ae68da1999-03-20Henrik Grubbström (Grubba)  UNICODE 2.1 CHARACTER DATABASE (update 2.1.8) Copyright (c) 1991-1998 Unicode, Inc. All Rights reserved. DISCLAIMER The Unicode Character Database "UnicodeData-Latest.txt" is provided as-is by Unicode, Inc. (The Unicode Consortium). No claims are made as to fitness for any particular purpose. No warranties of any kind are expressed or implied. The recipient agrees to determine applicability of information provided. If this file has been purchased on magnetic or optical media from Unicode, Inc., the sole remedy for any claim will be exchange of defective media within 90 days of receipt. This disclaimer is applicable for all other data files accompanying the Unicode Character Database, some of which have been compiled by the Unicode Consortium, and some of which have been supplied by other vendors. LIMITATIONS ON RIGHTS TO REDISTRIBUTE THIS DATA Recipient is granted the right to make copies in any form for internal distribution and to freely use the information supplied in the creation of products supporting the Unicode (TM) Standard. This file can be redistributed to third parties or other organizations (whether for profit or not) as long as this notice and the disclaimer notice are retained. EXPLANATORY INFORMATION The Unicode Character Database defines the default Unicode character properties, and internal mappings. Particular implementations may choose to override the properties and mappings that are not normative. If that is done, it is up to the implementer to establish a protocol to convey that information. For more information about character properties and mappings, see "The Unicode Standard, Worldwide Character Encoding, Version 2.0", published by Addison-Wesley. For information about other data files accompanying the Unicode Character Database, see the section of the Unicode Standard they were extracted from, or the explanatory readme files and/or header sections with those files. The Unicode Character Database has been updated to reflect Version 2.1 of the Unicode Standard, with two additional characters added to those published in Version 2.0: U+20AC EURO SIGN U+FFFC OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER A number of corrections have also been made to case mappings or other errors in the database noted since the publication of Version 2.0. And normative bidirectional properties have been modified to reflect decisions of the Unicode Technical Committee. The Unicode Character Database is a plain ASCII text file consisting of lines containing fields terminated by semicolons. Each line represents the data for one encoded character in the Unicode Standard, Version 2.1. Every encoded character has a data entry, with the exception of certain special ranges, as detailed below. There are four special ranges of characters that are represented only by their start and end characters, since the properties in the file are uniform, except for code values (which are all sequential and assigned). The names of CJK ideograph characters and Hangul syllable characters are algorithmically derivable. (See the Unicode Standard for more information). Surrogate characters and private use characters have no names. The exact ranges represented by start and end characters are: The CJK Ideographs Area (U+4E00 - U+9FFF) The Hangul Syllables Area (U+AC00 - U+D7A3) The Surrogates Area (U+D800 - U+DFFF) The Private Use Area (U+E000 - U+F8FF) The following table describes the format and meaning of each field in a data entry in the Unicode Character Database. Fields which contain normative information are so indicated. Note that the term "normative" when applied to a property or field of the Unicode Character Database, does not mean that the value of that field will *never* change. Corrections and extensions to the standard in the future may require minor changes to normative values, even though the Unicode Technical Committee strives to minimize such changes. "Normative" means that implementations that claim conformance to the Unicode Standard (at a particular version) and which make use of a particular property or field must follow the specifications of the standard for that property or field in order to be conformant. If a property or field is only "informative", a conformant implementation is free to use or change such values as it may require, while still being conformant to the standard. Field Explanation ----- ----------- 0 Code value in 4-digit hexadecimal format. This field is normative. 1 Unicode 2.1 Character Name. These names match exactly the names published in Chapter 7 of the Unicode Standard, Version 2.0, except for the two additional characters. This field is normative. 2 General Category. This is a useful breakdown into various "character types" which can be used as a default categorization in implementations. Some of the values are normative, and some are informative. See below for a brief explanation. 3 Canonical Combining Classes. The classes used for the Canonical Ordering Algorithm in the Unicode Standard. These classes are also printed in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard. This field is normative. See below for a brief explanation. 4 Bidirectional Category. See the list below for an explanation of the abbreviations used in this field. These are the categories required by the Bidirectional Behavior Algorithm in the Unicode Standard. These categories are summarized in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard. This field is normative. 5 Character Decomposition. In the Unicode Standard, not all of the decompositions are full decompositions. Recursive application of look-up for decompositions will, in all cases, lead to a maximal decomposition. The decompositions match exactly the decompositions published with the character names in Chapter 7 of the Unicode Standard. This field is normative. 6 Decimal digit value. This is a numeric field. If the character has the decimal digit property, as specified in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard, the value of that digit is represented with an integer value in this field. This field is normative. 7 Digit value. This is a numeric field. If the character represents a digit, not necessarily a decimal digit, the value is here. This covers digits which do not form decimal radix forms, such as the compatibility superscript digits. This field is informative. 8 Numeric value. This is a numeric field. If the character has the numeric property, as specified in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard, the value of that character is represented with an integer or rational number in this field. This includes fractions as, e.g., "1/5" for U+2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH. Also included are numerical values for compatibility characters such as circled numbers. This field is normative. 9 If the characters has been identified as a "mirrored" character in bidirectional text, this field has the value "Y"; otherwise "N". The list of mirrored characters is also printed in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard. This field is normative. 10 Unicode 1.0 Name. This is the old name as published in Unicode 1.0. This name is only provided when it is significantly different from the Unicode 2.1 name for the character. This field is informative. 11 10646 Comment field. This field is informative. 12 Upper case equivalent mapping. If a character is part of an alphabet with case distinctions, and has an upper case equivalent, then the upper case equivalent is in this field. See the explanation below on case distinctions. These mappings are always one-to-one, not one-to-many or many-to-one. This field is informative. 13 Lower case equivalent mapping. Similar to 12. This field is informative. 14 Title case equivalent mapping. Similar to 12. This field is informative. GENERAL CATEGORY The values in this field are abbreviations for the following. Some of the values are normative, and some are informative. For more information, see the Unicode Standard. Note: the standard does not assign information to control characters (except for TAB in the Bidirectonal Algorithm). Implementations will generally also assign categories to certain control characters, notably CR and LF, according to platform conventions. Normative Mn = Mark, Non-Spacing Mc = Mark, Spacing Combining Me = Mark, Enclosing Nd = Number, Decimal Digit Nl = Number, Letter No = Number, Other Zs = Separator, Space Zl = Separator, Line Zp = Separator, Paragraph Cc = Other, Control Cf = Other, Format Cs = Other, Surrogate Co = Other, Private Use Cn = Other, Not Assigned Informative Lu = Letter, Uppercase Ll = Letter, Lowercase Lt = Letter, Titlecase Lm = Letter, Modifier Lo = Letter, Other Pc = Punctuation, Connector Pd = Punctuation, Dash Ps = Punctuation, Open Pe = Punctuation, Close Pi = Punctuation, Initial quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage) Pf = Punctuation, Final quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage) Po = Punctuation, Other Sm = Symbol, Math Sc = Symbol, Currency Sk = Symbol, Modifier So = Symbol, Other BIDIRECTIONAL PROPERTIES Please refer to the Unicode Standard for an explanation of the algorithm for Bidirectional Behavior and an explanation of the sigificance of these categories. These values are normative. Strong types: L Left-Right; Most alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic characters (e.g., CJK ideographs) R Right-Left; Arabic, Hebrew, and punctuation specific to those scripts Weak types: EN European Number ES European Number Separator ET European Number Terminator AN Arabic Number CS Common Number Separator Separators: B Block Separator S Segment Separator Neutrals: WS Whitespace ON Other Neutrals ; All other characters: punctuation, symbols CHARACTER DECOMPOSITION TAGS The decomposition is a normative property of a character. The tags supplied with certain decompositions generally indicate formatting information. Where no such tag is given, the decomposition is designated as canonical. Conversely, the presence of a formatting tag also indicates that the decomposition is a compatibility decomposition and not a canonical decomposition. In the absence of other formatting information in a compatibility decomposition, the tag <compat> is used to distinguish it from canonical decompositions. In some instances a canonical decomposition or a compatibility decomposition may consist of a single character. For a canonical decomposition, this indicates that the character is a canonical equivalent of another single character. For a compatibility decomposition, this indicates that the character is a compatibility equivalent of another single character. The compatibility formatting tags used are: <font> A font variant (e.g. a blackletter form). <noBreak> A no-break version of a space or hyphen. <initial> An initial presentation form (Arabic). <medial> A medial presentation form (Arabic). <final> A final presentation form (Arabic). <isolated> An isolated presentation form (Arabic). <circle> An encircled form. <super> A superscript form. <sub> A subscript form. <vertical> A vertical layout presentation form. <wide> A wide (or zenkaku) compatibility character. <narrow> A narrow (or hankaku) compatibility character. <small> A small variant form (CNS compatibility). <square> A CJK squared font variant. <fraction> A vulgar fraction form. <compat> Otherwise unspecified compatibility character. CANONICAL COMBINING CLASSES 0: Spacing, enclosing, reordrant, and surrounding 1: Overlays and interior 6: Tibetan subjoined Letters 7: Nuktas 8: Hiragana/Katakana voiced marks 9: Viramas 10: Start of fixed position classes 199: End of fixed position classes 200: Below left attached 202: Below attached 204: Below right attached 208: Left attached (reordrant around single base character) 210: Right attached 212: Above left attached 214: Above attached 216: Above right attached 218: Below left 220: Below 222: Below right 224: Left (reordrant around single base character) 226: Right 228: Above left 230: Above 232: Above right 234: Double above 240: Below (iota subscript) Note: some of the combining classes in this list do not currently have members but are specified here for completeness. DECOMPOSITIONS AND NORMALIZATION The Unicode Technical Report #15 Normalization Forms is found on That report specifies how the decompositions defined in the Unicode Character Database are used to derive normalized forms of Unicode text. Note that as of the 2.1.8 update of the Unicode Character Database, the decompositions in the UnicodeData.txt file can be used to recursively derive the full decomposition in canonical order, without the need to separately apply canonical reordering. However, canonical reordering of combining character sequences must still be applied in decomposition when normalizing source text which contains any combining marks. CASE MAPPINGS In addition to uppercase and lowercase, because of the inclusion of certain composite characters for compatibility, such as "01F1;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER DZ", there is a third case, called titlecase, which is used where the first character of a word is to be capitalized (e.g. UPPERCASE, Titlecase, lowercase). An example of such a character is "01F2;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH SMALL LETTER Z". The uppercase, titlecase and lowercase fields are only included for characters that have a single corresponding character of that type. Composite characters (such as "339D;SQUARE CM") that do not have a single corresponding character of that type can be cased by decomposition. The case mapping is an informative, default mapping. Case itself, on the other hand, has normative status. Thus, for example, 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A is normatively uppercase, but its lowercase mapping the 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A is informative. The reason for this is that case can be considered to be an inherent property of a particular character (and is usually, but not always, derivable from the presence of the terms "CAPITAL" or "SMALL" in the character name), but case mappings between characters are occasionally influenced by local conventions. For example, certain languages, such as Turkish, German, French, or Greek may have small deviations from the default mappings listed in the Unicode Character Database. For compatibility with existing parsers, the Unicode Character Database only contains case mappings for characters where they are one-to-one mappings; it also omits information about locale-specific case mappings. Information about these special cases can be found in a separate data file, SpecialCasing.txt, which has been added with the 2.1.8 update to the Unicode data files. SpecialCasing.txt contains additional informative case mappings that are either not one-to-one or which are context-sensitive. MODIFICATION HISTORY Modifications made for Version 2.1.8 of the Unicode Character Database: * Added combining class 240 for U+0345 COMBINING GREEK YPOGEGRAMMENI so that decompositions involving iota subscript are derivable directly in canonically reordered form; this also has a bearing on simplification of casing of polytonic Greek. * Changes in decompositions related to Greek tonos. These result from the clarification that monotonic Greek "tonos" should be equated with U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE, rather than with U+030D COMBINING VERTICAL LINE ABOVE. (All Greek characters in the Greek block involving "tonos"; some Greek characters in the polytonic Greek in the 1FXX block.) * Changed decompositions involving dialytika tonos. (U+0390, U+03B0) * Changed ternary decompositions to binary. (U+0CCB, U+FB2C, U+FB2D) These changes simplify normalization. * Removed canonical decomposition for Latin Candrabindu. (U+0310) * Correct error in canonical decomposition for U+1FF4. * Added compatibility decompositions to clarify collation tables. (U+2100, U+2101, U+2105, U+2106, U+1E9A) * A series of general category changes to assist the convergence of of Unicode definition of identifier with ISO TR 10176: So > Lo: U+0950, U+0AD0, U+0F00, U+0F88..U+0F8B Po > Lo: U+0E2F, U+0EAF, U+3006 Lm > Sk: U+309B, U+309C Po > Pc: U+30FB, U+FF65 Ps/Pe > Mn: U+0F3E, U+0F3F * A series of bidi property changes for consistency. L > ET: U+09F2, U+09F3 ON > L: U+3007 L > ON: U+0F3A..U+0F3D, U+037E, U+0387 * Add case mapping: U+01A6 <-> U+0280 * Update symmetric swapping value for guillemets: U+00AB, U+00BB, U+2039, U+203A. * Changes to combining class values. Most Indic fixed position class non-spacing marks were changed to combining class 0. This fixes some inconsistencies in how canonical reordering would apply to Indic script, including Tibetan. Indic interacting top/bottom fixed position classes were merged into single (non-zero) classes as part of this change. Tibetan subjoined consonants are changed from combining class 6 to combining class 0. Thai pinthu (U+0E3A) moved to combining class 9. Move two Devanagari stress marks into generic above and below combining classes (U+0951, U+0952). * Correct placement of semicolon near symmetric swapping field. (U+FA0E, etc., scattered positions to U+FA29) [Note that Versions 2.1.6 and 2.1.7 of the Unicode Character Database were for internal change tracking only, and were never finally approved for public release.] Modifications made for Version 2.1.5 of the Unicode Character Database: * Changed decomposition for U+FF9E and U+FF9F so that correct collation weighting will automatically result from the canonical equivalences. * Removed canonical decompositions for U+04D4, U+04D5, U+04D8, U+04D9, U+04E0, U+04E1, U+04E8, U+04E9 (the implication being that no canonical equivalence is claimed between these 8 characters and similar Latin letters), and updated 4 canonical decompositions for U+04DB, U+04DC, U+04EA, U+04EB to reflect the implied difference in the base character. * Added Pi, and Pf categories and assigned the relevant quotation marks to those categories, based on the Unicode Technical Corrigendem on Quotation Characters. * Updating of many bidi properties, following the advice of the ad hoc committee on bidi, and to make the bidi properties of compatibility characters more consistent. * Changed category of several Tibetan characters: U+0F3E, U+0F3F, U+0F88..U+0F8B to make them non-combining, reflecting the combined opinion of Tibetan experts. * Added case mapping for U+03F2. * Corrected case mapping for U+0275. * Added titlecase mappings for U+03D0, U+03D1, U+03D5, U+03D6, U+03F0.. U+03F2. * Corrected compatibility label for U+2121. * Add specific entries for all the CJK compatibility ideographs, U+F900..U+FA2D, so the canonical decomposition for each (the URO character it is equivalent to) can be carried in the database. [Note that Versions 2.1.3 and 2.1.4 of the Unicode Character Database were for internal change tracking only, and were never finally approved for public release.] Modifications made in updating the Unicode Character Database to Version 2.1.2 for the Unicode Standard, Version 2.1 (from Version 2.0) are: * Added two characters (U+20AC and U+FFFC). * Amended bidi properties for U+0026, U+002E, U+0040, U+2007. * Corrected case mappings for U+018E, U+019F, U+01DD, U+0258, U+0275, U+03C2, U+1E9B. * Changed combining order class for U+0F71. * Corrected canonical decompositions for U+0F73, U+1FBE. * Changed decomposition for U+FB1F from compatibility to canonical. * Added compatibility decompositions for U+FBE8, U+FBE9, U+FBF9..U+FBFB. * Corrected compatibility decompositions for U+2469, U+246A, U+3358. Some of the modifications made in updating the Unicode Character Database to Version 2.0.14 for the Unicode Standard, Version 2.0 are: * Fixed decompositions with TONOS to use correct NSM: 030D. * Removed old Hangul Syllables; mapping to new characters are in a separate table. * Marked compability decompositions with additional tags. * Changed old tag names for clarity. * Revision of decompositions to use first-level decomposition, instead of maximal decomposition. * Correction of all known errors in decompositions from earlier versions. * Added control code names (as old Unicode names). * Added Hangul Jamo decompositions. * Added Number category to match properties list in book. * Fixed categories of Koranic Arabic marks. * Fixed categories of precomposed characters to match decomposition where possible. * Added Hebrew cantillation marks and the Tibetan script. * Added place holders for ranges such as CJK Ideographic Area and the Private Use Area. * Added categories Me, Sk, Pc, Nl, Cs, Cf, and rectified a number of mistakes in the database.