9. I/O

Class Stdio.File

Description

This is the basic I/O object, it provides socket and pipe communication as well as file access. It does not buffer reads and writes or provide line-by-line reading, that is done with Stdio.FILE object.

Note

The file or stream will normally be closed when this object is destructed (unless there are more objects that refer to the same file through use of assign or dup). Objects do not contain cyclic references in themselves, so they will be destructed timely when they run out of references.

See also

Stdio.FILE


Method assign

int assign(File|Fd o)

Description

This function takes a clone of Stdio.File and assigns all variables of this file from it. It can be used together with dup() to move files around.

See also

dup()


Method async_connect

int async_connect(string host, int|string port, function(int, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Open a TCP/IP connection asynchronously.

This function is similar to connect(), but works asynchronously.

Parameter host

Hostname or IP to connect to.

Parameter port

Port number or service name to connect to.

Parameter callback

Function to be called on completion. The first argument will be 1 if a connection was successfully established, and 0 (zero) on failure. The rest of the arguments to callback are passed verbatim from args.

Parameter args

Extra arguments to pass to callback.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure, and 1 if callback will be used.

Note

The socket may be opened with open_socket() ahead of the call to this function, but it is not required.

Note

This object is put in callback mode by this function. For callback to be called, the backend must be active. See e.g. set_read_callback for more details about backends and callback mode.

Note

The socket will be in nonblocking state if the connection is successful, and any callbacks will be cleared.

See also

connect(), open_socket(), set_nonblocking()


Method close

int close()
int close(string direction)

Description

Close the file. Optionally, specify "r", "w" or "rw" to close just the read, just the write or both read and write directions of the file respectively.

An exception is thrown if an I/O error occurs.

Returns

Nonzero is returned if the file wasn't open in the specified direction, zero otherwise.

Note

This function will not call the close_callback.

See also

open, open_socket


Method connect

int connect(string host, int|string port, void|string client, void|int|string client_port)

Description

This function connects a socket previously created with open_socket() to a remote socket through TCP/IP. The host argument is the hostname or IP number of the remote machine. A local IP and port can be explicitly bound by specifying client and client_port.

Returns

This function returns 1 for success, 0 otherwise.

Note

In nonblocking mode 0 (zero) may be returned and errno() set to EWOULDBLOCK or WSAEWOULDBLOCK. This should not be regarded as a connection failure. In nonblocking mode you need to wait for a write or close callback before you know if the connection failed or not.

See also

query_address(), async_connect(), connect_unix()


Method connect_unix

int connect_unix(string path)

Description

Open a UNIX domain socket connection to the specified destination.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, and 0 on failure.

Note

Nonblocking mode is not supported while connecting


Method create

Stdio.File Stdio.File()
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename, string mode)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename, string mode, int mask)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string descriptorname)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(int fd)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(int fd, string mode)

Description

There are four basic ways to create a Stdio.File object. The first is calling it without any arguments, in which case the you'd have to call open(), connect() or some other method which connects the File object with a stream.

The second way is calling it with a filename and open mode. This is the same thing as cloning and then calling open(), except shorter and faster.

The third way is to call it with descriptorname of "stdin", "stdout" or "stderr". This will open the specified standard stream.

For the advanced users, you can use the file descriptors of the systems (note: emulated by pike on some systems - like NT). This is only useful for streaming purposes on unix systems. This is not recommended at all if you don't know what you're into. Default mode for this is "rw".

Note

Open mode will be filtered through the system UMASK. You might need to use chmod() later.

See also

open(), connect(), Stdio.FILE,


Method dup

File dup()

Description

This function returns a clone of Stdio.File with all variables copied from this file.

Note

All variables, even id, are copied.

See also

assign()


Method errno

int errno()

Description

Returns the error code for the last command on this file. Error code is normally cleared when a command is successful.


Inherit Fd

optional inherit Fd : Fd


Inherit Fd_ref

optional inherit Fd_ref : Fd_ref


Method line_iterator

String.SplitIterator|LineIterator line_iterator(int|void trim)

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file. If trim is true, all '\r' characters will be removed from the input.


Method open

int open(string filename, string mode)
int open(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Open a file for read, write or append. The parameter mode should contain one or more of the following letters:

"r"

Open file for reading.

"w"

Open file for writing.

"a"

Open file for append (use with "w").

"t"

Truncate file at open (use with "w").

"c"

Create file if it doesn't exist (use with "w").

"x"

Fail if file already exists (use with "c").

mode should always contain at least one of the letters "r" or "w".

The parameter mask is protection bits to use if the file is created. Default is 0666 (read+write for all in octal notation).

Returns

This function returns 1 for success, 0 otherwise.

See also

close(), create()


Method open_socket

int open_socket(int|string|void port, string|void address, int|string|void family_hint)

Description

This makes this file into a socket ready for connections. The reason for this function is so that you can set the socket to nonblocking or blocking (default is blocking) before you call connect().

Parameter port

If you give a port number to this function, the socket will be bound to this port locally before connecting anywhere. This is only useful for some silly protocols like FTP. The port can also be specified as a string, giving the name of the service associated with the port.

Parameter address

You may specify an address to bind to if your machine has many IP numbers.

Parameter family_hint

A protocol family for the socket can be specified. If no family is specified, one which is appropriate for the address is automatically selected. Thus, there is normally no need to specify it. If you do not want to specify a bind address, you can provide the address as a hint here instead, to allow the automatic selection to work anyway.

Returns

This function returns 1 for success, 0 otherwise.

See also

connect(), set_nonblocking(), set_blocking()


Method openat

File openat(string filename, string mode)
File openat(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Open a file relative to an open directory.

See also

File.statat(), File.unlinkat()


Method openpt

int openpt(string mode)

Description

Open the master end of a pseudo-terminal pair. The parameter mode should contain one or more of the following letters:

"r"

Open terminal for reading.

"w"

Open terminal for writing.

mode should always contain at least one of the letters "r" or "w".

See also

grantpt()


Method pipe

File pipe(void|int required_properties)

Description

This function creates a pipe between the object it was called in and an object that is returned.

Parameter required_properties

Binary or (predef::`|()) of required PROP_ properties.

PROP_IPC

The resulting pipe may be used for inter process communication.

PROP_NONBLOCK

The resulting pipe supports nonblocking I/O.

PROP_SHUTDOWN

The resulting pipe supports shutting down transmission in either direction (see close()).

PROP_BUFFERED

The resulting pipe is buffered (usually 4KB).

PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL

The resulting pipe is bi-directional.

PROP_SEND_FD

The resulting pipe might support sending of file descriptors (see send_fd() and receive_fd() for details).

PROP_REVERSE

The resulting pipe supports communication "backwards" (but not necessarily "forwards", see PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL).

The default is PROP_NONBLOCK|PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL.

If PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL isn't specified, the read-end is this object, and the write-end is the returned object (unless PROP_REVERSE has been specified, in which case it is the other way around).

The two ends of a bi-directional pipe are indistinguishable.

If the File object this function is called in was open to begin with, it will be closed before the pipe is created.

Note

Calling this function with an argument of 0 is not the same as calling it with no arguments.

See also

Process.create_process(), send_fd(), receive_fd(), PROP_IPC, PROP_NONBLOCK, PROP_SEND_FD, PROP_SHUTDOWN, PROP_BUFFERED, PROP_REVERSE, PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL


Method query_read_callback
Method query_write_callback
Method query_read_oob_callback
Method query_write_oob_callback
Method query_close_callback
Method query_callbacks

function(mixed, string:int) query_read_callback()
function(mixed:int) query_write_callback()
function(mixed, string:int) query_read_oob_callback()
function(mixed:int) query_write_oob_callback()
function(mixed:int) query_close_callback()
array(function(mixed, void|string:int)) query_callbacks()

Description

These functions return the currently installed callbacks for the respective events.

query_callbacks returns the callbacks in the same order as set_callbacks and set_nonblocking expect them.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_read_callback, set_write_callback, set_read_oob_callback, set_write_oob_callback, set_close_callback, set_callbacks


Method query_id

mixed query_id()

Description

This function returns the id that has been set with set_id().

See also

set_id()


Method read_function

function(:string) read_function(int nbytes)

Description

Returns a function that when called will call read with nbytes as argument. Can be used to get various callback functions, eg for the fourth argument to String.SplitIterator.


Method send_fd

bool send_fd(File|Fd file)


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

Description

This function clears all callbacks and sets a stream to blocking mode. i.e. reading, writing and closing will wait until data has been transferred before returning.

Note

The callbacks are cleared and blocking mode is set in one atomic operation, so no callback gets called in between if the backend is running in another thread.

Even so, if the stream is in callback mode (i.e. if any callbacks are installed) then only the backend thread can use this function reliably; it might otherwise already be running in a callback which is about to call e.g. write when the stream becomes blocking.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks(), set_blocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks
Method set_blocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()
void set_blocking_keep_callbacks()

Description

Toggle between blocking and nonblocking, without changing the callbacks.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_blocking()


Method set_callbacks

void set_callbacks(void|function(mixed, string:int) read_cb, void|function(mixed:int) write_cb, void|function(mixed:int) close_cb, void|function(mixed, string:int) read_oob_cb, void|function(mixed:int) write_oob_cb)

Description

Installs all the specified callbacks at once. Use UNDEFINED to keep the current setting for a callback.

Like set_nonblocking, the callbacks are installed atomically. As opposed to set_nonblocking, this function does not do anything with the stream, and it doesn't even have to be open.

See also

set_read_callback, set_write_callback, set_read_oob_callback, set_write_oob_callback, set_close_callback, query_callbacks


Method set_read_callback
Method set_write_callback
Method set_read_oob_callback
Method set_write_oob_callback
Method set_close_callback
Method set_fs_event_callback

void set_read_callback(function(mixed, string:int) read_cb)
void set_write_callback(function(mixed:int) write_cb)
void set_read_oob_callback(function(mixed, string:int) read_oob_cb)
void set_write_oob_callback(function(mixed:int) write_oob_cb)
void set_close_callback(function(mixed:int) close_cb)
void set_fs_event_callback(function(mixed, int:int) fs_event_cb, int event_mask)

Description

These functions set the various callbacks, which will be called when various events occur on the stream. A zero as argument will remove the callback.

A Pike.Backend object is responsible for calling the callbacks. It requires a thread to be waiting in it to execute the calls. That means that only one of the callbacks will be running at a time, so you don't need mutexes between them.

Unless you've specified otherwise with the set_backend function, the default backend Pike.DefaultBackend will be used. It's normally activated by returning -1 from the main function and will then execute in the main thread.

  • When data arrives on the stream, read_cb will be called with some or all of that data as the second argument.

  • When the stream has buffer space over for writing, write_cb will be called so that you can write more data to it.

    This callback is also called after the remote end of a socket connection has closed the write direction. An attempt to write data to it in that case will generate a System.EPIPE errno. If the remote end has closed both directions simultaneously (the usual case), Pike will first attempt to call close_cb, then this callback (unless close_cb has closed the stream).

  • When out-of-band data arrives on the stream, read_oob_cb will be called with some or all of that data as the second argument.

  • When the stream allows out-of-band data to be sent, write_oob_cb will be called so that you can write more out-of-band data to it.

    If the OS doesn't separate the write events for normal and out-of-band data, Pike will try to call write_oob_cb first. If it doesn't write anything, then write_cb will be tried. This also means that write_oob_cb might get called when the remote end of a connection has closed the write direction.

  • When an error or an end-of-stream in the read direction occurs, close_cb will be called. errno will return the error, or zero in the case of an end-of-stream.

    The name of this callback is rather unfortunate since it really has nothing to do with a close: The stream is still open when close_cb is called (you might not be able to read and/or write to it, but you can still use things like query_address, and the underlying file descriptor is still allocated). Also, this callback will not be called for a local close, neither by a call to close or by destructing this object.

    Also, close_cb will not be called if a remote close only occurs in the write direction; that is handled by write_cb (or possibly write_oob_cb).

    Events to read_cb and close_cb will be automatically deregistered if an end-of-stream occurs, and all events in the case of an error. I.e. there won't be any more calls to the callbacks unless they are reinstalled. This doesn't affect the callback settings - query_read_callback et al will still return the installed callbacks.

If the stream is a socket performing a nonblocking connect (see open_socket and connect), a connection failure will call close_cb, and a successful connect will call either read_cb or write_cb as above.

All callbacks will receive the id set by set_id as first argument.

If a callback returns -1, no other callback or call out will be called by the backend in that round. I.e. the caller of the backend will get control back right away. For the default backend that means it will immediately start another round and check files and call outs anew.

Parameter event_mask

An event mask specifing bitwise OR of one or more event types to monitor, selected from Stdio.NOTE_WRITE and friends.

Note

These functions do not set the file nonblocking.

Note

Callbacks are also set by set_callbacks and set_nonblocking().

Note

After a callback has been called, it's disabled until it has accessed the stream accordingly, i.e. the write_cb callback is disabled after it's been called until something has been written with write, and the write_oob_cb callback is likewise disabled until something has been written with write_oob. Since the data already has been read when the read callbacks are called, this effect is not noticeable for them.

Note

Installing callbacks means that you will start doing I/O on the stream from the thread running the backend. If you are running these set functions from another thread you must be prepared that the callbacks can be called immediately by the backend thread, so it might not be safe to continue using the stream in this thread.

Because of that, it's useful to talk about "callback mode" when any callback is installed. In callback mode the stream should be seen as "bound" to the backend thread. For instance, it's only the backend thread that reliably can end callback mode before the stream is "handed over" to another thread.

Note

Callback mode has nothing to do with nonblocking mode - although the two often are used together they don't have to be.

Note

The file object will stay referenced from the backend object as long as there are callbacks that can receive events.

Bugs

Setting a close callback without a read callback currently only works when there's no risk of getting more data on the stream. Otherwise the close callback will be silently deregistered if data arrives.

Note

fs_event callbacks only trigger on systems that support these events. Currently, this includes systems that use kqueue, such as Mac OS X, and various flavours of BSD.

See also

set_callbacks, set_nonblocking(), set_id(), set_backend, query_read_callback, query_write_callback, query_read_oob_callback, query_write_oob_callback, query_close_callback


Method set_id

void set_id(mixed id)

Description

This function sets the id of this file. The id is mainly used as an identifier that is sent as the first argument to all callbacks. The default id is 0 (zero). Another possible use of the id is to hold all data related to this file in a mapping or array.

See also

query_id()


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(mixed, string:int) read_callback, function(mixed:int) write_callback, function(mixed:int) close_callback)
void set_nonblocking(function(mixed, string:int) read_callback, function(mixed:int) write_callback, function(mixed:int) close_callback, function(mixed, string:int) read_oob_callback, function(mixed:int) write_oob_callback)
void set_nonblocking()

Description

This function sets a stream to nonblocking mode and installs the specified callbacks. See the set_*_callback functions for details about them. If no arguments are given, the callbacks will be cleared.

Note

As opposed to calling the set callback functions separately, this function will set all the callbacks and nonblocking mode atomically so that no callback gets called in between. That avoids races in case the backend is executed by another thread.

Note

Out-of-band data was not be supported on Pike 0.5 and earlier, and not on Pike 0.6 through 7.4 if they were compiled with the option '--without-oob'.

See also

set_blocking(), set_callbacks, set_read_callback(), set_write_callback(), set_read_oob_callback(), set_write_oob_callback(), set_close_callback() set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks(), set_blocking_keep_callbacks()


Method tcgetattr
Method tcsetattr

mapping tcgetattr()
int tcsetattr(mapping attr)
int tcsetattr(mapping attr, string when)

Description

Gets/sets term attributes. The returned value/the attr parameter is a mapping on the form

"ispeed" : int(-1..)

In baud rate.

"ospeed" : int(-1..)

Out baud rate.

"csize" : int(-1..-1)|int(5..8)

Character size in bits.

"rows" : int

Terminal rows.

"columns" : int

Terminal columns.

flag_name : bool

The value of a named flag. The flag name is the string describing the termios flags (IGNBRK, BRKINT, IGNPAR, PARMRK, INPCK, ISTRIP, INLCR, IGNCR, ICRNL, IUCLC, IXON, IXANY, IXOFF, IMAXBEL, OPOST, OLCUC, ONLCR, OCRNL, ONOCR, ONLRET, OFILL, OFDEL, OXTABS, ONOEOT, CSTOPB, CREAD, PARENB, PARODD, HUPCL, CLOCAL, CRTSCTS, ISIG, ICANON, XCASE, ECHO, ECHOE, ECHOK, ECHONL, ECHOCTL, ECHOPRT, ECHOKE, FLUSHO, NOFLSH, TOSTOP, PENDIN). See the manpage for termios or other documentation for more information. All flags are not available on all platforms.

character_name : int(8bit)

Sets the value of a control character (VINTR, VQUIT, VERASE, VKILL, VEOF, VTIME, VMIN, VSWTC, VSTART, VSTOP, VSUSP, VEOL, VREPRINT, VDISCARD, VWERASE, VLNEXT, VEOL2). All control characters are not available on all platforms.

Negative values are not allowed as indata, but might appear in the result from tcgetattr when the actual value is unknown. tcsetattr returns 0 if failed.

The argument when to tcsetattr describes when the changes are to take effect:

"TCSANOW"

The change occurs immediately (default).

"TCSADRAIN"

The change occurs after all output has been written.

"TCSAFLUSH"

The change occurs after all output has been written, and empties input buffers.

Example

// setting the terminal in raw mode: Stdio.stdin->tcsetattr((["ECHO":0,"ICANON":0,"VMIN":0,"VTIME":0]));

Note

Unknown flags are ignored by tcsetattr(). tcsetattr always changes the attribute, so only include attributes that actually should be altered in the attribute mapping.

Bugs

Terminal rows and columns setting by tcsetattr() is not currently supported.

Class Stdio.FILE

Description

Stdio.FILE is a buffered version of Stdio.File, it inherits Stdio.File and has most of the functionality of Stdio.File. However, it has an input buffer that allows line-by-line input.

It also has support for automatic charset conversion for both input and output (see Stdio.FILE()->set_charset()).

Note

The output part of Stdio.FILE is currently not buffered.


Method _get_iterator

Stdio.FILE a;
foreach( a; index; value ) or
protected object _get_iterator()

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file.

See also

line_iterator()


Method getchar

local int getchar()

Description

This function returns one character from the input stream.

Returns

Returns the ISO-10646 (Unicode) value of the character.

Note

Returns an int and not a string of length 1.


Method gets

string gets(bool|void not_all)

Description

Read one line of input with support for input conversion.

Parameter not_all

Set this parameter to ignore partial lines at EOF. This is useful for eg monitoring a growing logfile.

Returns

This function returns the line read if successful, and 0 if no more lines are available.

See also

ngets(), read(), line_iterator(), set_charset()


Inherit file

inherit File : file


Method line_iterator

object line_iterator(int|void trim)

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file. If trim is true, all '\r' characters will be removed from the input.

Note

It's not supported to call this method more than once unless a call to seek is done in advance. Also note that it's not possible to intermingle calls to read, gets or other functions that read data with the line iterator, it will produce unexpected results since the internal buffer in the iterator will not contain sequential file-data in those cases.

See also

_get_iterator()


Method ngets

array(string) ngets(void|int(1..) n, bool|void not_all)

Description

Get n lines.

Parameter n

Number of lines to get, or all remaining if zero.

Parameter not_all

Set this parameter to ignore partial lines at EOF. This is useful for eg monitoring a growing logfile.


Method openat

FILE openat(string filename, string mode)
FILE openat(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Same as Stdio.File()->openat(), but returns a Stdio.FILE object.

See also

Stdio.File()->openat()


Method pipe

File pipe(int|void flags)

Description

Same as Stdio.File()->pipe().

Note

Returns an Stdio.File object, NOT an Stdio.FILE object.

In future releases of Pike this will most likely change to returning an Stdio.FILE object. This is already the case if STDIO_DIRECT_FD has been defined.


Method printf

int printf(string format, mixed ... data)

Description

This function does approximately the same as: write(sprintf(format,@data)).

See also

write(), sprintf()


Method read

string read(int|void bytes, void|bool now)

Description

Read bytes (wide-) characters with buffering and support for input conversion.

See also

Stdio.File()->read(), set_charset(), unread()


Method set_charset

void set_charset(string|void charset)

Description

Sets the input and output charset of this file to the specified charset. If charset is 0 or not specified the environment is used to try to detect a suitable charset.

The default charset if this function is not called is "ISO-8859-1".

FIXME

Consider using one of ISO-IR-196 ("\e%G" - switch to UTF-8 with return) or ISO-IR-190 ("\e%/G" - switch to UTF-8 level 1 no return) or ISO-IR-191 ("\e%/H" - switch to UTF-8 level 2 no return) or ISO-IR-192 ("\e%/I" - switch to UTF-8 level 3 no return) or ISO-IR-193 ("\e%/J" - switch to UTF-16 level 1 no return) or ISO-IR-194 ("\e%/K" - switch to UTF-16 level 2 no return) or ISO-IR-195 ("\e%/L" - switch to UTF-16 level 3 no return) or ISO-IR-162 ("\e%/@" - switch to UCS-2 level 1) or ISO-IR-163 ("\e%/A" - switch to UCS-4 level 1) or ISO-IR-174 ("\e%/C" - switch to UCS-2 level 2) or ISO-IR-175 ("\e%/D" - switch to UCS-4 level 2) or ISO-IR-176 ("\e%/E" - switch to UCS-2 level 3) or ISO-IR-177 ("\e%/F" - switch to UCS-4 level 3) or ISO-IR-178 ("\e%B" - switch to UTF-1) automatically to encode wide strings.


Method ungets

void ungets(string s)

Description

This function puts a line back in the input buffer. The line can then be read with eg read(), gets() or getchar().

Note

The string is autoterminated by an extra line-feed.

See also

read(), gets(), getchar(), unread()


Method unread

void unread(string s)

Description

This function puts a string back in the input buffer. The string can then be read with eg read(), gets() or getchar().

See also

read(), gets(), getchar(), ungets()


Method write

int write(array(string)|string what, mixed ... fmt)

Description

Write what with support for output_conversion.

See also

Stdio.File()->write()

Class Stdio.Port

Description

Handles listening to socket ports. Whenever you need a bound socket that is open and listens for connections you should use this program.


Method accept

File accept()

Description

This function completes a connection made from a remote machine to this port. It returns a two-way stream in the form of a clone of Stdio.File. The new file is by initially set to blocking mode.

See also

Stdio.File


Method accept

Stdio.File accept()

Description

Get the first connection request waiting for this port and return it as a connected socket.

If no connection request is waiting and the port is in nonblocking mode (i.e. an accept callback is installed) then zero is returned. Otherwise this function waits until a connection has arrived.

In Pike 7.8 and later the returned object is created via fd_factory().

Note

In Pike 7.7 and later the resulting file object will be assigned to the same backend as the port object.


Method bind

int bind(int|string port, void|function(:void) accept_callback, void|string ip)

Description

Opens a socket and binds it to port number on the local machine. If the second argument is present, the socket is set to nonblocking and the callback funcition is called whenever something connects to it. The callback will receive the id for this port as argument and should typically call accept to establish a connection.

If the optional argument ip is given, bind will try to bind to an interface with that host name or IP number. Omitting this will bind to all available IPv4 addresses; specifying "::" will bind to all IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

Returns

1 is returned on success, zero on failure. errno provides further details about the error in the latter case.

See also

accept, set_id


Method bind_unix

int bind_unix(string path, void|function(:void) accept_callback)

Description

Opens a Unix domain socket at the given path in the file system. If the second argument is present, the socket is set to nonblocking and the callback funcition is called whenever something connects to it. The callback will receive the id for this port as argument and should typically call accept to establish a connection.

Returns

1 is returned on success, zero on failure. errno provides further details about the error in the latter case.

Note

This function is only available on systems that support Unix domain sockets.

Note

path had a quite restrictive length limit (~100 characters) prior to Pike 7.8.334.

See also

accept, set_id


Method close

void close()

Description

Closes the socket.


Method create

Stdio.Port Stdio.Port()
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port, function(:void) accept_callback)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port, function(:void) accept_callback, string ip)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port("stdin")
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port("stdin", function(:void) accept_callback)

Description

If the first argument is other than "stdin" the arguments will be passed to bind().

When create is called with "stdin" as the first argument, a socket is created out of the file descriptor 0. This is only useful if it actually is a socket to begin with.

See also

bind


Method create

Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port, void|function(:void) accept_callback, void|string ip)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port("stdin", void|function(:void) accept_callback)

Description

When called with an int or any string except "stdin" as first argument, this function does the same as bind() would do with the same arguments.

When called with "stdin" as argument, a socket is created out of the file descriptor 0. This is only useful if that actually IS a socket to begin with.

See also

bind, listen_fd


Method errno

int errno()

Description

If the last call done on this port failed, this function will return an integer describing what went wrong. Refer to your unix manual for further information.


Method fd_factory

protected Fd fd_factory()

Description

Factory creating empty Fd objects.

This function is called by accept() when it needs to create a new file.


Inherit _port

inherit _port : _port


Method listen_fd

int listen_fd(int fd, void|function(:void) accept_callback)

Description

This function does the same as bind, except that instead of creating a new socket and bind it to a port, it expects the file descriptor fd to be an already open port.

Note

This function is only for the advanced user, and is generally used when sockets are passed to Pike at exec time.

See also

bind, accept


Method query_address

string query_address()

Description

Get the address and port of the local socket end-point.

Returns

This function returns the address and port of a socket end-point on the form "x.x.x.x port" (IPv4) or "x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x port" (IPv6).

If there is some error querying or formatting the address, 0 (zero) is returned and errno() will return the error code.

Throws

An error is thrown if the socket isn't bound.


Method query_backend

Pike.Backend query_backend()

Description

Return the backend used for the accept callback.

See also

set_backend


Method query_id

mixed query_id()

Description

This function returns the id for this port. The id is normally the first argument to accept_callback.

See also

set_id


Method set_backend

void set_backend(Pike.Backend backend)

Description

Set the backend used for the accept callback.

Note

The backend keeps a reference to this object as long as the port is accepting connections, but this object does not keep a reference to the backend.

See also

query_backend


Method set_id

mixed set_id(mixed id)

Description

This function sets the id used for accept_callback by this port. The default id is this_object().

See also

query_id

Class Stdio.UDP

Description

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) handling.


Constant MSG_OOB

constant Stdio.UDP.MSG_OOB

FIXME

Document this constant.


Constant MSG_PEEK

constant Stdio.UDP.MSG_PEEK

FIXME

Document this constant.


Method add_membership

int add_membership(string group, void|string address)

Description

Join a multicast group. group contains the address of the multicast group the application wants to join or leave. It must be a valid multicast address. address is the address of the local interface with wich the system should join to the multicast group. If not provided the system will select an appropriate interface. See also the Unix man page for setsocketopt IPPROTO_IP ADD_MEMBERSHIP.

See also

drop_membership


Method bind

UDP bind(int|string port)
UDP bind(int|string port, string address)

Description

Binds a port for receiving or transmitting UDP.

Throws

Throws error when unable to bind port.


Method close

bool close()

Description

Closes an open UDP port.

Note

This method was introduced in Pike 7.5.


Method connect

bool connect(string address, int|string port)

Description

Establish an UDP connection.

This function connects an UDP socket previously created with Stdio.UDP() to a remote socket. The address is the IP name or number for the remote machine.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, 0 (zero) otherwise.

Note

If the socket is in nonblocking mode, you have to wait for a write or close callback before you know if the connection failed or not.

See also

bind(), query_address()


Method drop_membership

int drop_membership(string group, void|string address)

Description

Leave a multicast group.

See also

add_membership


Method enable_broadcast

bool enable_broadcast()

Description

Set the broadcast flag. If enabled then sockets receive packets sent to a broadcast address and they are allowed to send packets to a broadcast address.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, 0 (zero) otherwise.

Note

This is normally only avalable to root users.


Method enable_multicast

bool enable_multicast(string reply_address)

Description

Set the local device for a multicast socket. See also the Unix man page for setsocketopt IPPROTO_IP IP_MULTICAST_IF.


Method errno

int errno()

Description

Returns the error code for the last command on this object. Error code is normally cleared when a command is successful.


Method get_type

array(int) get_type()

Description

Returns socket type and protocol family.


Inherit UDP

inherit _Stdio.UDP : UDP


Method query_address

string query_address()

Description

Returns the local address of a socket on the form "x.x.x.x port". If this file is not a socket, not connected or some other error occurs, zero is returned.


Method query_backend

Pike.Backend query_backend()

Description

Return the backend used for the read callback.

See also

set_backend


Method read

mapping(string:int|string) read()
mapping(string:int|string) read(int flag)

Description

Read from the UDP socket.

Flag flag is a bitfield, 1 for out of band data and 2 for peek

Returns

mapping(string:int|string) in the form ([ "data" : string received data "ip" : string received from this ip "port" : int ...and this port ])

See also

set_read_callback(), MSG_OOB, MSG_PEEK


Method send

int send(string to, int|string port, string message)
int send(string to, int|string port, string message, int flags)

Description

Send data to a UDP socket. The recipient address will be to and port will be port.

Flag flag is a bitfield, 1 for out of band data and 2 for don't route flag.

Returns

The number of bytes that were actually written.


Method set_backend

void set_backend(Pike.Backend backend)

Description

Set the backend used for the read callback.

Note

The backend keeps a reference to this object as long as there can be calls to the read callback, but this object does not keep a reference to the backend.

See also

query_backend


Method set_blocking

object set_blocking()

Description

Sets this object to be blocking.


Method set_buffer

void set_buffer(int bufsize, string mode)
void set_buffer(int bufsize)

Description

Set internal socket buffer.

This function sets the internal buffer size of a socket or stream.

The second argument allows you to set the read or write buffer by specifying "r" or "w".

Note

It is not guaranteed that this function actually does anything, but it certainly helps to increase data transfer speed when it does.

See also

open_socket(), accept()


Method set_multicast_ttl

int set_multicast_ttl(int ttl)

Description

Set the time-to-live value of outgoing multicast packets for this socket. It is very important for multicast packets to set the smallest TTL possible. The default is 1 which means that multicast packets don't leacl the local network unless the user program explicitly request it. See also the Unix man page for setsocketopt IPPROTO_IP IP_MULTICAST_TTL.


Method set_nonblocking

UDP set_nonblocking()
UDP set_nonblocking(function(mapping(string:int|string), mixed ... :void) read_cb, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Set this object to nonblocking mode.

If read_cb and extra_args are specified, they will be passed on to set_read_callback().

Returns

The called object.


Method set_read_callback

UDP set_read_callback(function(mapping(string:int|string), mixed ... :void) read_cb, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

The read_cb function will receive a mapping similar to the mapping returned by read():

"data" : string

Received data.

"ip" : string

Data was sent from this IP.

"port" : int

Data was sent from this port.

Returns

The called object.

See also

read()


Method set_type

UDP set_type(int sock_type)
UDP set_type(int sock_type, int family)

Description

Sets socket type and protocol family.


Method wait

bool wait(int|float timeout)

Description

Check for data and wait max. timeout seconds.

Returns

Returns 1 if data are ready, 0 (zero) otherwise.

Module Stdio.Terminfo


Method getFallbackTerm

protected Termcap getFallbackTerm(string term)

Description

Returns an object describing the fallback terminal for the terminal term. This is usually equvivalent to Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm("dumb").

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm


Method getTerm

Termcap getTerm(string|void term)

Description

Returns an object describing the terminal term. If term is not specified, it will default to getenv("TERM") or if that fails to "dumb".

Lookup of terminal information will first be done in the systems terminfo database, and if that fails in the termcap database. If neither database exists, a hardcoded entry for "dumb" will be used.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerminfo, Stdio.Terminfo.getTermcap, Stdio.getFallbackTerm


Method getTermcap

Termcap getTermcap(string term)

Description

Returns the terminal description object for term from the systems termcap database. Returns 0 if not found.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm, Stdio.Terminfo.getTerminfo


Method getTerminfo

Terminfo getTerminfo(string term)

Description

Returns the terminal description object for term from the systems terminfo database. Returns 0 if not found.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm, Stdio.Terminfo.getTermcap


Method is_tty

int is_tty()

Description

Returns 1 if Stdio.stdin is connected to an interactive terminal that can handle backspacing, carriage return without linefeed, and the like.

Class Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB

Description

TerminfoDB that merges several directorys.


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB(array(TerminfoDB|string)|void dbs)

Description

Create a new Meta TerminfoDB.

Parameter dbs

Array with elements in priority order. Elements may be either

TerminfoDB

An active TerminfoDB.

string

A directory that may exist and contain a terminfo database.

Returns

If the resulting set of TerminfoDB's is empty, the object will be destructed.

Class Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap

Description

Termcap terminal description object.


Variable aliases

array(string) Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap.aliases


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap(string cap, TermcapDB|void tcdb, int|void maxrecurse)


Inherit TermMachine

inherit TermMachine : TermMachine


Method tputs

string tputs(string s)

Description

Put termcap string

Class Stdio.Terminfo.TermcapDB

Description

Termcap database

Class Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo

Description

Terminfo terminal description object


Variable aliases

array(string) Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo.aliases


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo(string filename)


Inherit TermMachine

inherit TermMachine : TermMachine


Method tputs

string tputs(string s)

FIXME

Document this function

Class Stdio.Terminfo.TerminfoDB

Description

Terminfo database for a single directory.

Class Stdio.Readline


Method add_to_kill_ring

void add_to_kill_ring(string s)

FIXME

Document this function


Method create

Stdio.Readline Stdio.Readline(object|void infd, object|string|void interm, object|void outfd, object|string|void outterm)

Description

Creates a Readline object, that takes input from infd and has output on outfd.

Parameter infd

Defaults to Stdio.stdin.

Parameter interm

Defaults to Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm().

Parameter outfd

Defaults to infd, unless infd is 0, in which case outfd defaults to Stdio.stdout.

Parameter outterm

Defaults to interm.


Method delete

void delete(int p1, int p2)

FIXME

Document this function


Method delta_history

void delta_history(int d)

Description

Changes the line to a line from the history d steps from the current entry (0 being the current line, negative values older, and positive values newer).

Note

Only effective if you have a history object.


Method edit

string edit(string data, string|void local_prompt, array(string)|void attrs)

FIXME

Document this function


Method enable_history

void enable_history(array(string)|History|int hist)

FIXME

Document this function


Method eof

void eof()

FIXME

Document this function


Method get_history

History get_history()

FIXME

Document this function


Method get_input_controller

InputController get_input_controller()

Description

get current input control object

Returns

Terminal input controller object


Method get_output_controller

OutputController get_output_controller()

Description

get current output control object

Returns

Terminal output controller object


Method get_prompt

string get_prompt()

Description

Return the current prompt string.


Method getcursorpos

int getcursorpos()

FIXME

Document this function


Method getmark

int getmark()

FIXME

Document this function


Method gettext

string gettext()

FIXME

Document this function


Method history

void history(int n)

FIXME

Document this function


Method insert

void insert(string s, int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method kill

void kill(int p1, int p2)

FIXME

Document this function


Method kill_ring_yank

string kill_ring_yank()

FIXME

Document this function


Method list_completions

void list_completions(array(string) c)

FIXME

Document this function


Method message

void message(string msg)

Description

Print a message to the output device


Method newline

string newline()

FIXME

Document this function


Method pointmark

array(int) pointmark()

FIXME

Document this function


Method read

string read(string|void prompt, array(string)|void attrs)

FIXME

Document this function


Method redisplay

void redisplay(int clear, int|void nobackup)

FIXME

Document this function


Method region

string region(int ... args)

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_echo

void set_echo(int onoff)

Description

Set text echo on or off.

Parameter onoff

1 for echo, 0 for no echo.


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(:void) f)

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_prompt

string set_prompt(string newp, array(string)|void newattrs)

Description

Set the prompt string.

Parameter newp

New prompt string

Parameter newattrs

Terminal attributes


Method setcursorpos

int setcursorpos(int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method setmark

int setmark(int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method write

void write(string msg, void|int word_wrap)

FIXME

Document this function

Class Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys


Method backward_char

void backward_char()


Method backward_delete_char

void backward_delete_char()


Method backward_kill_word

void backward_kill_word()


Method backward_word

void backward_word()


Method beginning_of_line

void beginning_of_line()


Method capitalize_word

void capitalize_word()


Method clear_screen

void clear_screen()


Method create

Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys(object readline)


Method delete_char

void delete_char()


Method delete_char_or_eof

void delete_char_or_eof()


Method down_history

void down_history()


Method downcase_word

void downcase_word()


Method end_of_line

void end_of_line()


Method forward_char

void forward_char()


Method forward_word

void forward_word()


Method kill_line

void kill_line()


Method kill_region

void kill_region()


Method kill_ring_save

void kill_ring_save()


Method kill_whole_line

void kill_whole_line()


Method kill_word

void kill_word()


Method newline

void newline()


Method quoted_insert

void quoted_insert()


Method redisplay

void redisplay()


Method self_insert_command

void self_insert_command(string str)


Method set_default_bindings

protected void set_default_bindings()


Method set_mark

void set_mark()


Method swap_mark_and_point

void swap_mark_and_point()


Method transpose_chars

void transpose_chars()


Method up_history

void up_history()


Method upcase_word

void upcase_word()


Method yank

void yank()

Class Stdio.Readline.History


Method create

Stdio.Readline.History Stdio.Readline.History(int maxhist, void|array(string) hist)


Method encode

string encode()


Method finishline

void finishline(string text)


Method get_history_num

int get_history_num()


Method history

string history(int n, string text)


Method initline

void initline()


Method set_max_history

void set_max_history(int maxhist)

Class Stdio.Readline.InputController

FIXME

Ought to have support for charset conversion.


Method bind

function(:void) bind(string k, function(:void) f)


Method bindstr

function(:void) bindstr(string str, function(:void) f)


Method bindtc

function(:void) bindtc(string cap, function(:void) f)


Method create

Stdio.Readline.InputController Stdio.Readline.InputController(object|void _infd, object|string|void _term)


Method disable

int disable()


Method enable

int enable(int ... e)


Method getbinding

function(:void) getbinding(string k, string cap)


Method getbindings

mapping(string:function(:void)) getbindings()


Method getbindingstr

function(:void) getbindingstr(string str)


Method getbindingtc

function(:void) getbindingtc(string cap)


Method grabnextkey

void grabnextkey(function(:void) g)


Method isenabled

int isenabled()


Method nullbindings

void nullbindings()

Description

Clears the bindings.


Method parsekey

string parsekey(string k)


Method run_blocking

int run_blocking()


Method set_close_callback

void set_close_callback(function(:int) ccb)


Method unbind

function(:void) unbind(string k)


Method unbindstr

function(:void) unbindstr(string str)


Method unbindtc

function(:void) unbindtc(string cap)

Class Stdio.Readline.OutputController

FIXME

Ought to have support for charset conversion.


Method beep

void beep()


Method bol

void bol()


Method check_columns

int check_columns()

Description

Check and return the terminal width.

Note

In Pike 7.4 and earlier this function returned void.

See also

get_number_of_columns


Method clear

void clear(int|void partial)


Method create

Stdio.Readline.OutputController Stdio.Readline.OutputController(.File|void _outfd, .Terminfo.Termcap|string|void _term)


Method disable

void disable()


Method enable

void enable()


Method erase

void erase(string s)


Method get_number_of_columns

int get_number_of_columns()

Description

Returns the width of the terminal.

Note

Does not check the width of the terminal.

See also

check_columns


Method low_erase

void low_erase(int n)


Method low_move_backward

void low_move_backward(int n)


Method low_move_downward

void low_move_downward(int n)


Method low_move_forward

void low_move_forward(int n)


Method low_move_upward

void low_move_upward(int n)


Method low_write

void low_write(string s, void|int word_break)


Method move_backward

void move_backward(string s)


Method move_forward

void move_forward(string s)


Method newline

void newline()


Method turn_off

void turn_off(string ... atts)

Description

Set the provided attributes to off.


Method turn_on

void turn_on(string ... atts)

Description

Set the provided attributes to on.


Method write

void write(string s, void|int word_break, void|int hide)

Module Stdio


Constant DATA_CHUNK_SIZE

final constant int Stdio.DATA_CHUNK_SIZE

Description

Size used in various places to divide incoming or outgoing data into chunks.


Constant TCSADRAIN

constant string Stdio.TCSADRAIN

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change after all output has been written.


Constant TCSAFLUSH

constant string Stdio.TCSAFLUSH

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change after all output has been written, and empty the input buffers.


Constant TCSANOW

constant string Stdio.TCSANOW

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change immediately.


Method append_file

int append_file(string filename, string str, int|void access)

Description

Append the string str onto the file filename.

For a description of access, see Stdio.File->open().

Throws

Throws an error if filename couldn't be opened for writing.

Returns

Returns the number of bytes written, i.e. sizeof(str).

See also

write_file(), read_bytes(), Stdio.File()->open()


Method append_path
Method append_path_unix
Method append_path_nt

string append_path(string absolute, string ... relative)
string append_path_unix(string absolute, string ... relative)
string append_path_nt(string absolute, string ... relative)

Description

Append relative paths to an absolute path and remove any "//", "../" or "/." to produce a straightforward absolute path as a result.

"../" is ignorded in the relative paths if it makes the created path begin with something else than the absolute path (or so far created path).

append_path_nt() fixes drive letter issues in relative by removing the colon separator ":" if it exists (k:/fnord appends as k/fnord)

append_path_nt() also makes sure that UNC path(s) in relative is appended correctly by removing any "\\" or "//" from the beginning.

append_path() is equivalent to append_path_unix() on UNIX-like operating systems, and equivalent to append_path_nt() on NT-like operating systems.

See also

combine_path()


Method async_cp

void async_cp(string from, string to, function(int, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Copy a file asynchronously.

This function is similar to cp(), but works asynchronously.

Parameter from

Name of file to copy.

Parameter to

Name of file to create or replace with a copy of from.

Parameter callback

Function to be called on completion. The first argument will be 1 on success, and 0 (zero) otherwise. The rest of the arguments to callback are passed verbatim from args.

Parameter args

Extra arguments to pass to callback.

Note

For callback to be called, the backend must be active (ie main() must have returned -1, or Pike.DefaultBackend get called in some other way). The actual copying may start before the backend has activated.

Bugs

Currently the file sizes are not compared, so the destination file (to) may be truncated.

See also

cp(), sendfile()


Method convert_modestring2int

int convert_modestring2int(string mode_string)

Description

Convert the mode_string string as returned by Stdio.Stat object to int suitable for chmod

Parameter mode_string

The string as return from Stdio.Stat()->mode_string

Returns

An int matching the permission of the mode_string string suitable for chmod


Method cp

int cp(string from, string to)

Description

Copies the file from to the new position to. If there is no system function for cp, a new file will be created and the old one copied manually in chunks of DATA_CHUNK_SIZE bytes. This function can also copy directories recursively.

Returns

0 on error, 1 on success

Note

This function keeps file and directory mode bits, unlike in Pike 7.6 and earlier.


Method exist

int exist(string path)

Description

Check if a path exists.

Returns

Returns true if the given path exists (is a directory or file), otherwise false.

Note

May fail with eg errno() EFBIG if the file exists, but the filesystem doesn't support the file size.

See also

is_dir(), is_file(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method file_equal

int file_equal(string file_1, string file_2)

Description

Returns nonzero if the given paths are files with identical content, returns zero otherwise. Zero is also returned for any sort of I/O error.


Method file_size

int file_size(string filename)

Description

Give the size of a file. Size -1 indicates that the file either does not exist, or that it is not readable by you. Size -2 indicates that it is a directory, -3 that it is a symlink and -4 that it is a device.

See also

file_stat(), write_file(), read_bytes()


Inherit _Stdio

inherit _Stdio : _Stdio


Method is_dir

int is_dir(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a directory.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a directory, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_file(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method is_file

int is_file(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a file.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a file, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_dir(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method is_link

int is_link(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a symbolic link.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a symbolic link, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_dir(), is_file(), file_stat()


Method mkdirhier

int mkdirhier(string pathname, void|int mode)

Description

Creates zero or more directories to ensure that the given pathname is a directory.

If a mode is given, it's used for the new directories after being &'ed with the current umask (on OS'es that support this).

Returns

Returns zero on failure and nonzero on success.

See also

mkdir()


Method perror

void perror(string s)

Description

This function prints a message to stderr along with a description of what went wrong if available. It uses the system errno to find out what went wrong, so it is only applicable to IO errors.

See also

werror()


Method read_bytes

string read_bytes(string filename, int start, int len)
string read_bytes(string filename, int start)
string read_bytes(string filename)

Description

Read len number of bytes from a regular file filename starting at byte start, and return it as a string.

If len is omitted, the rest of the file will be returned.

If start is also omitted, the entire file will be returned.

Throws

Throws an error on any I/O error except when the file doesn't exist.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) if the file doesn't exist or if start is beyond the end of it.

Returns a string with the requested data otherwise.

See also

read_file, write_file(), append_file()


Method read_file

string read_file(string filename)
string read_file(string filename, int start, int len)

Description

Read len lines from a regular file filename after skipping start lines and return those lines as a string. If both start and len are omitted the whole file is read.

Throws

Throws an error on any I/O error except when the file doesn't exist.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) if the file doesn't exist or if start is beyond the end of it.

Returns a string with the requested data otherwise.

See also

read_bytes(), write_file()


Method recursive_mv

int recursive_mv(string from, string to)

Description

Copy a file or a directory tree by copying and then removing. Mode bits are preserved in the copy. It's not the fastest but works on every OS and works well across different file systems.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure, nonzero otherwise.

See also

recursive_rm cp


Method recursive_rm

int recursive_rm(string path)

Description

Remove a file or a directory tree.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure, nonzero otherwise.

See also

rm


Method sendfile

object sendfile(array(string) headers, File from, int offset, int len, array(string) trailers, File to)
object sendfile(array(string) headers, File from, int offset, int len, array(string) trailers, File to, function(int, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Sends headers followed by len bytes starting at offset from the file from followed by trailers to the file to. When completed callback will be called with the total number of bytes sent as the first argument, followed by args.

Any of headers, from and trailers may be left out by setting them to 0.

Setting offset to -1 means send from the current position in from.

Setting len to -1 means send until from's end of file is reached.

Note

The sending is performed asynchronously, and may complete both before and after the function returns.

For callback to be called, the backend must be active (ie main() must have returned -1, or Pike.DefaultBackend get called in some other way).

In some cases, the backend must also be active for any sending to be performed at all.

In Pike 7.4.496, Pike 7.6.120 and Pike 7.7 and later the backend associated with to will be used rather than the default backend. Note that you usually will want from to have the same backend as to.

Bugs

FIXME: Support for timeouts?

See also

Stdio.File->set_nonblocking()


Method simplify_path

string simplify_path(string path)

Description

Returns a canonic representation of path (without /./, /../, // and similar path segments).


Variable stderr

FILE Stdio.stderr

Description

An instance of FILE("stderr"), the standard error stream. Use this when you want to output error messages.

See also

predef::werror()


Variable stdin

FILE Stdio.stdin

Description

An instance of FILE("stdin"), the standard input stream. Use this when you want to read anything from the standard input. This example will read lines from standard input for as long as there are more lines to read. Each line will then be written to stdout together with the line number. We could use Stdio.stdout.write() instead of just write(), since they are the same function.

Example

int main() { int line; while(string s=Stdio.stdin.gets()) write("%5d: %s\n", line++, s); }


Variable stdout

FILE Stdio.stdout

Description

An instance of FILE("stdout"), the standatd output stream. Use this when you want to write anything to the standard output.

See also

predef::write()


Method werror

void werror(string s)

Description

Write a message to stderr. Stderr is normally the console, even if the process output has been redirected to a file or pipe.

Note

This function is identical to predef::werror().

See also

predef::werror()


Method write_file

int write_file(string filename, string str, int|void access)

Description

Write the string str onto the file filename. Any existing data in the file is overwritten.

For a description of access, see Stdio.File()->open().

Throws

Throws an error if filename couldn't be opened for writing.

Returns

Returns the number of bytes written, i.e. sizeof(str).

See also

append_file(), read_bytes(), Stdio.File()->open()

Class Stdio.BlockFile

Description

The Stdio.BlockFile API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where only blocking I/O is done with the object.

See also

Stream, NonblockingStream, File, FILE


Inherit Stream

inherit Stream : Stream

Class Stdio.FakeFile

Description

A string wrapper that pretends to be a Stdio.File object in addition to some features of a Stdio.FILE object.


Method _sizeof

int(0..) sizeof( Stdio.FakeFile arg )

Description

Sizeof on a FakeFile returns the size of its contents.


Method cast

(int)Stdio.FakeFile()
(float)Stdio.FakeFile()
(string)Stdio.FakeFile()
(array)Stdio.FakeFile()
(mapping)Stdio.FakeFile()
(multiset)Stdio.FakeFile()

Description

A FakeFile can be casted to a string.


Method close

int close(void|string direction)

See also

Stdio.File()->close()


Method create

Stdio.FakeFile Stdio.FakeFile(string data, void|string type, void|int pointer)

See also

Stdio.File()->create()


Method dup

this_program dup()

See also

Stdio.File()->dup()


Method errno

int errno()

Description

Always returns 0.

See also

Stdio.File()->errno()


Method getchar

int getchar()

See also

Stdio.FILE()->getchar()


Method gets

string gets()

See also

Stdio.FILE()->gets()


Constant is_fake_file

constant int Stdio.FakeFile.is_fake_file

Description

This constant can be used to distinguish a FakeFile object from a real Stdio.File object.


Method line_iterator

String.SplitIterator line_iterator(int|void trim)

See also

Stdio.File()->line_iterator()


Method peek

int(-1..1) peek(int|float|void timeout)

See also

Stdio.File()->peek()


Method query_address

string query_address(void|bool is_local)

Description

Always returns 0.

See also

Stdio.File()->query_address()


Method query_close_callback

function(:void) query_close_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_close_callback


Method query_id

mixed query_id()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_id()


Method query_read_callback

function(:void) query_read_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_read_callback


Method query_read_oob_callback

function(:void) query_read_oob_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_read_oob_callback


Method query_write_callback

function(:void) query_write_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_write_callback


Method query_write_oob_callback

function(:void) query_write_oob_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_write_oob_callback


Method read

string read(void|int(0..) len, void|bool not_all)

See also

Stdio.File()->read()


Method read_function

function(:string) read_function(int nbytes)

See also

Stdio.File()->read_function()


Method seek

int seek(int pos, void|int mult, void|int add)

See also

Stdio.File()->seek()


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking


Method set_blocking_keep_callbacks

void set_blocking_keep_callbacks()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking_keep_callbacks


Method set_close_callback

void set_close_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_close_callback


Method set_id

void set_id(mixed _id)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_id()


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(:void) rcb, function(:void) wcb, function(:void) ccb, function(:void) rocb, function(:void) wocb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking_keep_callbacks


Method set_read_callback

void set_read_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_read_callback


Method set_read_oob_callback

void set_read_oob_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_read_oob_callback


Method set_write_callback

void set_write_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_write_callback


Method set_write_oob_callback

void set_write_oob_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_write_oob_callback


Method stat

Stdio.Stat stat()

Description

Returns size and the creation time of the string.


Method sync

int(1..1) sync()

Description

Always returns 1.

See also

Stdio.File()->sync()


Method tell

int tell()

See also

Stdio.File()->tell()


Method truncate

bool truncate(int length)

See also

Stdio.File()->truncate()


Method unread

void unread(string s)

See also

Stdio.FILE()->unread()


Method write

int(-1..) write(string|array(string) str, mixed ... extra)

See also

Stdio.File()->write()

Class Stdio.NonblockingStream

Description

The Stdio.NonblockingStream API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where nonblocking and/or blocking stream-oriented I/O is done with the object.

See also

Stream, BlockFile, File, FILE


Inherit Stream

inherit Stream : Stream

Class Stdio.Stat

Description

This object is used to represent file status information from e.g. file_stat().

It contains the following items usually found in a C struct stat:

mode

File mode (see mknod(2)).

size

File size in bytes.

uid

User ID of the file's owner.

gid

Group ID of the file's owner.

atime

Time of last access in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, 1970-01-01.

mtime

Time of last data modification.

ctime

Time of last file status change.

ino

Inode number.

nlink

Number of links.

dev

ID of the device containing a directory entry for this file.

rdev

ID of the device.

It also contains some items that correspond to the C IS* macros:

isreg

Set if the file is a regular file.

isdir

Set if the file is a directory.

islnk

Set if the file is a symbolic link. Note that symbolic links are normally followed by the stat functions, so this might only be set if you turn that off, e.g. by giving a nonzero second argument to file_stat().

isfifo

Set if the file is a FIFO (aka named pipe).

issock

Set if the file is a socket.

ischr

Set if the file is a character device.

isblk

Set if the file is a block device.

There are also some items that provide alternative representations of the above:

type

The type as a string, can be any of "reg", "dir", "lnk", "fifo", "sock", "chr", "blk", and "unknown".

mode_string

The file mode encoded as a string in ls -l style, e.g. "drwxr-xr-x".

Note that some items might not exist or have meaningful values on some platforms.

Additionally, the object may be initialized from or casted to an array on the form of a 'traditional' LPC stat-array, and it's also possible to index the object directly with integers as if it were such an array. The stat-array has this format:

Array
int 0

File mode, same as mode.

int 1

If zero or greater, the file is a regular file and this is its size in bytes. If less than zero it gives the type: -2=directory, -3=symlink and -4=device.

int 2

Time of last access, same as atime.

int 3

Time of last data modification, same as mtime.

int 4

Time of last file status change, same as ctime.

int 5

User ID of the file's owner, same as uid.

int 6

Group ID of the file's owner, same as gid.

It's possible to modify the stat struct by assigning values to the items. They essentially work as variables, although some of them affect others, e.g. setting isdir clears isreg and setting mode_string changes many of the other items.


Method create

Stdio.Stat Stdio.Stat(void|object|array stat)

Description

A new Stdio.Stat object can be initialized in two ways:

  • stat is an object, typically another Stdio.Stat. The stat info is copied from the object by getting the values of mode, size, atime, mtime, ctime, uid, gid, dev, ino, nlink, and rdev.

  • stat is a seven element array on the 'traditional' LPC stat-array form (see the class doc).

Class Stdio.Stream

Description

The Stdio.Stream API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where only blocking stream-oriented I/O is done with the object.

See also

NonblockingStream, BlockFile, File, FILE