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/* 
|| This file is part of Pike. For copyright information see COPYRIGHT. 
|| Pike is distributed under GPL, LGPL and MPL. See the file COPYING 
|| for more information. 
*/ 
 
#include "global.h" 
#include "svalue.h" 
#include "pike_macros.h" 
#include "pike_error.h" 
#include "interpret.h" 
#include "stralloc.h" 
#include "builtin_functions.h" 
#include "array.h" 
#include "mapping.h" 
#include "object.h" 
#include "main.h" 
#include "backend.h" 
#include "operators.h" 
#include "module_support.h" 
#include "threads.h" 
#include "gc.h" 
#include "pike_types.h" 
#include "sprintf.h" 
#include "pikecode.h" 
 
/* __attribute__ only applies to function declarations, not 
   definitions, so we disable them here. */ 
#undef ATTRIBUTE 
#define ATTRIBUTE(X) 
 
/* #define ERROR_DEBUG */ 
 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_fatal_error[] = 
  "%s:%ld: Fatal error:\n"; 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_unsetjmp_nosync_1[] = 
  "UNSETJMP out of sync! (last SETJMP at %s)!\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_unsetjmp_nosync_2[] = 
  "UNSETJMP out of sync! (Pike_interpreter.recoveries = 0)\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_last_setjmp[] = 
  "LAST SETJMP: %s\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_unset_onerr_nosync_1[] = 
  "UNSET_ONERROR out of sync (%p != %p).\n" 
  "Last SET_ONERROR is from %s\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_unset_onerr_nosync_2[] = 
  "UNSET_ONERROR out of sync. No Pike_interpreter.recoveries left.\n"; 
#endif 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_bad_arg[] = 
  "Bad argument %d to %s(). Expected %s.\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_bad_arg_2[] = 
  "Bad argument %d to %s(). %s\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_out_of_mem[] = 
  "Out of memory.\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_out_of_mem_2[] = 
  "Out of memory - failed to allocate %"PRINTSIZET"u bytes.\n"; 
PMOD_EXPORT const char msg_div_by_zero[] = 
  "Division by zero.\n"; 
 
/* 
 * Recoveries handling. 
 */ 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
 
PMOD_EXPORT void check_recovery_context(void) 
{ 
  char foo; 
#define TESTILITEST ((((char *)Pike_interpreter.recoveries)-((char *)&foo))*STACK_DIRECTION) 
  if(Pike_interpreter.recoveries && 
     Pike_interpreter.recoveries->on_stack && 
     TESTILITEST > 0) { 
    fprintf(stderr, "Recoveries is out biking (Pike_interpreter.recoveries=%p, Pike_sp=%p, %ld)!\n", 
            Pike_interpreter.recoveries, &foo, 
            (long)TESTILITEST); 
    fprintf(stderr, "Last recovery was added at %s:%d\n", 
            Pike_interpreter.recoveries->file, 
            Pike_interpreter.recoveries->line); 
    Pike_fatal("Recoveries is out biking (Pike_interpreter.recoveries=%p, C sp=%p, %ld)!\n", 
               Pike_interpreter.recoveries, &foo, 
               (long)TESTILITEST); 
  } 
 
  /* Add more stuff here when required */ 
} 
#endif 
 
/*! @decl void _gdb_breakpoint() 
 *! 
 *! This function only exists so that it is possible to set a gdb 
 *! breakpoint on the function pike_gdb_breakpoint. 
 */ 
PMOD_EXPORT void pike_gdb_breakpoint(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
} 
 
PMOD_EXPORT JMP_BUF *init_recovery(JMP_BUF *r, size_t stack_pop_levels DEBUG_INIT_REC_ARGS) 
{ 
  check_recovery_context(); 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  r->file=location; 
  OED_FPRINTF((stderr, "init_recovery(%p) %s\n", r, location)); 
  r->on_stack = on_stack; 
#endif 
  r->frame_pointer=Pike_fp; 
  r->stack_pointer=Pike_sp - stack_pop_levels - Pike_interpreter.evaluator_stack; 
  r->mark_sp=Pike_mark_sp - Pike_interpreter.mark_stack; 
  r->previous=Pike_interpreter.recoveries; 
  r->onerror=0; 
  r->severity=THROW_ERROR; 
  Pike_interpreter.recoveries=r; 
  check_recovery_context(); 
  return r; 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void pike_throw(void) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
#ifdef TRACE_UNFINISHED_TYPE_FIELDS 
  accept_unfinished_type_fields++; 
#endif 
 
  while(Pike_interpreter.recoveries && throw_severity > Pike_interpreter.recoveries->severity) 
  { 
    while(Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror) 
    { 
      ONERROR *err = Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror; 
      while(Pike_fp != err->frame_pointer) 
      { 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
        if(!Pike_fp) 
          Pike_fatal("Popped out of stack frames.\n"); 
#endif 
        POP_PIKE_FRAME(); 
      } 
 
      Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror = err->previous; 
      (*err->func)(err->arg); 
    } 
 
    { 
      JMP_BUF *prev_rec = Pike_interpreter.recoveries->previous; 
      if (Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx && 
          (&Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx->recovery == 
           Pike_interpreter.recoveries)) { 
        struct catch_context *cc = Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx; 
        Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx = cc->prev; 
        really_free_catch_context (cc); 
      } 
      Pike_interpreter.recoveries = prev_rec; 
    } 
  } 
 
  if(!Pike_interpreter.recoveries) 
    Pike_fatal("No error recovery context.\n"); 
 
  /* Don't pop the stack before the onerrors have run; they might need 
   * items from the stack. 
   */ 
 
  while(Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror) 
  { 
    ONERROR *err = Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror; 
 
    while(Pike_fp != err->frame_pointer) 
    { 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
      if(!Pike_fp) 
        Pike_fatal("Popped out of stack frames.\n"); 
#endif 
      POP_PIKE_FRAME(); 
    } 
    Pike_interpreter.recoveries->onerror = err->previous; 
    (*err->func)(err->arg); 
  } 
 
  while(Pike_fp != Pike_interpreter.recoveries->frame_pointer) 
  { 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
    if(!Pike_fp) 
      Pike_fatal("Popped out of stack frames.\n"); 
#endif 
    POP_PIKE_FRAME(); 
  } 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  if(Pike_sp - Pike_interpreter.evaluator_stack < Pike_interpreter.recoveries->stack_pointer) 
    Pike_fatal("Stack error in error.\n"); 
#endif 
 
  pop_n_elems(Pike_sp - Pike_interpreter.evaluator_stack - Pike_interpreter.recoveries->stack_pointer); 
  Pike_mark_sp = Pike_interpreter.mark_stack + Pike_interpreter.recoveries->mark_sp; 
 
#if defined(DEBUG_MALLOC) && defined(PIKE_DEBUG) 
  /* This will tell us where the value was caught (I hope) */ 
  if(REFCOUNTED_TYPE(TYPEOF(throw_value))) 
  { 
    debug_malloc_update_location(throw_value.u.refs, 
                                 Pike_interpreter.recoveries->file); 
    debug_malloc_touch(throw_value.u.refs); 
  } 
#endif 
 
#ifdef TRACE_UNFINISHED_TYPE_FIELDS 
  accept_unfinished_type_fields--; 
#endif 
 
#ifndef OPCODE_INLINE_CATCH 
  if (Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx && 
      &Pike_interpreter.catch_ctx->recovery == Pike_interpreter.recoveries) { 
    /* This is a phony recovery made in F_CATCH that hasn't been passed 
     * to LOW_SETJMP. The real jmpbuf is in catching_eval_instruction. */ 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
    if (!Pike_interpreter.catching_eval_jmpbuf) 
      Pike_fatal ("Got phony F_CATCH recovery but no catching_eval_jmpbuf.\n"); 
#endif 
    LOW_LONGJMP (*Pike_interpreter.catching_eval_jmpbuf, 1); 
  } 
  else 
#endif /* OPCODE_INLINE_CATCH */ 
    LOW_LONGJMP(Pike_interpreter.recoveries->recovery,1); 
} 
 
static void push_error(const char *description) 
{ 
  push_text(description); 
  f_backtrace(0); 
  f_aggregate(2); 
} 
 
PMOD_EXPORT struct svalue throw_value = SVALUE_INIT_FREE; 
PMOD_EXPORT int throw_severity; 
static const char *in_error; 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void low_error(const char *buf) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  push_error(buf); 
  free_svalue(& throw_value); 
  move_svalue (&throw_value, --Pike_sp); 
  throw_severity = THROW_ERROR; 
  in_error=0; 
  pike_throw();  /* Hope someone is catching, or we will be out of balls. */ 
} 
 
PMOD_EXPORT void va_make_error (const char *fmt, va_list args) 
{ 
  struct string_builder s; 
  init_string_builder(&s, 0); 
  string_builder_vsprintf(&s, fmt, args); 
  push_string(finish_string_builder(&s)); 
  f_backtrace(0); 
  f_aggregate(2); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT void DECLSPEC(noreturn) va_error(const char *fmt, va_list args) 
  ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  SWAP_IN_THREAD_IF_REQUIRED(); 
  if(in_error) 
  { 
    const char *tmp=in_error; 
    in_error = NULL; 
    Pike_fatal("Recursive Pike_error() calls, " 
               "original error: %s, new error: %s", tmp, fmt); 
  } 
 
  in_error=fmt; 
 
  if(!Pike_interpreter.recoveries) 
  { 
    /* FIXME: Why not use Pike_fatal() here? */ 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
    if (d_flag) { 
      fprintf(stderr,"No error recovery context!\n%s", fmt); 
      dump_backlog(); 
    } 
#endif 
 
    fprintf(stderr,"No error recovery context!\n%s", fmt); 
    exit(99); 
  } 
 
  va_make_error (fmt, args); 
  free_svalue(&throw_value); 
  move_svalue(&throw_value, --Pike_sp); 
  throw_severity = THROW_ERROR; 
  in_error = NULL; 
  pike_throw(); /* Hope someone is catching, or we will be out of balls. */ 
} 
 
PMOD_EXPORT void make_error (const char *fmt, ...) 
/* Creates a general error container like Pike_error but doesn't throw 
 * it, instead it is left on the stack. */ 
{ 
  va_list args; 
  va_start (args,fmt); 
  va_make_error (fmt,args); 
  va_end (args); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void Pike_error(const char *fmt,...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  va_list args; 
  va_start(args,fmt); 
  va_error(fmt,args); 
  va_end(args); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void new_error(const char *name, 
                                              const char *text, 
                                              struct svalue *oldsp, 
                                              INT32 args) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  int i; 
 
  ASSERT_THREAD_SWAPPED_IN(); 
 
  if(in_error) 
  { 
    const char *tmp=in_error; 
    in_error=0; 
    Pike_fatal("Recursive error() calls, original error: %s",tmp); 
  } 
 
  in_error=text; 
 
  if(!Pike_interpreter.recoveries) 
  { 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
    if (d_flag) { 
      fprintf(stderr,"No error recovery context!\n%s():%s", 
              name ? name : "<unknown>", text); 
      dump_backlog(); 
    } 
#endif 
 
    fprintf(stderr,"No error recovery context!\n%s():%s", 
            name ? name : "<unknown>", text); 
    exit(99); 
  } 
 
  push_text(text); 
 
  f_backtrace(0); 
 
  push_int(0); 
  push_int(0); 
 
  if (name) 
    push_text(name); 
  else 
    push_int(0); 
 
  for (i=-args; i; i++) { 
    if (TYPEOF(oldsp[i]) <= MAX_TYPE) { 
      push_svalue(oldsp + i); 
    } else { 
      char buffer[50]; 
      sprintf(buffer, "<Svalue:0x%04x:0x%04x:%p>", 
              TYPEOF(oldsp[i]), SUBTYPEOF(oldsp[i]), oldsp[i].u.ptr); 
      push_text(buffer); 
    } 
  } 
 
  f_aggregate(args + 3); 
  f_aggregate(1); 
 
  f_add(2); 
 
  f_aggregate(2); 
 
  free_svalue(&throw_value); 
  move_svalue (&throw_value, --Pike_sp); 
  throw_severity=THROW_ERROR; 
 
  in_error=0; 
  pike_throw();  /* Hope someone is catching, or we will be out of balls. */ 
} 
 
static int inhibit_errors = 0; 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT void exit_on_error(const void *msg) 
{ 
  ONERROR tmp; 
 
  if (throw_severity > THROW_ERROR) { 
    /* THROW_THREAD_EXIT or THROW_EXIT or similar. 
     * 
     * Let it continue without complaining. 
     */ 
    return; 
  } 
  SET_ONERROR(tmp,fatal_on_error,"Fatal in exit_on_error!"); 
  d_flag=0; 
  Pike_interpreter.trace_level = 0; 
 
  if (inhibit_errors) 
    fprintf (stderr, "Got recursive error in exit_on_error: %s\n", (char *) msg); 
 
  else { 
    struct byte_buffer buf = BUFFER_INIT(); 
    char *s; 
    struct svalue thrown; 
 
    inhibit_errors = 1; 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
    if (d_flag) { 
      fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",(char *)msg); 
      dump_backlog(); 
    } 
#endif 
 
    fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",(char *)msg); 
 
    /* We've reserved LOW_SVALUE_STACK_MARGIN and LOW_C_STACK_MARGIN 
     * for this. */ 
    Pike_interpreter.svalue_stack_margin = 0; 
    Pike_interpreter.c_stack_margin = 0; 
    fprintf(stderr,"Attempting to dump raw error: (may fail)\n"); 
    move_svalue (&thrown, &throw_value); 
    mark_free_svalue (&throw_value); 
    describe_svalue(&buf, &thrown,0,0); 
    free_svalue (&thrown); 
    fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",buffer_get_string(&buf)); 
    buffer_free(&buf); 
  } 
 
  exit(1); 
} 
 
#ifdef __NT__ 
/* Wrapper around abort() to avoid interactive requesters on NT. */ 
int fnordel=0; 
static void do_abort() 
{ 
  if (!d_flag && !getenv("PIKE_DEBUG")) { 
    exit(-6);   /* -SIGIOT */ 
  } 
  fnordel=999/fnordel; 
} 
#else /* !__NT__ */ 
#define do_abort()    abort() 
#endif /* __NT__ */ 
 
PMOD_EXPORT void fatal_on_error(const void *msg) 
{ 
  JMP_BUF tmp; 
 
  /* It's ok if we're exiting. */ 
  if (throw_severity == THROW_EXIT) return; 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  if (d_flag) { 
    fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",(char *)msg); 
    dump_backlog(); 
  } 
#endif 
  fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",(char *)msg); 
 
  if (SETJMP(tmp)) { 
    fprintf(stderr, "Error in handle_error().\n"); 
  } else { 
    call_handle_error(); 
  } 
  UNSETJMP(tmp); 
 
  do_abort(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void debug_va_fatal(const char *fmt, va_list args) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  static int in_fatal = 0; 
 
  /* fprintf(stderr, "Raw error: %s\n", fmt); */ 
 
  /* Prevent double fatal. */ 
  if (in_fatal) 
  { 
    if (fmt) (void)vfprintf(stderr, fmt, args); 
    do_abort(); 
  } 
 
  in_fatal = 1; 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  if (d_flag) { 
#ifdef HAVE_VA_COPY 
    if (fmt) { 
      va_list a; 
      va_copy (a, args); 
      (void)vfprintf(stderr, fmt, a); 
      va_end (a); 
    } 
#endif 
    dump_backlog(); 
  } 
#endif 
 
  if (fmt) (void)vfprintf(stderr, fmt, args); 
 
  if(Pike_in_gc) 
    fprintf(stderr,"Pike was in GC stage %d when this fatal occurred.\n",Pike_in_gc); 
  Pike_in_gc = GC_PASS_DISABLED; 
 
  d_flag=Pike_interpreter.trace_level=0; 
 
  if(Pike_sp && Pike_interpreter.evaluator_stack && 
     master_object && master_object->prog) 
  { 
    JMP_BUF jmp; 
    struct callback_list saved_eval_cbs = evaluator_callbacks; 
    /* Simulate threads_disabled to avoid thread switches or any other 
     * evaluator stuff while we let the master describe the backtrace 
     * below. Doing it the naughty way without going through 
     * init_threads_disable etc to avoid hanging on runaway locks. */ 
#ifdef PIKE_THREADS 
    threads_disabled++; 
#endif 
    memset (&evaluator_callbacks, 0, sizeof (evaluator_callbacks)); 
    if (SETJMP (jmp)) 
      fprintf(stderr,"Got exception when trying to describe backtrace.\n"); 
    else { 
      jmp.severity = THROW_EXIT; /* Don't want normal exit code to run here. */ 
      push_error("Backtrace at time of fatal:\n"); 
      APPLY_MASTER("describe_backtrace",1); 
      if(TYPEOF(Pike_sp[-1]) == PIKE_T_STRING) 
        write_to_stderr(Pike_sp[-1].u.string->str, Pike_sp[-1].u.string->len); 
    } 
    UNSETJMP (jmp); 
#ifdef PIKE_THREADS 
    threads_disabled--; 
#endif 
    evaluator_callbacks = saved_eval_cbs; 
  }else{ 
    fprintf(stderr,"No stack - no backtrace.\n"); 
  } 
  fflush(stderr); 
  do_abort(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void debug_fatal(const char *fmt, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  va_list args; 
  va_start(args,fmt); 
  debug_va_fatal (fmt, args); 
  va_end (args); 
} 
 
/*! @class MasterObject 
 */ 
 
/*! @decl string describe_backtrace(mixed exception) 
 *! 
 *!   Called by various routines to format a readable 
 *!   description of an exception. 
 *! 
 *! @param exception 
 *!   Something that was thrown. Usually an @[Error.Generic] object, or 
 *!   an array with the following content: 
 *!   @array 
 *!     @elem string msg 
 *!       Error message. 
 *!     @elem array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) backtrace 
 *!       Backtrace to the point where the exception occurred. 
 *!   @endarray 
 *! 
 *! @returns 
 *!   Returns a string describing the exeception. 
 *! 
 *! @note 
 *!   Usually added by the initialization code the global name space 
 *!   with @[add_constant()]. 
 *! 
 *! @seealso 
 *!   @[predef::describe_backtrace()] 
 */ 
 
/*! @endclass 
 */ 
 
/*! @module Error 
 */ 
 
/*! @class Generic 
 *! Class for exception objects for errors of unspecified type. 
 */ 
 
/*! @decl string error_message 
 *! 
 *! The error message. It always ends with a newline (@expr{'\n'@}) 
 *! character and it might be more than one line. 
 *! 
 *! Code that catches and rethrows errors may extend this with more 
 *! error information. 
 */ 
 
/*! @decl array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) error_backtrace 
 *! 
 *! The backtrace as returned by @[backtrace] where the error 
 *! occurred. 
 *! 
 *! Code that catches and rethrows errors should ensure that this 
 *! remains the same in the rethrown error. 
 */ 
 
#define GENERIC_ERROR_THIS ((struct generic_error_struct *)CURRENT_STORAGE) 
 
#define ERR_DECLARE 
#include "errors.h" 
 
/*! @decl array cast(string type) 
 *! 
 *! Cast operator. 
 *! 
 *! @note 
 *!   The only supported type to cast to is @expr{"array"@}, which 
 *!   generates an old-style error @expr{({@[message](), 
 *!   @[backtrace]()})@}. 
 */ 
static void f_error_cast(INT32 args) 
{ 
  if(Pike_sp[-args].u.string == literal_array_string) 
  { 
    pop_stack(); 
    apply_current (generic_err_message_fun, 0); 
    apply_current (generic_err_backtrace_fun, 0); 
    f_aggregate(2); 
  } 
  else 
  { 
    pop_stack(); 
    push_undefined(); 
  } 
} 
 
/*! @decl array|string `[](int(0..1) index) 
 *! 
 *! Index operator. 
 *! 
 *! Simulates an array 
 *! @array 
 *!   @elem string msg 
 *!     Error message as returned by @[message]. 
 *!   @elem array backtrace 
 *!     Backtrace as returned by @[backtrace]. 
 *! @endarray 
 *! 
 *! @note 
 *!   The error message is always terminated with a newline. 
 *! 
 *! @seealso 
 *!   @[backtrace()] 
 */ 
static void f_error_index(INT32 args) 
{ 
  INT_TYPE ind; 
  get_all_args(NULL, args, "%i", &ind); 
 
  switch(ind) 
  { 
    case 0: 
      pop_n_elems(args); 
      apply_current (generic_err_message_fun, 0); 
      break; 
    case 1: 
      pop_n_elems(args); 
      apply_current (generic_err_backtrace_fun, 0); 
      break; 
    default: 
      index_error("`[]", args, NULL, Pike_sp-args, 
                  "Index %"PRINTPIKEINT"d is out of range 0..1.\n", ind); 
      break; 
  } 
} 
 
static void f_error__sizeof(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  push_int(2); 
} 
 
static void f_error__indices(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  push_int(0); 
  push_int(1); 
  f_aggregate(2); 
} 
 
static void f_error__values(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  apply_current(generic_err_message_fun, 0); 
  apply_current(generic_err_backtrace_fun, 0); 
  f_aggregate(2); 
} 
 
/*! @decl string describe() 
 *! 
 *! Return a readable error report that includes the backtrace. 
 */ 
static void f_error_describe(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  ref_push_object(Pike_fp->current_object); 
  APPLY_MASTER("describe_backtrace",1); 
} 
 
/*! @decl string message() 
 *! 
 *! Return a readable message describing the error. Normally simply 
 *! returns @[error_message]. 
 *! 
 *! If you override this function then you should ensure that 
 *! @[error_message] is included in the returned message, since there 
 *! might be code that catches your error objects, extends 
 *! @[error_message] with more info, and rethrows the error. 
 */ 
static void f_error_message(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  if (GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message) 
    ref_push_string (GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message); 
  else 
    push_int (0); 
} 
 
/*! @decl array backtrace() 
 *! 
 *! Return the backtrace where the error occurred. Normally simply 
 *! returns @[error_backtrace]. 
 *! 
 *! @seealso 
 *!   @[predef::backtrace()] 
 */ 
static void f_error_backtrace(INT32 args) 
{ 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  if(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace) 
    ref_push_array(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace); 
  else 
    push_int(0); 
} 
 
/*! @decl string _sprintf() 
 */ 
static void f_error__sprintf(INT32 args) 
{ 
  int mode = 0; 
 
  if(args>0 && TYPEOF(Pike_sp[-args]) == PIKE_T_INT) 
    mode = Pike_sp[-args].u.integer; 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
 
  if(mode != 'O') { 
    push_undefined(); 
    return; 
  } 
 
  { 
    struct program *p = Pike_fp->current_object->prog; 
    int i; 
    struct pike_string *error_name_str; 
    /* error_name is the name the error program wants in printouts 
     * like this. To still let inheriting programs fall back to 
     * describe_program if they don't provide it, we make it private 
     * in the base error classes and allow us to see private 
     * identifiers here. */ 
    MAKE_CONST_STRING (error_name_str, "error_name"); 
    i = really_low_find_shared_string_identifier (error_name_str, p, 
                                                  SEE_PRIVATE); 
    if (i != -1) 
      push_svalue (&PROG_FROM_INT (p, i)-> 
                   constants[ID_FROM_INT (p, i)->func.const_info.offset].sval); 
    else { 
      ref_push_program (p); 
      SAFE_APPLY_MASTER ("describe_program", 1); 
    } 
  } 
 
  push_static_text("(%O)"); 
  if(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message) 
    ref_push_string(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message); 
  else 
    push_int(0); 
  f_sprintf(2); 
  f_add(2); 
} 
 
/*! @decl int(0..1) _is_type(string t) 
 *! 
 *! Claims that the error object is an array, for compatibility with 
 *! old style error handling code. 
 */ 
static void f_error__is_type(INT32 args) 
{ 
  struct pike_string *array_string; 
  int ret; 
  MAKE_CONST_STRING(array_string, "array"); 
  if (args!=1) SIMPLE_WRONG_NUM_ARGS_ERROR("_is_type", 1); 
  if (TYPEOF(Pike_sp[-args]) != PIKE_T_STRING) 
    SIMPLE_ARG_TYPE_ERROR("_is_type", 1, "string"); 
  ret = Pike_sp[-args].u.string == array_string; 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
  push_int(ret); 
} 
 
/*! @decl void create(string message, @ 
 *!                   void|array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) backtrace) 
 */ 
static void f_error_create(INT32 args) 
{ 
  struct pike_string *msg; 
  struct array *bt = NULL; 
 
  get_all_args(NULL, args, "%W.%A", &msg, &bt); 
 
  do_free_string(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message); 
  copy_shared_string(GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_message, msg); 
 
  if (bt) { 
    if (GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace) 
      free_array (GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace); 
    add_ref (GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace = bt); 
  } 
  else { 
    f_backtrace(0); 
    push_int (1); 
    o_range2 (RANGE_LOW_OPEN|RANGE_HIGH_FROM_END); 
    assign_to_short_svalue ((union anything *)&GENERIC_ERROR_THIS->error_backtrace, 
                            PIKE_T_ARRAY, Pike_sp-1); 
    pop_stack(); 
  } 
 
  pop_n_elems(args); 
} 
 
/*! @endclass 
 */ 
 
/*! @endmodule 
 */ 
 
#define INIT_ERROR(FEL)\ 
  va_list foo; \ 
  struct object *o; \ 
  va_start(foo,desc); \ 
  ASSERT_THREAD_SWAPPED_IN(); \ 
  o=fast_clone_object(PIKE_CONCAT(FEL,_error_program)) 
 
#define ERROR_DONE() \ 
  generic_error_va(o,func, base_sp, args, desc, &foo); \ 
  va_end(foo) 
 
#define ERROR_STRUCT(STRUCT,O) \ 
 ((struct PIKE_CONCAT(STRUCT,_error_struct) *)((O)->storage + PIKE_CONCAT(STRUCT,_error_offset))) 
 
#define ERROR_COPY(STRUCT,X) \ 
  ERROR_STRUCT(STRUCT,o)->X=X 
 
#define ERROR_COPY_SVALUE(STRUCT,X) do { \ 
    if (X) { \ 
      assign_svalue_no_free( & ERROR_STRUCT(STRUCT,o)->X, X); \ 
    } else { \ 
      SET_SVAL(ERROR_STRUCT(STRUCT, o)->X, PIKE_T_INT, NUMBER_UNDEFINED, \ 
               integer, 0); \ 
    } \ 
  } while (0) 
 
 
/* This prepares the passed object o, which is assumed to inherit 
 * generic_error_program, and throws it: 
 * 
 * o  A backtrace is assigned to error_backtrace. 
 * 
 * o  If func is specified, a frame is constructed for at the end of 
 *    backtrace using it as function name and base_sp[0..args-1] as 
 *    arguments. 
 * 
 * o  If fmt is specified, an error message is created from it and 
 *    fmt_args using string_builder_vsprintf. (fmt_args is passed as a 
 *    va_list pointer to be able to pass NULL if fmt is NULL.) 
 */ 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void generic_error_va( 
  struct object *o, const char *func, const struct svalue *base_sp, int args, 
  const char *fmt, va_list *fmt_args) 
{ 
  struct generic_error_struct *err = get_storage (o, generic_error_program); 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  if (!err) 
    Pike_fatal ("Got an object which doesn't inherit generic_error_program.\n"); 
#endif 
 
  if(in_error) 
  { 
    const char *tmp=in_error; 
    in_error=0; 
    Pike_fatal("Recursive error() calls, original error: %s", tmp); 
  } 
  in_error = fmt ? fmt : "no error message"; 
 
  if (fmt) { 
    struct string_builder s; 
    init_string_builder(&s, 0); 
    string_builder_vsprintf(&s, fmt, *fmt_args); 
 
    if (err->error_message) free_string(err->error_message); 
    err->error_message = finish_string_builder(&s); 
  } 
 
  f_backtrace(0); 
 
  if(func && base_sp) 
  { 
    int i; 
    push_int(0); 
    push_int(0); 
    push_text(func); 
 
    for (i=0;i<args;i++) 
      push_svalue(base_sp + i); 
    f_aggregate(args + 3); 
    f_aggregate(1); 
    f_add(2); 
  } 
 
  if(TYPEOF(Pike_sp[-1]) != PIKE_T_ARRAY) 
    Pike_fatal("f_backtrace failed to generate a backtrace!\n"); 
 
  if (err->error_backtrace) free_array(err->error_backtrace); 
  err->error_backtrace=Pike_sp[-1].u.array; 
  Pike_sp--; 
  dmalloc_touch_svalue(Pike_sp); 
 
  free_svalue(& throw_value); 
  SET_SVAL(throw_value, PIKE_T_OBJECT, 0, object, o); 
  throw_severity = THROW_ERROR; 
  in_error=0; 
 
  dmalloc_touch_svalue(& throw_value); 
 
  pike_throw();  /* Hope someone is catching, or we will be out of balls. */ 
} 
 
 
/* Throw a preallocated error object. 
 * 
 * NOTE: The object MUST NOT have been cloned by a plain low_clone()! 
 *       At least fast_clone_object() MUST have been used, or the object 
 *       data must have been properly initialized in some other way! 
 */ 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void throw_error_object( 
  struct object *o, 
  const char *func, int args, 
  const char *desc, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  const struct svalue *base_sp = Pike_sp - args; 
  va_list foo; 
  va_start(foo,desc); 
  ASSERT_THREAD_SWAPPED_IN(); 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void generic_error( 
  const char *func, 
  const struct svalue *base_sp,  int args, 
  const char *desc, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  INIT_ERROR(generic); 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void index_error( 
  const char *func, int args, 
  struct svalue *value, 
  struct svalue *index, 
  const char *desc, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  const struct svalue *base_sp = Pike_sp - args; 
  INIT_ERROR(index); 
  ERROR_COPY_SVALUE(index, value); 
  ERROR_COPY_SVALUE(index, index); 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void bad_arg_error( 
  const char *func, int args, 
  int which_argument, 
  const char *expected_type, 
  struct svalue *got_value, 
  const char *desc, ...)  ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  const struct svalue *base_sp = args>=0 ? Pike_sp-args : NULL; 
  INIT_ERROR(bad_argument); 
  ERROR_COPY(bad_argument, which_argument); 
  if (expected_type) 
    ERROR_STRUCT(bad_argument,o)->expected_type = 
      make_shared_string(expected_type); 
  else 
    ERROR_STRUCT(bad_argument,o)->expected_type = NULL; 
  ERROR_COPY_SVALUE(bad_argument, got_value); 
 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void math_error( 
  const char *func, int args, 
  struct svalue *number, 
  const char *desc, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  INIT_ERROR(math); 
  const struct svalue *base_sp = Pike_sp - args; 
  if(number) 
  { 
    ERROR_COPY_SVALUE(math, number); 
  }else{ 
    SET_SVAL(ERROR_STRUCT(math,o)->number, PIKE_T_INT, NUMBER_UNDEFINED, 
             integer, 0); 
  } 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
static DECLSPEC(noreturn) void resource_error( 
  const char *func, int args, 
  size_t howmuch_, 
  const char *desc, ...) ATTRIBUTE((noreturn)) 
{ 
  INT_TYPE howmuch = (INT_TYPE)howmuch_; 
  const struct svalue *base_sp = NULL; 
  INIT_ERROR(resource); 
  if(args>=0) base_sp = Pike_sp-args; 
  ERROR_COPY(resource, howmuch); 
  ERROR_STRUCT(resource,o)->resource_type=make_shared_string("memory"); 
  ERROR_DONE(); 
} 
 
PMOD_EXPORT DECLSPEC(noreturn) void out_of_memory_error ( 
  const char *func, int args, 
  size_t amount) 
{ 
  resource_error (func, args, amount, 
                  amount ? msg_out_of_mem_2 : msg_out_of_mem, amount); 
  UNREACHABLE(); 
} 
 
/* coverity[+kill] */ 
PMOD_EXPORT void wrong_number_of_args_error(const char *name, int args, int expected) 
{ 
  if(expected>args) 
  { 
    bad_arg_error (name, args, expected, NULL, NULL, 
                   "Too few arguments to %s(). Expected at least %d (got %d).\n", 
                   name, expected, args); 
  }else { 
    bad_arg_error (name, args, expected, NULL, NULL, 
                   "Too many arguments to %s(). Expected at most %d (got %d).\n", 
                   name, expected, args); 
  } 
} 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
static void gc_check_throw_value(struct callback *UNUSED(foo), void *UNUSED(bar), void *UNUSED(gazonk)) 
{ 
  gc_mark_external_svalues(&throw_value,1," in the throw value"); 
} 
#endif 
 
void init_error(void) 
{ 
#define ERR_SETUP 
#include "errors.h" 
 
#ifdef PIKE_DEBUG 
  dmalloc_accept_leak(add_gc_callback(gc_check_throw_value,0,0)); 
#endif 
} 
 
void cleanup_error(void) 
{ 
#define ERR_CLEANUP 
#include "errors.h" 
}