,896</a> (1932-01-10) 
Rule    Brazil  1931    only    -       Oct      3      11:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1932    1933    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1932    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm">23,195</a> (1933-10-10) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm">27,496</a> (1949-11-24) 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm">27,998</a> (1950-04-13) 
Rule    Brazil  1949    1952    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1950    only    -       Apr     16       1:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1951    1952    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm">32,308</a> (1953-02-24) 
Rule    Brazil  1953    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm">34,724</a> (1953-11-30) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm">52,700</a> (1963-10-18) 
# established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00 
# in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm">53,071</a> (1963-12-03) 
# extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09. 
Rule    Brazil  1963    only    -       Dec      9       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm">53,604</a> (1964-02-25) 
# extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school). 
Rule    Brazil  1964    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm">55,639</a> (1965-01-27) 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Mar     31       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm">57,303</a> (1965-11-22) 
Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm">57,843</a> (1966-02-18) 
Rule    Brazil  1966    1968    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1966    1967    -       Nov      1       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm">63,429</a> (1968-10-15) 
# revoked DST. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm">91,698</a> (1985-09-27) 
Rule    Brazil  1985    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21) 
# Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13) 
Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   0       - 
# Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01) 
Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Feb     14       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm">94,922</a> (1987-09-22) 
Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Feb      7       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm">96,676</a> (1988-09-12) 
# except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory) 
Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Jan     29       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm">98,077</a> (1989-08-21) 
# with the same exceptions 
Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Oct     15       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm">99,530</a> (1990-09-17) 
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF. 
# Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT. 
Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Feb     17       0:00   0       - 
# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1991-09-25) 
# adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF. 
Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Oct     20       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Feb      9       0:00   0       - 
# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1992-10-16) 
# adopted by same states. 
Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1993    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm">942</a> (1993-09-28) 
# adopted by same states, plus AM. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm">1,252</a> (1994-09-22; 
# web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm">1,636</a> (1995-09-14) 
# adopted by same states, plus MT and TO. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm">1,674</a> (1995-10-13) 
# adds AL, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  1993    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=11  0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1994    1995    -       Feb     Sun>=15  0:00   0       - 
Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm">2,000</a> (1996-09-04) 
# adopted by same states, minus AL, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Feb     16       0:00   0       - 
# From Daniel C. Sobral (1998-02-12): 
# In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that 
# because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS, 
# they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit. 
# This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1 
# to help dealing with the shortages of electric power. 
# 
# Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states. 
Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG">2,495</a> 
# (1998-02-10) 
Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg">2,780</a> (1998-09-11) 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Oct     11       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Feb     21       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif">3,150</a> 
# (1999-08-23) adopted by same states. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif">3,188</a> (1999-09-30) 
# adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR. 
Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  2000    only    -       Feb     27       0:00   0       - 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm">3,592</a> (2000-09-06) 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg">3,630</a> (2000-10-13) 
# repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg">3,632</a> (2000-10-17) 
# repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00. 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif">3,916</a> 
# (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE. 
Rule    Brazil  2000    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=8   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  2001    2006    -       Feb     Sun>=15  0:00   0       - 
# Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE. 
# <a href="http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm"></a> 
Rule    Brazil  2002    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO. 
# <a href="http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm"></a> 
Rule    Brazil  2003    only    -       Oct     19       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT. 
# <a href="http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm"></a> 
Rule    Brazil  2004    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif">5,539</a> (2005-09-19), 
# adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  2005    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    S 
# Decree <a href="http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Decreto/D5920.htm">5,920</a> 
# (2006-10-03), adopted by the same states as before. 
Rule    Brazil  2006    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Brazil  2007    max     -       Feb     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
# The latest ruleset listed above says that the following states observe DST: 
# DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP. 
# For dates after mid-2007, the above rules with TO="max" are guesses 
# and are quite possibly wrong, but are more likely than no DST at all. 
 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
# 
# Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE) 
Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914 
                        -2:00   Brazil  FN%sT   1990 Sep 17 
                        -2:00   -       FNT     1999 Sep 30 
                        -2:00   Brazil  FN%sT   2000 Oct 15 
                        -2:00   -       FNT     2001 Sep 13 
                        -2:00   Brazil  FN%sT   2002 Oct  1 
                        -2:00   -       FNT 
# Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement. 
# These include Trindade and Martin Vaz (administratively part of ES), 
# Atol das Rocas (RN), and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo (PE). 
# Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01; 
# it also included the Penedos. 
# 
# Amapa (AP), east Para (PA) 
# East Para includes Belem, Maraba, Serra Norte, and Sao Felix do Xingu. 
# The division between east and west Para is the river Xingu. 
# In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess, 
# the border with Amapa) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu. 
Zone America/Belem      -3:13:56 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Maranhao (MA), Piaui (PI), Ceara (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN), 
# Paraiba (PB) 
Zone America/Fortaleza  -2:34:00 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2000 Oct 22 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Pernambuco (PE) (except Atlantic islands) 
Zone America/Recife     -2:19:36 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2000 Oct 15 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Tocantins (TO) 
Zone America/Araguaina  -3:12:48 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     1995 Sep 14 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2003 Sep 24 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE) 
Zone America/Maceio     -2:22:52 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1990 Sep 17 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     1995 Oct 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1996 Sep  4 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     1999 Sep 30 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2000 Oct 22 
                        -3:00   -       BRT     2001 Sep 13 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2002 Oct  1 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Bahia (BA) 
# There are too many Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/Bahia instead 
# of America/Salvador. 
Zone America/Bahia      -2:34:04 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   2003 Sep 24 
                        -3:00   -       BRT 
# 
# Goias (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG), 
# Espirito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Sao Paulo (SP), Parana (PR), 
# Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS) 
Zone America/Sao_Paulo  -3:06:28 -      LMT     1914 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT   1963 Oct 23 00:00 
                        -3:00   1:00    BRST    1964 
                        -3:00   Brazil  BR%sT 
# 
# Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) 
Zone America/Campo_Grande -3:38:28 -    LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT 
# 
# Mato Grosso (MT) 
Zone America/Cuiaba     -3:44:20 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   2003 Sep 24 
                        -4:00   -       AMT     2004 Oct  1 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT 
# 
# west Para (PA), Rondonia (RO) 
# West Para includes Altamira, Oribidos, Prainha, Oriximina, and Santarem. 
Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 -     LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       AMT 
# 
# Roraima (RR) 
Zone America/Boa_Vista  -4:02:40 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       AMT     1999 Sep 30 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   2000 Oct 15 
                        -4:00   -       AMT 
# 
# east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutai, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto 
# The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides 
# east from west Amazonas. 
Zone America/Manaus     -4:00:04 -      LMT     1914 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -4:00   -       AMT     1993 Sep 28 
                        -4:00   Brazil  AM%sT   1994 Sep 22 
                        -4:00   -       AMT 
# 
# west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant, 
#       Eirunepe, Envira, Ipixuna 
Zone America/Eirunepe   -4:39:28 -      LMT     1914 
                        -5:00   Brazil  AC%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -5:00   -       ACT     1993 Sep 28 
                        -5:00   Brazil  AC%sT   1994 Sep 22 
                        -5:00   -       ACT 
# 
# Acre (AC) 
Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 -      LMT     1914 
                        -5:00   Brazil  AC%sT   1988 Sep 12 
                        -5:00   -       ACT 
 
 
# Chile 
 
# From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19): 
# The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY 
# of October....  The law is the same for March and October. 
# (1998-09-29): 
# Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into 
# DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ... 
# (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess). 
 
# From Julio I. Pacheco Troncoso (1999-03-18): 
# Because of the same drought, the government decided to end DST later, 
# on April 3, (one-time change). 
 
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08): 
# http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm 
 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-08): 
# I think that there are some obvious mistakes in the suggested link 
# from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66 says that GMT-4 
# ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at 1990-09-15 
# (they should have been 1990-09-15 and 1990-09-16 respectively), but 
# anyhow it clears up some doubts too. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-27): 
# The following data for Chile and America/Santiago are from 
# <http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm> (2006-09-20), transcribed by 
# Jesper Norgaard Welen.  The data for Pacific/Easter are from Shanks 
# & Pottenger, except with DST transitions after 1932 cloned from 
# America/Santiago.  The pre-1980 Pacific/Easter data are dubious, 
# but we have no other source. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Chile   1927    1932    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Chile   1942    only    -       Jun      1      4:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1942    only    -       Aug      1      5:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1946    only    -       Jul     15      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1946    only    -       Sep      1      3:00u   0:00    - 
Rule    Chile   1947    only    -       Apr      1      4:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1988    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Mar     18      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       - 
Rule    Chile   1999    max     -       Oct     Sun>=9  4:00u   1:00    S 
Rule    Chile   2000    max     -       Mar     Sun>=9  3:00u   0       - 
# IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14; 
# (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these. 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910        # Santiago Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       CLT     1916 Jul  1 # Chile Time 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep  1 # Santiago Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       CLT     1919 Jul  1 # Chile Time 
                        -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1 # Santiago Mean Time 
                        -5:00   Chile   CL%sT   1947 May 22 # Chile Time 
                        -4:00   Chile   CL%sT 
Zone Pacific/Easter     -7:17:44 -      LMT     1890 
                        -7:17:44 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time 
                        -7:00   Chile   EAS%sT  1982 Mar 13 21:00 # Easter I Time 
                        -6:00   Chile   EAS%sT 
# 
# Sala y Gomez Island is like Pacific/Easter. 
# Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernandez Is, San Ambrosio, 
# San Felix, and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago. 
 
# Colombia 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:20 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13 
                        -4:56:20 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogota Mean Time 
                        -5:00   CO      CO%sT   # Colombia Time 
# Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres 
# no information; probably like America/Bogota 
 
# Curacao 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):  
# Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at 
# -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that 
# Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from 
# 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say 
# Saba Island has been like Curacao. 
# This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.   
# 
# By July 2007 Curacao and St Maarten are planned to become 
# associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba; 
# Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the 
# Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones 
# though, as far as we know. 
#  
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:44 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12     # Willemstad 
                        -4:30   -       ANT     1965 # Netherlands Antilles Time 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Ecuador 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time 
                        -5:00   -       ECT          # Ecuador Time 
Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno 
                        -5:00   -       ECT     1986 
                        -6:00   -       GALT         # Galapagos Time 
 
# Falklands 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except 
# the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
 
# From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22) 
# via Jesper Norgaard: 
# ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15 
# April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2 
# September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2 
# am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on 
# Sunday 1 September. 
 
# From Rives McDow (2001-02-13): 
# 
# I have communicated several times with people there, and the last 
# time I had communications that was helpful was in 1998.  Here is 
# what was said then: 
# 
# "The general rule was that Stanley used daylight saving and the Camp 
# did not. However for various reasons many people in the Camp have 
# started to use daylight saving (known locally as 'Stanley Time') 
# There is no rule as to who uses daylight saving - it is a matter of 
# personal choice and so it is impossible to draw a map showing who 
# uses it and who does not. Any list would be out of date as soon as 
# it was produced. This year daylight saving ended on April 18/19th 
# and started again on September 12/13th.  I do not know what the rule 
# is, but can find out if you like.  We do not change at the same time 
# as UK or Chile." 
# 
# I did have in my notes that the rule was "Second Saturday in Sep at 
# 0:00 until third Saturday in Apr at 0:00".  I think that this does 
# not agree in some cases with Shanks; is this true? 
# 
# Also, there is no mention in the list that some areas in the 
# Falklands do not use DST.  I have found in my communications there 
# that these areas are on the western half of East Falkland and all of 
# West Falkland.  Stanley is the only place that consistently observes 
# DST.  Again, as in other places in the world, the farmers don't like 
# it.  West Falkland is almost entirely sheep farmers. 
# 
# I know one lady there that keeps a list of which farm keeps DST and 
# which doesn't each year.  She runs a shop in Stanley, and says that 
# the list changes each year.  She uses it to communicate to her 
# customers, catching them when they are home for lunch or dinner. 
 
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05): 
# For now, we'll just record the time in Stanley, since we have no 
# better info. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9  0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    2001    max     -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    0       - 
Rule    Falk    2001    max     -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    S 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890 
                        -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12  # Stanley Mean Time 
                        -4:00   Falk    FK%sT   1983 May     # Falkland Is Time 
                        -3:00   Falk    FK%sT   1985 Sep 15 
                        -4:00   Falk    FK%sT 
 
# French Guiana 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul 
                        -4:00   -       GFT     1967 Oct # French Guiana Time 
                        -3:00   -       GFT 
 
# Guyana 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar        # Georgetown 
                        -3:45   -       GBGT    1966 May 26 # Br Guiana Time 
                        -3:45   -       GYT     1975 Jul 31 # Guyana Time 
                        -3:00   -       GYT     1991 
# IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch. 
                        -4:00   -       GYT 
 
# Paraguay 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are from 01:00 -> 02:00, 
# and autumn transitions are from 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999 
# editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00. 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1979    1991    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1989    only    -       Oct     22      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1990    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1991    only    -       Oct      6      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1993    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1993    1995    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    1994    1995    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    1996    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       - 
# IATA SSIM (2000-02) says 1999-10-10; ignore this for now. 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-02): 
# I have three independent reports that Paraguay changed to DST this Sunday 
# (10-01). 
# 
# Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from 
# <a href="http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm"> 
# Noticias, a daily paper in Asuncion, Paraguay (2000-10-01) 
# </a>: 
# Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in 
# fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power....  The time change 
# system has been operating for several years.  Formerly there was a separate 
# decree each year; the new law has the same effect, but permanently.  Every 
# year, the time will change on the first Sunday of October; likewise, the 
# clock will be set back on the first Sunday of March. 
# 
Rule    Para    1996    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Mar 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Para    1997    only    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       - 
# Shanks & Pottenger say 1999-02-28; IATA SSIM (1999-02) says 1999-02-27, but 
# (1999-09) reports no date; go with above sources and Gerd Knops (2001-02-27). 
Rule    Para    1998    2001    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
# From Rives McDow (2002-02-28): 
# A decree was issued in Paraguay (no. 16350) on 2002-02-26 that changed the 
# dst method to be from the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in 
# April. 
Rule    Para    2002    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    0       - 
Rule    Para    2002    2003    -       Sep     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S 
# 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-01-02): 
# There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made 
# a timezone rule change in autumn 2004. 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05): 
# Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05) 
# From Carlos Raul Perasso via Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-13) 
# <http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf> 
Rule    Para    2004    max     -       Oct     Sun>=15 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Para    2005    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  0:00    0       - 
 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890 
                        -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asuncion Mean Time 
                        -4:00   -       PYT     1972 Oct # Paraguay Time 
                        -3:00   -       PYT     1974 Apr 
                        -4:00   Para    PY%sT 
 
# Peru 
# 
# <a href="news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net"> 
# From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26):</a> 
# When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over 
# sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon. 
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): 
# Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987. 
 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24 0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
# IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S 
Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890 
                        -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time? 
                        -5:00   Peru    PE%sT   # Peru Time 
 
# South Georgia 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890            # Grytviken 
                        -2:00   -       GST     # South Georgia Time 
 
# South Sandwich Is 
# uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered 
 
# Suriname 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911 
                        -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time 
                        -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct # The capital moved? 
                        -3:30   -       NEGT    1975 Nov 20 # Dutch Guiana Time 
                        -3:30   -       SRT     1984 Oct # Suriname Time 
                        -3:00   -       SRT 
 
# Trinidad and Tobago 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2 
                        -4:00   -       AST 
 
# Uruguay 
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18): 
# Uruguay wins the prize for the strangest peacetime manipulation of the rules. 
# From Shanks & Pottenger: 
# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S 
# Whitman gives 1923 Oct 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Uruguay 1923    only    -       Oct      2       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1924    1926    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1924    1925    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1933    1935    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    HS 
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 1 0:00 & 1936 Mar 30 0:00; go with Whitman. 
Rule    Uruguay 1934    1936    -       Mar     Sat>=25 23:30s  0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1936    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1937    1941    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   0       - 
# Whitman gives 1937 Oct 3; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Uruguay 1937    1940    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    HS 
# Whitman gives 1941 Oct 24 - 1942 Mar 27, 1942 Dec 14 - 1943 Apr 13, 
# and 1943 Apr 13 ``to present time''; go with Shanks & Pottenger. 
Rule    Uruguay 1941    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Jan      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1943    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       May     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       Nov     15       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Jan     17       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1965    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Sep     26       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1966    1967    -       Oct     31       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1968    1970    -       May     27       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1968    1970    -       Dec      2       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Apr     24       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Aug     15       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Mar     10       0:00   0:30    HS 
Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Dec     22       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1976    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Dec      4       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1978    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1979    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1980    only    -       May      1       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1987    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Dec     11       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Mar     12       0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   1:00    S 
# Shanks & Pottenger say no DST was observed in 1990/1 and 1991/2, 
# and that 1992/3's DST was from 10-25 to 03-01.  Go with IATA. 
Rule    Uruguay 1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1   0:00   0       - 
Rule    Uruguay 1990    1991    -       Oct     Sun>=21  0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1992    only    -       Oct     18       0:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 1993    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       - 
# From Eduardo Cota (2004-09-20): 
# The uruguayan government has decreed a change in the local time.... 
# http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/decretos/2004091502.htm 
Rule    Uruguay 2004    only    -       Sep     19       0:00   1:00    S 
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-03-11): 
# Uruguay's DST was scheduled to end on Sunday, 2005-03-13, but in order to 
# save energy ... it was postponed two weeks.... 
# http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_Web/noticias/2005/03/2005031005.htm 
Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Mar     27       2:00   0       - 
# From Eduardo Cota (2005-09-27): 
# http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_Web/decretos/2005/09/CM%20119_09%2009%202005_00001.PDF 
# This means that from 2005-10-09 at 02:00 local time, until 2006-03-12 at 
# 02:00 local time, official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2. 
Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Oct      9       2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 2006    only    -       Mar     12       2:00   0       - 
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-06): 
# http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_web/decretos/2006/09/CM%20210_08%2006%202006_00001.PDF 
Rule    Uruguay 2006    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1   2:00   1:00    S 
Rule    Uruguay 2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8   2:00   0       - 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:44 -      LMT     1898 Jun 28 
                        -3:44:44 -      MMT     1920 May  1     # Montevideo MT 
                        -3:30   Uruguay UY%sT   1942 Dec 14     # Uruguay Time 
                        -3:00   Uruguay UY%sT 
 
# Venezuela 
# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL] 
Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890 
                        -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time? 
                        -4:30   -       VET     1965         # Venezuela Time 
                        -4:00   -       VET