UNICODE 2.1 CHARACTER DATABASE (update 2.1.8)
Copyright (c) 1991-1998 Unicode, Inc.
All Rights reserved.
The Unicode Character Database "UnicodeData-Latest.txt" is provided as-is by
Unicode, Inc. (The Unicode Consortium). No claims are made as to fitness for any
particular purpose. No warranties of any kind are expressed or implied. The
recipient agrees to determine applicability of information provided. If this
file has been purchased on magnetic or optical media from Unicode, Inc.,
the sole remedy for any claim will be exchange of defective media within
90 days of receipt.
This disclaimer is applicable for all other data files accompanying the
Unicode Character Database, some of which have been compiled by the
Unicode Consortium, and some of which have been supplied by other vendors.
LIMITATIONS ON RIGHTS TO REDISTRIBUTE THIS DATA
Recipient is granted the right to make copies in any form for internal
distribution and to freely use the information supplied in the creation of
products supporting the Unicode (TM) Standard. This file can be redistributed
to third parties or other organizations (whether for profit or not) as long
as this notice and the disclaimer notice are retained.
The Unicode Character Database defines the default Unicode character
properties, and internal mappings. Particular implementations may choose to
override the properties and mappings that are not normative. If that is done,
it is up to the implementer to establish a protocol to convey that
information. For more information about character properties and mappings,
see "The Unicode Standard, Worldwide Character Encoding, Version 2.0",
published by Addison-Wesley. For information about other data files
accompanying the Unicode Character Database, see the section of the
Unicode Standard they were extracted from, or the explanatory readme
files and/or header sections with those files.
The Unicode Character Database has been updated to reflect Version 2.1
of the Unicode Standard, with two additional characters added to those
published in Version 2.0:
U+20AC EURO SIGN
U+FFFC OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
A number of corrections have also been made to case mappings or other
errors in the database noted since the publication of Version 2.0. And
normative bidirectional properties have been modified to reflect
decisions of the Unicode Technical Committee.
The Unicode Character Database is a plain ASCII text file consisting of lines
containing fields terminated by semicolons. Each line represents the data for
one encoded character in the Unicode Standard, Version 2.1. Every encoded
character has a data entry, with the exception of certain special ranges, as
There are four special ranges of characters that are represented only by
their start and end characters, since the properties in the file are uniform,
except for code values (which are all sequential and assigned). The names of CJK
ideograph characters and Hangul syllable characters are algorithmically
derivable. (See the Unicode Standard for more information). Surrogate
characters and private use characters have no names.
The exact ranges represented by start and end characters are:
The CJK Ideographs Area (U+4E00 - U+9FFF)
The Hangul Syllables Area (U+AC00 - U+D7A3)
The Surrogates Area (U+D800 - U+DFFF)
The Private Use Area (U+E000 - U+F8FF)
The following table describes the format and meaning of each field in a
data entry in the Unicode Character Database. Fields which contain
normative information are so indicated.
Note that the term "normative" when applied to a property or field of
the Unicode Character Database, does not mean that the value of that
field will *never* change. Corrections and extensions to the standard
in the future may require minor changes to normative values, even
though the Unicode Technical Committee strives to minimize such changes.
"Normative" means that implementations that claim conformance to the
Unicode Standard (at a particular version) and which make use of
a particular property or field must follow the specifications of the
standard for that property or field in order to be conformant. If a
property or field is only "informative", a conformant implementation
is free to use or change such values as it may require, while still
being conformant to the standard.
0 Code value in 4-digit hexadecimal format.
This field is normative.
1 Unicode 2.1 Character Name. These names match exactly the
names published in Chapter 7 of the Unicode Standard, Version
2.0, except for the two additional characters.
This field is normative.
2 General Category. This is a useful breakdown into various "character
types" which can be used as a default categorization in implementations.
Some of the values are normative, and some are informative.
See below for a brief explanation.
3 Canonical Combining Classes. The classes used for the
Canonical Ordering Algorithm in the Unicode Standard. These
classes are also printed in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard.
This field is normative. See below for a brief explanation.
4 Bidirectional Category. See the list below for an explanation of the
abbreviations used in this field. These are the categories required
by the Bidirectional Behavior Algorithm in the Unicode Standard.
These categories are summarized in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard.
This field is normative.
5 Character Decomposition. In the Unicode Standard, not all of
the decompositions are full decompositions. Recursive
application of look-up for decompositions will, in all cases, lead to
a maximal decomposition. The decompositions match exactly the
decompositions published with the character names in Chapter 7
of the Unicode Standard. This field is normative.
6 Decimal digit value. This is a numeric field. If the character
has the decimal digit property, as specified in Chapter 4 of
the Unicode Standard, the value of that digit is represented
with an integer value in this field. This field is normative.
7 Digit value. This is a numeric field. If the character represents a
digit, not necessarily a decimal digit, the value is here. This
covers digits which do not form decimal radix forms, such as the
compatibility superscript digits. This field is informative.
8 Numeric value. This is a numeric field. If the character has the
numeric property, as specified in Chapter 4 of the Unicode
Standard, the value of that character is represented with an
integer or rational number in this field. This includes fractions as,
e.g., "1/5" for U+2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH.
Also included are numerical values for compatibility characters
such as circled numbers. This field is normative.
9 If the characters has been identified as a "mirrored" character in
bidirectional text, this field has the value "Y"; otherwise "N".
The list of mirrored characters is also printed in Chapter 4 of
the Unicode Standard. This field is normative.
10 Unicode 1.0 Name. This is the old name as published in Unicode 1.0.
This name is only provided when it is significantly different from
the Unicode 2.1 name for the character. This field is informative.
11 10646 Comment field. This field is informative.
12 Upper case equivalent mapping. If a character is part of an
alphabet with case distinctions, and has an upper case equivalent,
then the upper case equivalent is in this field. See the explanation
below on case distinctions. These mappings are always one-to-one,
not one-to-many or many-to-one. This field is informative.
13 Lower case equivalent mapping. Similar to 12. This field is informative.
14 Title case equivalent mapping. Similar to 12. This field is informative.
The values in this field are abbreviations for the following. Some of the
values are normative, and some are informative. For more information, see
the Unicode Standard. Note: the standard does not assign information to
control characters (except for TAB in the Bidirectonal Algorithm).
Implementations will generally also assign categories to certain control
characters, notably CR and LF, according to platform conventions.
Mn = Mark, Non-Spacing
Mc = Mark, Spacing Combining
Me = Mark, Enclosing
Nd = Number, Decimal Digit
Nl = Number, Letter
No = Number, Other
Zs = Separator, Space
Zl = Separator, Line
Zp = Separator, Paragraph
Cc = Other, Control
Cf = Other, Format
Cs = Other, Surrogate
Co = Other, Private Use
Cn = Other, Not Assigned
Lu = Letter, Uppercase
Ll = Letter, Lowercase
Lt = Letter, Titlecase
Lm = Letter, Modifier
Lo = Letter, Other
Pc = Punctuation, Connector
Pd = Punctuation, Dash
Ps = Punctuation, Open
Pe = Punctuation, Close
Pi = Punctuation, Initial quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending
Pf = Punctuation, Final quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending
Po = Punctuation, Other
Sm = Symbol, Math
Sc = Symbol, Currency
Sk = Symbol, Modifier
So = Symbol, Other
Please refer to the Unicode Standard for an explanation of the algorithm for
Bidirectional Behavior and an explanation of the sigificance of these categories.
These values are normative.
L Left-Right; Most alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic
characters (e.g., CJK ideographs)
R Right-Left; Arabic, Hebrew, and
punctuation specific to those scripts
EN European Number
ES European Number Separator
ET European Number Terminator
AN Arabic Number
CS Common Number Separator
B Block Separator
S Segment Separator
ON Other Neutrals ; All other characters: punctuation, symbols
CHARACTER DECOMPOSITION TAGS
The decomposition is a normative property of a character. The tags supplied
with certain decompositions generally indicate formatting information.
Where no such tag is given, the decomposition is designated as canonical.
Conversely, the presence of a formatting tag also indicates
that the decomposition is a compatibility decomposition and not a canonical
decomposition. In the absence of other formatting information in a
compatibility decomposition, the tag <compat> is used to distinguish it from
In some instances a canonical decomposition or a compatibility decomposition
may consist of a single character. For a canonical decomposition, this
indicates that the character is a canonical equivalent of another single
character. For a compatibility decomposition, this indicates that the
character is a compatibility equivalent of another single character.
The compatibility formatting tags used are:
<font> A font variant (e.g. a blackletter form).
<noBreak> A no-break version of a space or hyphen.
<initial> An initial presentation form (Arabic).
<medial> A medial presentation form (Arabic).
<final> A final presentation form (Arabic).
<isolated> An isolated presentation form (Arabic).
<circle> An encircled form.
<super> A superscript form.
<sub> A subscript form.
<vertical> A vertical layout presentation form.
<wide> A wide (or zenkaku) compatibility character.
<narrow> A narrow (or hankaku) compatibility character.
<small> A small variant form (CNS compatibility).
<square> A CJK squared font variant.
<fraction> A vulgar fraction form.
<compat> Otherwise unspecified compatibility character.
CANONICAL COMBINING CLASSES
0: Spacing, enclosing, reordrant, and surrounding
1: Overlays and interior
6: Tibetan subjoined Letters
8: Hiragana/Katakana voiced marks
10: Start of fixed position classes
199: End of fixed position classes
200: Below left attached
202: Below attached
204: Below right attached
208: Left attached (reordrant around single base character)
210: Right attached
212: Above left attached
214: Above attached
216: Above right attached
218: Below left
222: Below right
224: Left (reordrant around single base character)
228: Above left
232: Above right
234: Double above
240: Below (iota subscript)
Note: some of the combining classes in this list do not currently have
members but are specified here for completeness.
DECOMPOSITIONS AND NORMALIZATION
The Unicode Technical Report #15 Normalization Forms is found on
That report specifies how the decompositions defined in the Unicode
Character Database are used to derive normalized forms of Unicode
Note that as of the 2.1.8 update of the Unicode Character Database,
the decompositions in the UnicodeData.txt file can be used to recursively
derive the full decomposition in canonical order, without the need
to separately apply canonical reordering. However, canonical reordering
of combining character sequences must still be applied in decomposition
when normalizing source text which contains any combining marks.
In addition to uppercase and lowercase, because of the inclusion of certain
composite characters for compatibility, such as "01F1;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
DZ", there is a third case, called titlecase, which is used where the first
character of a word is to be capitalized (e.g. UPPERCASE, Titlecase,
lowercase). An example of such a character is "01F2;LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D
WITH SMALL LETTER Z".
The uppercase, titlecase and lowercase fields are only included for characters
that have a single corresponding character of that type. Composite characters
(such as "339D;SQUARE CM") that do not have a single corresponding character
of that type can be cased by decomposition.
The case mapping is an informative, default mapping. Case itself, on
the other hand, has normative status. Thus, for example, 0041 LATIN
CAPITAL LETTER A is normatively uppercase, but its lowercase mapping
the 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A is informative. The reason for this is
that case can be considered to be an inherent property of a particular
character (and is usually, but not always, derivable from the presence
of the terms "CAPITAL" or "SMALL" in the character name), but case
mappings between characters are occasionally influenced by local
conventions. For example, certain languages, such
as Turkish, German, French, or Greek may have small deviations from the
default mappings listed in the Unicode Character Database.
For compatibility with existing parsers, the Unicode Character Database
only contains case mappings for characters where they are one-to-one
mappings; it also omits information about locale-specific
case mappings. Information about these special cases can be found in
a separate data file, SpecialCasing.txt, which has been added with
the 2.1.8 update to the Unicode data files. SpecialCasing.txt contains
additional informative case mappings that are either not one-to-one or
which are context-sensitive.
Modifications made for Version 2.1.8 of the Unicode Character Database:
* Added combining class 240 for U+0345 COMBINING GREEK YPOGEGRAMMENI
so that decompositions involving iota subscript are derivable
directly in canonically reordered form; this also has a bearing
on simplification of casing of polytonic Greek.
* Changes in decompositions related to Greek tonos. These result from
the clarification that monotonic Greek "tonos" should be
equated with U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE, rather than with
U+030D COMBINING VERTICAL LINE ABOVE. (All Greek characters
in the Greek block involving "tonos"; some Greek characters
in the polytonic Greek in the 1FXX block.)
* Changed decompositions involving dialytika tonos. (U+0390, U+03B0)
* Changed ternary decompositions to binary. (U+0CCB, U+FB2C, U+FB2D)
These changes simplify normalization.
* Removed canonical decomposition for Latin Candrabindu. (U+0310)
* Correct error in canonical decomposition for U+1FF4.
* Added compatibility decompositions to clarify collation tables.
(U+2100, U+2101, U+2105, U+2106, U+1E9A)
* A series of general category changes to assist the convergence of
of Unicode definition of identifier with ISO TR 10176:
So > Lo: U+0950, U+0AD0, U+0F00, U+0F88..U+0F8B
Po > Lo: U+0E2F, U+0EAF, U+3006
Lm > Sk: U+309B, U+309C
Po > Pc: U+30FB, U+FF65
Ps/Pe > Mn: U+0F3E, U+0F3F
* A series of bidi property changes for consistency.
L > ET: U+09F2, U+09F3
ON > L: U+3007
L > ON: U+0F3A..U+0F3D, U+037E, U+0387
* Add case mapping: U+01A6 <-> U+0280
* Update symmetric swapping value for guillemets: U+00AB, U+00BB,
* Changes to combining class values. Most Indic fixed position class
non-spacing marks were changed to combining class 0. This fixes
some inconsistencies in how canonical reordering would apply
to Indic script, including Tibetan. Indic interacting top/bottom
fixed position classes were merged into single (non-zero)
classes as part of this change. Tibetan subjoined consonants
are changed from combining class 6 to combining class 0.
Thai pinthu (U+0E3A) moved to combining class 9. Move two
Devanagari stress marks into generic above and below
combining classes (U+0951, U+0952).
* Correct placement of semicolon near symmetric swapping field.
(U+FA0E, etc., scattered positions to U+FA29)
[Note that Versions 2.1.6 and 2.1.7 of the Unicode Character
Database were for internal change tracking only, and were never
finally approved for public release.]
Modifications made for Version 2.1.5 of the Unicode Character Database:
* Changed decomposition for U+FF9E and U+FF9F so that correct collation
weighting will automatically result from the canonical
* Removed canonical decompositions for U+04D4, U+04D5, U+04D8, U+04D9,
U+04E0, U+04E1, U+04E8, U+04E9 (the implication being that
no canonical equivalence is claimed between these 8 characters
and similar Latin letters), and updated 4 canonical decompositions
for U+04DB, U+04DC, U+04EA, U+04EB to reflect the implied
difference in the base character.
* Added Pi, and Pf categories and assigned the relevant quotation
marks to those categories, based on the Unicode Technical
Corrigendem on Quotation Characters.
* Updating of many bidi properties, following the advice of the ad hoc
committee on bidi, and to make the bidi properties of compatibility
characters more consistent.
* Changed category of several Tibetan characters: U+0F3E, U+0F3F,
U+0F88..U+0F8B to make them non-combining, reflecting the
combined opinion of Tibetan experts.
* Added case mapping for U+03F2.
* Corrected case mapping for U+0275.
* Added titlecase mappings for U+03D0, U+03D1, U+03D5, U+03D6, U+03F0..
* Corrected compatibility label for U+2121.
* Add specific entries for all the CJK compatibility ideographs,
U+F900..U+FA2D, so the canonical decomposition for each
(the URO character it is equivalent to) can be carried
in the database.
[Note that Versions 2.1.3 and 2.1.4 of the Unicode Character
Database were for internal change tracking only, and were never
finally approved for public release.]
Modifications made in updating the Unicode Character Database to
Version 2.1.2 for the Unicode Standard, Version 2.1 (from Version 2.0) are:
* Added two characters (U+20AC and U+FFFC).
* Amended bidi properties for U+0026, U+002E, U+0040, U+2007.
* Corrected case mappings for U+018E, U+019F, U+01DD, U+0258, U+0275,
* Changed combining order class for U+0F71.
* Corrected canonical decompositions for U+0F73, U+1FBE.
* Changed decomposition for U+FB1F from compatibility to canonical.
* Added compatibility decompositions for U+FBE8, U+FBE9, U+FBF9..U+FBFB.
* Corrected compatibility decompositions for U+2469, U+246A, U+3358.
Some of the modifications made in updating the Unicode Character Database
to Version 2.0.14 for the Unicode Standard, Version 2.0 are:
* Fixed decompositions with TONOS to use correct NSM: 030D.
* Removed old Hangul Syllables; mapping to new characters are
in a separate table.
* Marked compability decompositions with additional tags.
* Changed old tag names for clarity.
* Revision of decompositions to use first-level decomposition, instead
of maximal decomposition.
* Correction of all known errors in decompositions from earlier versions.
* Added control code names (as old Unicode names).
* Added Hangul Jamo decompositions.
* Added Number category to match properties list in book.
* Fixed categories of Koranic Arabic marks.
* Fixed categories of precomposed characters to match decomposition where possible.
* Added Hebrew cantillation marks and the Tibetan script.
* Added place holders for ranges such as CJK Ideographic Area and the
Private Use Area.
* Added categories Me, Sk, Pc, Nl, Cs, Cf, and rectified a number of mistakes in