Branch: Tag:

2014-08-18

2014-08-18 10:46:56 by Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) <grubba@grubba.org>

Updated to tzdata2014f.

Also removed some obsolete files (solar8[789]) and added zone1970.tab.

Also adds some further files.

The tzdata directory should now be fully in sync with the tzdata2014f dist.

1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.   
32:   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   # - # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; + # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;   # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome!   # std dst
47:   # 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)   # 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)   # 8:00 CST China - # 9:00 CJT Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)* + # 8:00 JWST Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)* + # 9:00 JCST Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)   # 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)   # 9:00 JST JDT Japan   # 9:00 KST KDT Korea - # 9:30 CST (Australian) Central Standard Time + # 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time   # - # See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia. + # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.      # From Guy Harris:   # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
63:      ###############################################################################    - # These rules are stolen from the `europe' file. + # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EUAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EUAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
141:      # Bahrain   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah + Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Manamah    4:00 - GST 1972 Jun    3:00 - AST   
151:   # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30   #   # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16 - # <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288"> +    # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html - # </a> +    #   # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from   # June
172:   # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.   #   # Some sources: - # <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601"> +    # http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601 - # </a> - # <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2"> +    # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2 - # </a> +    #   # Our wrap-up: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html - # </a> +       # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):   # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
197:   #   # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":   # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1" - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):   # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
212:   # "continue for an indefinite period."   #   # One of many places where it is published: - # <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html"> +    # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):   # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"   # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.   #   # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night. - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228 - # </a> - # and - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html - # </a> +    #   # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour   # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
237:   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):   # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"   # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html - # </a> +       # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 S
309:   # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though   # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the - # Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China - # has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of + # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China + # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of   # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.   #   # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too - # painful to suck in another copy.. So, here is what I have for + # painful to suck in another copy. So, here is what I have for   # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):   #   # 1986 May 4 - Sept 14
324:   # CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN   # CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau) - # has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST - # from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's - # note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986. - # Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now. I made up names for the other - # pre-1980 time zones. + # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11): + # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight + # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began + # observing daylight saving time in 1986.    - # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but + # this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer + # DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so + # go with them for DST rules as follows:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
346:   # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official   # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).   # - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):   # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the   # http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county   # boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two
357:   # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two   # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.    - # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11): - # I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk - # about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986 - # talking about China being in one time zone. (That article was: Jim - # Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight - # time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05. By the way, this - # article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began - # observing daylight saving time in 1986. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:   # - # From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11): - # I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated - # separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't - # implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near - # Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a - # "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was - # ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s). + # (1) + # Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) + # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC + # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology + # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003) + # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was + # officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the + # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not + # been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar + # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued + # to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the + # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it + # could well have ignored any such mandate.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30): - # There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949 - # rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a - # reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with - # Shanks & Pottenger. -  - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) + # (2) + # Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) + # A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China + # [undated and unknown publication location] + # It says several things: + # * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China. + # * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective + # the official calendar book of 1914. + # * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in + # French docks in the 1890s, controled by Xujiahui (Zikawei) + # Obervatory and set to local mean time. + # * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8. + # * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers) + # eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it + # became used by railways as well. + # * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into + # five time zones (see below for details). This caught on + # at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8. + # * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7. In practice + # this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in + # Japanese-occupied territory. + # * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time. + # * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into + # place (with some modifications) in March 1948. It's not clear + # how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control. + # * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war. + # + # An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the + # Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is + # different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour + # ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai." Guess that the + # Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8. + # + # In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but + # this was based on what was apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger. + # This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and + # Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility. + # Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice + # mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were: + # + # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5 + # Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)   # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin - Zone Asia/Harbin 8:26:44 - LMT 1928 # or Haerbin -  8:30 - CHAT 1932 Mar # Changbai Time -  8:00 - CST 1940 -  9:00 - CHAT 1966 May -  8:30 - CHAT 1980 May -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") + # + # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8 + # Asia/Shanghai   # most of China - # Milne gives 8:05:56.7; round to nearest. - Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:57 - LMT 1928 -  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949 -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) + # This currently represents most other zones as well, + # as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970. + # Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest. + # Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century". + # + # Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7 + # Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)   # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;   # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong   # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,   # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu. - Zone Asia/Chongqing 7:06:20 - LMT 1928 # or Chungking -  7:00 - LONT 1980 May # Long-shu Time -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") + # + # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6 + # Asia/Urumqi + # This currently represents Kunlun Time as well, + # as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.   # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;   # the Guangdong counties Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,   # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;   # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi; - # east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe, + # east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,   # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,   # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,   # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan. - Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi -  6:00 - URUT 1980 May # Urumqi Time -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Kunlun Time + # + # Kunlun Time UT+5.5 + # Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)   # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;   # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,   # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
432:   # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two   # hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang   # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as - # local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in + # local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in   # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as - # "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language + # "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language   # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.   #   # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
446:   # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same   # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and   # others moving their clocks ahead.) - # - # ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time. - # - # The first few lines of the Google translation of - # <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39"> - # http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39 - # </a> - # (retrieved 2009-10-13) - # > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least - # > 500 million yuan - # > - # > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20), - # > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River - # > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men - # > have worked continuously for 22 hours... +       # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):   # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
471:   # 3. Urumqi...   # 4. Kashgar...   # ... - # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the + # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the   # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding   # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.   #
483:   # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also   # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)    - Zone Asia/Kashgar 5:03:56 - LMT 1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar -  5:30 - KAST 1940 # Kashgar Time -  5:00 - KAST 1980 May + # From David Cochrane (2014-03-26): + # Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986: + # http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html +  + # From Luther Ma (2014-04-22): + # I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from + # different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's + # report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David + # Cochrane. Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially + # recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least + # the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time; + # and Beijing Time. There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers + # to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some + # population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other. The only + # problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as + # having the same time as Beijing. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but + # this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun, + # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN + # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x. + # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone. + # + # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized. E.g., see + # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government" + # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22). + # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986. + # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dyansty, + # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan + # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of + # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be + # quite a trick. Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to + # XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren, + # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a + # guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of UT+8 before + # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and + # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the + # UT+8 mandate back then. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai. + Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901 +  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949    8:00 PRC C%sT -  + # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi + # / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.) + Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 +  6:00 - XJT         # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
501:   # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I   # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be   # obtained from - # <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm"> +    # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm - # </a>. +       # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):   # Here are the dates given at - # <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm"> +    # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm - # </a> +    # as of 2009-10-28:   # Year Period   # 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep
589:      # Taiwan    - # Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it - # was still controlled by Japan. This is hard to believe, but we don't - # have any other information. -  +    # From smallufo (2010-04-03): - # According to Taiwan's CWB, - # <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm"> + # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],   # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm - # </a> +    # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.    - # From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07): - # Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page: - # Decade Name Start and end date - # Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time May 1 to September 30 - # 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952) Daylight Saving Time March 1 to October 31 - # Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to October 31 - # In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959) Summer Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961) Summer Time June 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time - # Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD) Stop Daylight Saving Time - # Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979) Daylight Saving Time July 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980) Stop Daylight Saving Time + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): + # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of + # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that + # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands + # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on + # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be + # found on Wikisource: + # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) + # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because + # during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone + # declared officially. + # + # Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa + # Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of + # revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard + # time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in + # western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan + # territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time + # (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can + # be found on Wikisource: + # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件 + # + # That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.    -  + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): + # I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9 + # back to UTC+8 after WW2. I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945. In a document + # during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time + # zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21. And in another + # history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a + # note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time". From these two + # materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21. And + # today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald" + # from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact + # that: + # + # 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using + # the time at 135E (GMT+9) + # + # 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan + # 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands, + # as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called + # Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8. + # + # 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the + # territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard + # Time. + # + # [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan: + # http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037 + # [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site: + # http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm + # [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475: + # http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf +  + # Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03): + # I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to + # Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan. It's Taiwan Governor-General + # Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ... + # [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local + # bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on + # Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21. I think this bulletin is much more + # official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the + # top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this + # would be a good one. + # [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945: + # http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener +  + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): + # In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from + # Central Weather Bureau website was not correct. + # + # Original Bulletin: + # <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF> + # <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0> (cont.) + # + # In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that + # telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government: + # + # <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431> + # + # Here is a brief translation: + # + # The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20 + # midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time + # adption till Oct 31 midnight. + # + # The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can + # be found from historical government announcement database. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03): + # As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01 + # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger. + # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Taiwan 1952 only - Mar 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1952 1954 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Taiwan 1953 1959 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
625:   Rule Taiwan 1960 1961 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S - Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei + # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei + Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1 +  8:00 - JWST 1937 Oct 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 01:00    8:00 Taiwan C%sT      # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
698:   # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow. As a result it   # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours   # ahead. The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia, - # Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process + # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process   # of integration into Europe.      # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
711:   # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our   # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.    + # Milne says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7; round to nearest.)      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:16 - LMT 1880 -  2:59:16 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time + Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:06 - LMT 1880 +  2:59:06 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time    3:00 - TBIT 1957 Mar # Tbilisi Time    4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    3:00 1:00 TBIST 1991 Apr 9 # independence
730:      # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.    - # From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in - # <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm"> + # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in   # East Timor may be late for its millennium - # </a> (1999-12-26/31): + # <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):   # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun   # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the   # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
743:   # We don't have any record of the above attempt.   # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.    - # <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html"> +    # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General - # (2000-08-16)</a>: + # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html + # (2000-08-16):   # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided   # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour. The time change,   # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
787:   # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus   # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.   # These would be the earliest possible times for a change. - # Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions + # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions   # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched   # from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura   # (Hollandia). For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
838:   # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua   Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov    9:00 - WIT 1944 Sep 1 -  9:30 - CST 1964 +  9:30 - ACST 1964    9:00 - WIT      # Iran
904:   # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:   # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm   # - # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen: + # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:   # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce   # daylight saving time ...   # http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
995:   # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):   # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following   # news sources (in Arabic): - # <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html"> +    # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10"> +    # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10 - # </a> +    #   # We have published a short article in English about the change: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html - # </a> +       # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
1014:   Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 S   Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 D - # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo. + # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.   # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.   #   Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 D
1258:      # Japan    - # `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris. + # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.      # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):   # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had - # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued - # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.'' + # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued + # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."      # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times   # <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
1290:      # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):   # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical - # Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0. + # Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.   # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'   # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....   # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1298:      # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):   # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan, - # which stands for the time on E 135 degree. + # which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.   # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central   # standard time". And the same ordinance also established "western standard - # time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree.... But "western standard + # time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E.... But "western standard   # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937). In the ordinance No.   # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is   # standard....
1309:   # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.   # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.    - # Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few - # places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki. Guess that all - # ordinances took effect on Jan 1. + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): + # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause + # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. + # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) + # + # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which + # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan + # Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. + # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u -  9:00 - JST 1896 -  9:00 - CJT 1938 +  9:00 - JST 1896 Jan 1 +  9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1    9:00 Japan J%sT   # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.      # Jordan   # - # From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html"> - # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html> + # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,   # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time   # all year round.   # - # From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html"> - # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09): + # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html> + # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):   # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back   # by one hour. This is the latest government decision and it's final!   # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1349:      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):   # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic): - # <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279"> +    # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279 - # </a> +    #   # Google's translation:   #
1442:   # - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.   # - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.    - # <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm"> - # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21): - # </a> + # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 + # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):   # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing   # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health   # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1558:   Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 D   Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 0 S    + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-01): + # The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger, except that I + # guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same + # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST + # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1890    8:30 - KST 1904 Dec -  9:00 - KST 1928 +  9:00 - JCST 1928    8:30 - KST 1932 -  +  9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8    9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21    8:00 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10    8:30 - KST 1968 Oct    9:00 ROK K%sT   Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1890    8:30 - KST 1904 Dec -  9:00 - KST 1928 +  9:00 - JCST 1928    8:30 - KST 1932 -  +  9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24    9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21    8:00 - KST 1961 Aug 10    9:00 - KST
1579:      # Kuwait   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # From the Arab Times (2007-03-14): - # The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded - # by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in - # Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba. - # <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>. - # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29): - # We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen, - # so for now we assume no DST. +    Zone Asia/Kuwait 3:11:56 - LMT 1950    3:00 - AST   
1667:   # Mongolia      # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but - # usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03) - # both say that it has just one. + # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World + # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.      # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11): - # <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm"> +    # General Information Mongolia - # </a> (1999-09) + # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)   # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of - # Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and + # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and   # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus   # eight hours."   
1686:   # of implementation may have been different....   # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time   # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod, - # Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij. + # Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):   # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
1700:   # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),   # there are three time zones.   # - # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai - # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov, - # Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi - # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar + # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai + # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv, + # Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi + # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar   #   # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]   
1720:   # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.   # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says   # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft - # Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that + # Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that   # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.   # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in   # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
1729:   # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"   # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.   # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT - # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT. + # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.   # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the   # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."   # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
1745:   # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz   # database on this, e.g.:   # - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx"> +    # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx - # </a> +    #   # both say GMT+08:00.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):   # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight   # schedule here: - # <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112"> +    # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112 - # </a> +    # (click the English flag for English)   # - # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive + # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive   # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the - # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern - # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are + # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern + # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are   # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and - # Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed). + # Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):   # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
1783:   # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25. Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.   #   # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches - # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place + # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place   # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of   # the country. That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their   # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
1837:   # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.      # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15): - # Jesper Norgaard found this URL: + # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:   # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm   # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to   # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
1874:   # moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months.   # ...."   # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html - # </a> - # OR - # <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4"> +    # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4 - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):   # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):   # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced - # for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31 + # for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31   # instead of August 31.   # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html - # </a> - # OR - # <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html"> +    # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):   # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to   # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance   # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in   # official working." - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280 - # </a> +    #   # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to   # introduce DST from April 15, 2009
1913:   # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan   # April 08, 2009   # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15 - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1 - # </a> - # - # or - # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html - # </a> +    #   # ....   # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
1934:   # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to   # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in   # this regard." - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168 - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):   # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
1944:   # 1, 2009.   #   # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct" - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):   # Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
1959:   # > 1, 2009.   #   # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date: - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742 - # </a> +    # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.   # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on   # Monday."
1973:   #   # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of   # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html - # </a> +     - # From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01): + # From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):   # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan   # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.   
1993:   # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:   #   # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks" - # <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041"> +    # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041 - # </a> +    #   # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST" - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2 - # </a> +       # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:01 1:00 S
2082:   # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): - # Daoud Kuttab writes in - # <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html"> - # Holiday havoc - # </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that + # Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc + # <http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html> + # (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that   # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.   # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).   # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2098:   # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of   # the Ramadan. Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think   # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks - # earlier--the same goes for Jordan. + # earlier - the same goes for Jordan.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):   # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2117:   # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,   # because of the Ramadan.    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):   # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the   # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.   
2134:   # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while   # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).   # - # <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001"> +    # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087"> +    # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):   # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2151:   # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.   #   # (in Arabic) - # <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850"> +    # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850 - # </a> +    # - # or +    # (English translation) - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):   # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to   # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.   #   # One news source: - # <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158"> +    # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158 - # </a> +    # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),   # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah   # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2177:   #   # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different   # end date, we will keep this page updated: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):   # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2189:   #   # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"   # (from Palestinian National Authority): - # <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505 +    # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):   # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March   # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri   # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)   # - # <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697"> +    # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697 - # </a> +    # (in Arabic) - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):   # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will   # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or   # noon though:   # - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178 - # </a> +    # (Ma'an News Agency)   # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to   # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."      # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):   # According to several sources, including - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795 - # </a> +    # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in   # Gaza and the West Bank.   # Some more background info: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):   # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
2241:   # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of   # Ramadan.   # - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217 - # </a> +    # Additional info: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):   # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
2257:   # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after   # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."   # ... - # <a href="http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650"> +    # http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html - # </a> - # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file. + # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):   # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
2272:   # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.   #   # Many sources, including: - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808 - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):   # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST   # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).   # Some of many sources in Arabic: - # <a href="http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638"> +    # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638 - # </a> +    # - # <a href="http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html"> +    # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html - # </a> +    #   # Our brief summary: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):   # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
2370:   # no information      # Philippines - # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the + # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the   # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to - # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01. Robert H. van Gent has a - # transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>. + # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's + # History of the International Date Line + # <http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm>.   # The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2383:   # <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.   # For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.   # - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):   # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:   # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/   # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2410:    3:00 - AST      # Saudi Arabia + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): + # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not + # standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it + # has never been made official. Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to + # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines + # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar + # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12 + # o'clock for "Arab" time). + # + # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best + # we can do. The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics + # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated + # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and + # Jidda, on March 14, 1947". Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the + # earlier date. + # + # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two + # time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of + # the country. Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1950 + Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1947 Mar 14    3:00 - AST      # Singapore
2442:      # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout" - # (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24, + # (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,   # no longer available as of 1999-08-17) - # reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at - # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.'' + # reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at + # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."   #   # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted - # by Shamindra in - # <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net"> - # Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26) - # </a>: + # by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section + # <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):   # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996   # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online   # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):   # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)   # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
2475:   # twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization   # agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.   # - # I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments + # I recollect before the recent change the government announcements   # mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka   # Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.   #
2485:   # item....   #   # Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and - # adminsitrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the + # administrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the   # nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well   # known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are   # slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
2557:   # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."   # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php   Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S - # From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27): + # From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):   # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will   # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or   # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
2566:   # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27): - # Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote: + # Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:   #   # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1   # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
2595:   # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):   # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News   # Agency (SANA)... - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm - # </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the + # ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the   # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April   # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."   # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times   # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): - # My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1"; + # My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";   # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone   # compilers can't handle or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).   # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
2617:   # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting   # clocks back 60 minutes).   # - # <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm"> +    # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):   # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,   # two examples:   # - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm - # </a> +    # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency) - # <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209"> +    # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209 - # </a> +    # (Arabic, gov-site)   #   # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.   #   # Our summary - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):   # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will   # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday   # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30: - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic) - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):   # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
2658:   # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of   # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday   # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday): - # <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421"> +    # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic) - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):   # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday   # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.   #   # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic: - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm - # </a> +    #   # Our brief summary: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html"> +    # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):   # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
2730:    5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence    5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992    5:00 - UZT - Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 + # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest. + Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:11 - LMT 1924 May 2    5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time    6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00    5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
2746:   # and Pottenger.      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): - # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City"; - # we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters. + # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh + # City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.      # From Shanks & Pottenger:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]