Branch: Tag:

2000-08-01

2000-08-01 16:49:56 by Mirar (Pontus Hagland) <pike@sort.mirar.org>

runtime-compile timezones instead of loading them all

Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Ruleset.pike:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Time.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/TimeRanges.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Timezone.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/module.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/antarctica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/backward:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/etcetera:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/factory:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/iso3166.tab:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/leapseconds:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/northamerica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/pacificnew:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar87:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar88:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar89:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/southamerica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/systemv:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/yearistype.sh:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/zone.tab:1.1

1: + # @(#)australasia 7.56 + # This file also includes Pacific islands.    -  + # Notes are at the end of this file +  + ############################################################################### +  + # Australia +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 - + Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 - + Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 - + Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - + Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 - + # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which + # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that + # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Northern Territory + Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb +  9:00 - CST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus CST + # Western Australia + Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec +  8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul +  8:00 - WST 1974 Oct lastSun 2:00s +  8:00 1:00 WST 1975 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s +  8:00 - WST 1983 Oct lastSun 2:00s +  8:00 1:00 WST 1984 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s +  8:00 - WST 1991 Nov 17 2:00s +  8:00 1:00 WST 1992 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s +  8:00 - WST + # Queensland + # + # From Alex Livingston <alex@agsm.unsw.edu.au> (1996-11-01): + # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast + # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after + # Queensland ceased to. + # + # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman, + # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped. + # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria, + # so use Lindeman. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895 +  10:00 Aus EST 1971 +  10:00 AQ EST + Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895 +  10:00 Aus EST 1971 +  10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul +  10:00 Holiday EST +  + # South Australia + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AS 1987 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1990 1994 even Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1990 1994 odd Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1995 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb +  9:00 - CST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus CST 1971 +  9:30 AS CST +  + # Tasmania + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 1991 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep +  10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 +  10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb +  10:00 Aus EST 1967 +  10:00 AT EST +  + # Victoria + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 1995 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb +  10:00 Aus EST 1971 +  10:00 AV EST +  + # New South Wales + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1996 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb +  10:00 Aus EST 1971 +  10:00 AN EST + Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb +  10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23 +  9:00 - CST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus CST 1971 +  9:30 AN CST 2000 +  9:30 AS CST +  + # Lord Howe Island + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - + Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 0:30 - + Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - + Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule LH 1996 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - + Rule LH 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - + Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb +  10:00 - EST 1981 Mar +  10:30 LH LHST +  + # Australian miscellany + # + # Ashmore Is, Cartier + # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers + # like Australia/Perth, says Turner + # + # Coral Sea Is + # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists + # no information + # + # Macquarie + # permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948; + # sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917 + # like Australia/Hobart, says Turner +  + # Christmas + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb +  7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time +  + # Cook Is + # From Shanks: + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS + Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 - + Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua +  -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time +  -10:00 Cook CK%sT +  + # Cocos + # From USNO (1989): + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Indian/Cocos 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time +  + # Fiji + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Fiji 1998 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 1999 max - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva +  12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time +  + # French Polynesia + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea +  -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time + Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct +  -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time + Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete +  -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time + # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia; + # it is uninhabited. +  + # Guam + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Guam 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana +  10:00 - GST +  + # Kiribati + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki +  12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time + Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901 +  -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time +  -11:00 - PHOT 1995 +  13:00 - PHOT + Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901 +  -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time +  -10:00 - LINT 1995 +  14:00 - LINT +  + # N Mariana Is + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Saipan 9:43:00 - LMT 1901 +  9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time +  10:00 - MPT +  + # Marshall Is + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901 +  11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time +  12:00 - MHT + Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901 +  11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct +  -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time +  12:00 - MHT +  + # Micronesia + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Yap 9:12:32 - LMT 1901 # Colonia +  9:00 - YAPT 1969 Oct # Yap Time +  10:00 - YAPT + Zone Pacific/Truk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901 +  10:00 - TRUT # Truk Time + Zone Pacific/Ponape 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia +  11:00 - PONT # Ponape Time + Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901 +  11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time +  12:00 - KOST 1999 +  11:00 - KOST +  + # Nauru + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe +  11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time +  9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15 +  11:30 - NRT 1979 May +  12:00 - NRT +  + # New Caledonia + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 - + Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S + # Shanks says the following was at 2:00; go with IATA. + Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 +  11:00 NC NC%sT +  +  + ############################################################################### +  + # New Zealand +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # Shanks gives 1927 Nov 6 - 1928 Mar 4, 1928 Oct 14 - 1929 Mar 17, + # 1929 Oct 13 - 1930 Mar 16; go with Whitman. + Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 26 2:00 0:30 HD + Rule NZ 1928 1929 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 S + Rule NZ 1928 only - Nov 4 2:00 0:30 HD + Rule NZ 1929 only - Oct 30 2:00 0:30 HD + Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 S + Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 HD + # Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base UT offset + # didn't change until 1945 Apr 30; go with Shanks. + Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule NZ 1934 1939 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 HD + Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov 3 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct 8 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1990 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb 23 2:00s 0 S + Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1990 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1991 max - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 +  11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1940 Sep 29 2:00 +  12:00 NZ NZ%sT + Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT +  +  + # Auckland Is + # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers, + # and scientific personnel have wintered +  + # Campbell I + # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914 + # scientific station operated 1941/1995; + # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered + # was probably like Pacific/Auckland +  + ############################################################################### +  +  + # Niue + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi +  -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time +  -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1 +  -11:00 - NUT +  + # Norfolk + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston +  11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time +  11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time +  + # Palau (Belau) + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror +  9:00 - PWT # Palau Time +  + # Papua New Guinea + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880 +  9:48:40 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time +  10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time +  + # Pitcairn + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown +  -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00 +  -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time +  + # American Samoa + Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 +  -11:22:48 - LMT 1911 +  -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time +  -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome +  -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering +  -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa +  + # W Samoa + Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 +  -11:26:56 - LMT 1911 +  -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time +  -11:00 - WST # W Samoa Time +  + # Solomon Is + # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara +  11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time +  + # Tokelau Is + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901 +  -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time +  + # Tonga + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Tonga 1999 max - Oct Sat>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Tonga 2000 max - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901 +  12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time +  13:00 - TOT 1999 +  13:00 Tonga TO%sT +  + # Tuvalu + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901 +  12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time +  +  + # US minor outlying islands +  + # Howland, Baker + # uninhabited since World War II + # no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago +  + # Jarvis + # uninhabited since 1958 + # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati +  + # Johnston + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST +  + # Kingman + # uninhabited +  + # Midway + Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901 +  -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome +  -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering +  -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa +  + # Palmyra + # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati +  + # Wake + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901 +  12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time +  +  + # Vanuatu + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 - + Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 - + Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila +  11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time +  + # Wallis and Futuna + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901 +  12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time +  + ############################################################################### +  + # NOTES +  + # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to + # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). +  + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # + # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source + # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), + # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries + # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990, + # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. + # + # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, + # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which + # I found in the UCLA library. + # + # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is + # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). + # + # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; + # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. + # Corrections are welcome! + # std dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # 8:00 WST WST Western Australia + # 9:00 JST Japan + # 9:30 CST CST Central Australia + # 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia + # 10:00 GST Guam + # 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe* + # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand + # 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham* + # -11:00 SST Samoa + # -10:00 HST Hawaii + # - 8:00 PST Pitcairn* + # + # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii. + # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is. +  + ############################################################################### +  + # Australia +  + # <a href="http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html"> + # Australia's Daylight Saving Times + # </a>, by Margaret Turner, summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. +  + # From John Mackin (1991-03-06): + # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time. + # It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer' + # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the + # abbreviation does _not_ change... + # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least + # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the + # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses + # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight + # time'. + # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian + # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time' + # or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the + # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers + # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases + # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times; + # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC. +  + # From Arthur David Olson (March 8 1992): + # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is: + # CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30 + # WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00 + # EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00 +  + # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): + # Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. + # Mark Prior <mrp@itd.adelaide.edu.au> writes that his newspaper + # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00, + # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970 + # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time. + # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960. +  + # From Eric Ulevik <eau@zip.com.au> (1998-01-05): + # + # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable, + # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more + # relevant entries in this database. + # + # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill): + # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html"> + # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04) + # </a> + # ACT + # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html"> + # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 + # </a> + # SA + # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html"> + # Standard Time Act, 1898 + # </a> +  + # Northern Territory +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] + # # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location. + # ... + # Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST +  + # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): + # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... + # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving. +  + # Western Australia +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] + # # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to + # # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but + # # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus + # # before reaching parliament. + # ... + # Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST + # ... + # Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W + # Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W +  + # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): + # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... + # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving. +  + # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02): + # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney + # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at + # work at 9.00am.) + # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse + # everybody again. +  + # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): + # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess; + # it matches what was used in the past. +  + # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm"> + # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ + # </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses + # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia. +  + # Queensland + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ] + # # [ Dec 1990 ] + # ... + # Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST + # ... + # Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E + # Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E +  + # From Bradley White (1989-12-24): + # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from + # October 1989). +  + # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): + # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... + # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving + # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... +  + # From John Mackin (1991-03-06): + # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact + # end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised + # me.) +  + # From Bradley White (1992-03-08): + # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted + # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ... + # ... + # Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S + # ... +  + # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): + # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes. +  + # South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria +  + # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): + # The rules from version 7.1 follow. + # There are lots of differences between these rules and + # the Shepherd et al. rules. Since the Shepherd et al. rules + # and Bradley White's newspaper article are in agreement on + # current DST ending dates, no worries. + # + # Rule Oz 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 - + # Rule Oz 1986 max - Oct Sun<=24 2:00 1:00 - + # Rule Oz 1972 only - Feb 27 3:00 0 - + # Rule Oz 1973 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 - + # Rule Oz 1987 max - Mar Sun<=21 3:00 0 - + # Zone Australia/Tasmania 10:00 Oz EST + # Zone Australia/South 9:30 Oz CST + # Zone Australia/Victoria 10:00 Oz EST 1985 Oct lastSun 2:00 + # 10:00 1:00 EST 1986 Mar Sun<=21 3:00 + # 10:00 Oz EST +  + # From Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # I believe that the current start date for DST is "lastSun" in Oct... + # that changed Oct 89. That is, we're back to the + # original rule, and that rule currently applies in all the states + # that have dst, incl Qld. (Certainly it was true in Vic). + # The file I'm including says that happened in 1988, I think + # that's incorrect, but I'm not 100% certain. +  + # South Australia +  + # From Bradley White (1991-03-04): + # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper... + # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving + # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)... +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] + # ... + # Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST + # ... + # Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C + # Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun<=21 3:00 0 C + # Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C +  + # From Bradley White (1992-03-11): + # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide + # contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival, + # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks." +  + # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13): + # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that) + # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even + # numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival + # is on... +  + # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000): + # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday).... + # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever... + # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...). +  + # From Bradley White (1994-04-11): + # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March, + # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can + # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated.... +  + # From John Warburton <jwarb@SACBH.com.au> (1994-10-07): + # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ... + # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994.... + # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March. +  + # Tasmania +  + # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd + # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] +  + # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10): + # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have + # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia + # (but nothing new about that). +  + # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04): + # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the + # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard, + # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria + # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000 + # instead of the first Sunday in October. +  + # Victoria +  + # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd + # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] +  + # New South Wales +  + # From Arthur David Olson: + # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time. + # Based on law library research by John Mackin (john@basser.cs.su.oz), + # who notes: + # In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the + # individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time'' + # [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common + # use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the + # legislation. This is very important to understand. + # I have researched New South Wales time only... +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): + # The Information Service of the Australian National Standards Commission + # <a href="http://www.nsc.gov.au/InfoServ/Ileaflet/il27.htm"> + # Daylight Saving + # </a> page (1995-04) has an excellent overall history of Australian DST. + # The Community Relations Division of the NSW Attorney General's Department + # publishes a history of daylight saving in NSW. See: + # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/crd.nsf/pages/time2"> + # Lawlink NSW: Daylight Saving in New South Wales + # </a> +  + # From Eric Ulevik <eau@ozemail.com.au> (1999-05-26): + # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual + # October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore, + # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html"> + # Two months more daylight saving + # </a> + # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).] +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): + # See the following official NSW source: + # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ"> + # Daylight Saving in New South Wales. + # </a> + # + # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of + # daylight saving next year. See: + # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm"> + # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving + # </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens. + # + # Victoria will following NSW. See: + # <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm"> + # Vic to extend daylight saving + # </a> (1999-07-28). + # + # However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See: + # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm"> + # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request + # </a> (1999-07-19). + # + # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See: + # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm"> + # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics + # </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying + # ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time + # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very + # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of + # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night. + # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.'' + # + # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See: + # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm"> + # Broken Hill to be behind the times + # </a> (1999-07-21). +  + # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian + # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken + # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics. +  + # Yancowinna +  + # From John Basser (1989-01-04): + # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna. +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ] + # # [ Dec 1990 ] + # ... + # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the + # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings + # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government + # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have + # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not + # # presently available. + # Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST + # ... + # Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C + # [followed by other Rules] +  + # Lord Howe Island +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen.. pauline@Aus ] + # [ Dec 1990 ] + # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an + # hour ahead of NSW time. +  + # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27): + # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same + # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the + # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is + # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time + # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour + # instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents + # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing + # arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will + # however always coincide with the rest of NSW. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-31): + # For Lord Howe we use Shanks through 1989, and Lonergan thereafter. +  + ############################################################################### +  + # New Zealand +  + # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03): + # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period. + # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for + # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start). + # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office. +  + # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): + # # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that! + # # or is Australia the west island of N.Z. + # # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Geofft@Aus.. Auckland N.Z. ] + # # [ Nov 1990 ] + # ... + # Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D + # Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S + # Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S + # ... + # Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand + # Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island +  + # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): + # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989 + # rather than the October 1 value. +  + # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19); + # Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. + # Robert Uzgalis <buz@cs.aukuni.ac.nz> writes that the New Zealand Daylight + # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard + # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March. + # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00. + # + # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): + # Shanks gives no time data for Chatham; usno1989 says it's +12:45, + # usno1995 says it's +12:45/+13:45, and IATA SSIM (1991/1999) + # gives the NZ rules but with transitions at 2:45 local standard time. + # Guess that they have been in lock-step with NZ since 1990. +  + ############################################################################### +  +  + # Fiji +  + # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji + # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time + # instead of the American system (which was one day behind). +  + # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08): + # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01 + # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will + # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08): + # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow. +  + # From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC): + # The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to + # improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it + # also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific + # islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new + # millenium. +  +  + # Johnston +  + # Johnston data is from usno1995. +  +  + # Kiribati +  + # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): + # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati + # ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995'' + # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century. +  +  + # Kwajalein +  + # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes: + # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday, + # 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with + # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands, + # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink. +  +  + # N Mariana Is, Guam +  + # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the + # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones + # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time. + # Ignore this for now, as we have no hard data. See also Asia/Manila. +  +  + # Micronesia +  + # Alan Eugene Davis <adavis@kuentos.guam.net> writes (1996-03-16), + # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk" + # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.'' + # + # Shanks writes that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 on 1978-10-01; + # ignore this for now. +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): + # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in + # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html"> + # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information + # </a> (1999-01-26) + # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11. + # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now. +  +  + # Pitcairn +  + # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08): + # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998 + # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows. + # + # The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be + # Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known + # as Pitcairn Standard Time. + # + # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several + # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation + # somehow in light of this proclamation. +  + # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09): + # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998 + # ... at midnight. +  + # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave: + # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as + # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in + # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago. +  +  + # Samoa +  + # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald) + # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change + # ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, + # ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that + # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.'' +  +  + # Tonga +  + # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): + # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting + # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.'' + # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do. +  + # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle + # <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm"> + # How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins' + # </a>: +  + # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST + # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its + # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its + # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of + # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees + # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time). + # + # Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince + # Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time + # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change. + # + # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer + # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40 + # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40 + # minutes we have lost?" + # + # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that + # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth + # to say your prayers in the morning." +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-08-12): + # Shanks says the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell. +  + # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03): + # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium + # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front. + # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from + # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan + # Government. +  + # From Steffen Thorsen [straen@thorsen.priv.no] (1999-09-09): + # * Tonga will introduce DST in November + # + # I was given this link by John Letts <johnletts@earthlink.net>: + # <a hef="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm"> + # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm + # </a> + # + # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November + # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead + # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead + # (12 + 1 hour DST). +  + # From Arthur David Olson [arthur_david_olson@nih.gov] (1999-09-20): + # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html> + # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html + # </a>: + # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000 + # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the + # third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on + # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and + # set back an hour on the closing date." + # Alas, no indication of the time of day. +  + # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06): + # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am. + # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning. +  +  + ############################################################################### +  + # The International Date Line +  + # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03): + # + # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard, + # convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please. + # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on + # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there. + # + # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and + # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL + # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most + # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line + # has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific + # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international + # convention, but are not legally binding national borders. + # + # An Anglo-French Conference on Time-Keeping at Sea (June, 1917) agreed that + # legal time on the high seas would be zone time, i.e., the standard time at + # the nearest meridian that is a multiple of fifteen degrees. The date is + # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some + # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not + # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the + # correct date is ambiguous.   Newline at end of file added.