Branch: Tag:

2014-09-04

2014-09-04 12:43:31 by Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) <grubba@grubba.org>

Updated to tzdata2014g.

1:   # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.    - # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see + # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.      # From Paul Eggert (2014-05-31):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
38:   # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,   # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.   # + # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. + # This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see + # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html + # The full Russian citation is: + # Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток + # введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го + # июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград: + # Десятая гос. тип., 1919. + # http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf + #   # Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),   # History of Summer Time   # <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
174:   # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which   # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the   # foundations of civilization throughout the world. - # <http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf> - # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly + # -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly; + # republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26 + # http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf      # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
210:   # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't   # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British   # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally. - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png + # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png + # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png      # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):   # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
228:   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.   # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ - # History of legal time in Britain +    # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/      # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech - # <http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0> + # http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0   # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
440:   # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST   Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey   Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey   Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man -  +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 -  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 +  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00 +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 +  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 +  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 +  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 +  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996    0:00 EU GMT/IST   
479:   # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:   # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council   # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. - # <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT> + # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT      # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.   Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
513:   # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 - # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 + # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884   # 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
557:   Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time - Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time - Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time + Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time + Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time + Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time   Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST   Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST   Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 MSD   Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 MSK   Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 MSD - Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 MSM # Midsummer + Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 MSM # Midsummer   Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 MSD   Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
669:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901    0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30 -  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Austria
695:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920 -  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s    1:00 - CET 1946    1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT
713:   # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880 -  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time +  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s -  2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    3:00 - FET      # Belgium
780:   Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880 -  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT +  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT    0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8    1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
810:    1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?    2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 -  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00 +  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00    2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00    2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
834:   Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850 -  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s +  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
891:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890    0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT -  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   #
980:   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996    0:00 - GMT   Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit -  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29    -1:00 EU EG%sT   Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -3:00 EU WG%sT   Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base    -4:00 Thule A%sT
1011:      # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:   # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law - # <http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390> + # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390   # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between   # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).   #
1042:      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880 -  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time +  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul    1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22    2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1    2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21
1195:   # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT   # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.    0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00   # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1214:      # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):   # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by - # <http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/> + # http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/   # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1243:      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00    1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT
1259:   # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03): - # Busingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970. + # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.      Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen   
1270:      # Gibraltar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00 + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00    1:00 - CET 1982    1:00 EU CE%sT   
1302:   Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14 -  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT +  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
1403:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837    -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time? -  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s +  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s    0:00 - GMT      # Italy
1419:   # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and   # F. Pollastri   # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03) - # <http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html> + # http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html   # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute   # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:   #
1479:   Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 -  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean -  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT
1532:   # in Latvian for subscribers only).      # From RFE/RL Newsline - # <http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html> + # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html   # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:   # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will   # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.   # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their   # clocks one hour in the spring.... - # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few + # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few   # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European   # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving   # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1549:   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -    - # Milne says Riga time was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). + # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). + # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34. + # Go with Byalokoz.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:28 - LMT 1880 -  1:36:28 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time -  1:36:28 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer -  1:36:28 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 -  1:36:28 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 -  1:36:28 - RMT 1926 May 11 + Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880 +  1:36:34 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 # Riga MT +  1:36:34 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 # Latvian ST +  1:36:34 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 +  1:36:34 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 +  1:36:34 - RMT 1926 May 11    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29    2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
1620:      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880 -  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time    1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12    2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9    1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 -  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u -  1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u    2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1    2:00 EU EE%sT   
1665:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun    1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25 -  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s -  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 -  1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00 +  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s +  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 +  1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT   
1684:   Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta -  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31    1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT
1752:   # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time -  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time +  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT   
1797:   # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe   # Amsterdam mean time.    - # The data before 1945 are taken from - # <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>. + # The data entries before 1945 are taken from + # http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
1829:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835    0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1 -  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT   
1893:   # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were   # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,   # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) - # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html> + # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html   # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named   # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.   #
1917:   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,   # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., - # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> + # http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1   # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.   # He also gives these further references:   # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1938:   Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880 -  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00 +  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun -  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00 +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977    1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
1949:      # Portugal   # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne: + # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26) + # http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf + # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. + # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees + # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for + # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira. + #   # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2028:   Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24; - # Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett. - Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 -  1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -  0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s -  1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u + Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884 +  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time -  -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time -  -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -  -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s -  0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u + Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time +  -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time +  -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u    -1:00 EU AZO%sT - Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time -  -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s + Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time +  -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT      # Romania
2073:   Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct -  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT -  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s +  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2210:      # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Europe/Kaliningrad covers... - # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast + # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast      Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    2:00 - EET         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Europe/Moscow covers... - # 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of - # 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of - # 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of - # 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic - # 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of - # 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic - # 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of - # 11 RU-KO Komi Republic - # 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic - # 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of - # 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of - # 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of - # 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic - # 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic - # 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai - # 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai - # 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast - # 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast - # 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast - # 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast - # 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast - # 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast - # 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast - # 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast - # 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast - # 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast - # 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast - # 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast - # 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast - # 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast - # 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast - # 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast - # 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast - # 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast - # 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast - # 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast - # 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast - # 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast - # 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast - # 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast - # 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast - # 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast - # 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast - # 77 RU-MOW Moscow - # 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg - # 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug + # 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of + # 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of + # 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of + # 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic + # 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of + # 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic + # 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of + # 11 RU-KO Komi Republic + # 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic + # 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of + # 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of + # 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of + # 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic + # 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic + # 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai + # 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai + # 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast + # 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast + # 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast + # 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast + # 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast + # 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast + # 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast + # 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast + # 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast + # 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast + # 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast + # 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast + # 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast + # 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast + # 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast + # 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast + # 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast + # 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast + # 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast + # 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast + # 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast + # 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast + # 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast + # 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast + # 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast + # 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast + # 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast + # 77 RU-MOW Moscow + # 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg + # 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug      # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):   # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow   # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....   # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard. - # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz E.L. New Counting of Time in Russia - # since July 1, 1919, p. 18.) The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia - # was defined by Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow + # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.) + # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by + # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow   # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory   # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >   # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2290:      Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880    2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time -  2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00    3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    3:00 - MSK      
2312:    3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 - EET 1992   # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.   #
2325:   # changed in May.    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May   # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. -  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s -  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s +  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s +  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s   # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.   # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 -  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u +  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):   # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014   # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2338:   # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks   # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial   # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. -  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 -  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    3:00 - MSK         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Europe/Volgograd covers... - # 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast - # 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast - # 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast - # 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast + # 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast + # 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast + # 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast + # 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast      # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):   # Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
2358:    3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time    3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time    4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11 -  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T -  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s -  3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    3:00 - MSK         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Europe/Samara covers... - # 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic - # 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast + # 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic + # 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast    - Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 + # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20. +  + Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:20 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00    3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21    4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27 -  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s -  3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 -  4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time -  3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 +  4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time +  3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    4:00 - SAMT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers... - # 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of - # 90 RU-PER Perm Krai - # 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast - # 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast - # 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast - # 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast - # 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast - # 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra - # 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + # 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of + # 90 RU-PER Perm Krai + # 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast + # 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast + # 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast + # 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast + # 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast + # 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra + # 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug   #   # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak   # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.    - # Milne says Yekaterinburg time was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. + # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. + # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05. + # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard. + # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.    - Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 + Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1916 Jul 3 +  3:45:05 - PMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00    4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time -  5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    5:00 - YEKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Asia/Omsk covers... - # 04 RU-AL Altai Republic - # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai - # 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast + # 04 RU-AL Altai Republic + # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai + # 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast    - Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 + # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30. +  + Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:30 - LMT 1919 Nov 14    5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time -  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    6:00 - OMST         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Asia/Novosibirsk covers... - # 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast - # 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast + # 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast + # 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast      # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's   # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.    - Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00 + Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00    6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P. -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    6:00 - NOVT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers... - # 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast + # 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):   # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2474:      Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk T -  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk +  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers... - # 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic - # 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of - # 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai + # 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic + # 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of + # 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai   #   # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr   # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.    - Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6 + # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26. +  + Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:26 - LMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    7:00 - KRAT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Asia/Irkutsk covers... - # 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of - # 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast + # 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of + # 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast   #   # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was   # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.    - # Milne says Irkutsk time was 6:57:15. + # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05. + # Go with Byalokoz.    - Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:15 - LMT 1880 -  6:57:15 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time + Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:05 - LMT 1880 +  6:57:05 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time    7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time -  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    8:00 - IRKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):   # Asia/Chita covers... - # 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai + # 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai   #   # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat   # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.      Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    8:00 - IRKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):   # Asia/Yakutsk covers... - # 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast + # 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast   #   # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:   # 14-02 **** Aldansky District
2570:   # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.   # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.    - Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 + # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58. +  + Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:58 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    9:00 - YAKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):   # Asia/Vladivostok covers... - # 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai - # 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai - # 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast + # 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai + # 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai + # 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast   #   # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:   # 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District   # 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District    - # Milne says Vladivostok time was 8:47:33.5; round to nearest. + # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31. + # Go with Byalokoz.    - Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:34 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 + Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:31 - LMT 1922 Nov 15    9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    10:00 - VLAT      
2616:      Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004 -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    9:00 - YAKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Asia/Sakhalin covers... - # 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast + # 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast   # ...with the exception of:   # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)   
2635:   Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23    9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1    9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25 -  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T. -  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s -  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    10:00 - SAKT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):   # Asia/Magadan covers... - # 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast + # 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast      # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):   # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
2656:      Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    10:00 - MAGT      
2709:      Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s -  11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2733:   Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1 -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    10:00 - VLAT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):   # Asia/Kamchatka covers... - # 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai + # 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai   #   # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak   # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
2752:   # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.   Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10    11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time -  12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    12:00 - PETT         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Asia/Anadyr covers... - # 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug + # 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug      Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2    12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time -  13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s -  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s +  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    12:00 - ANAT      
2781:   Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884    1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 -  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s +  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s   # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of   # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
2861:    0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00    0:00 - WET 1924    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929 -  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 +  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16    1:00 - CET 1986    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. -  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time -  0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s -  0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s +  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries T +  0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s +  0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT   # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2920:      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1 -  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time +  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time    1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00 -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00 +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 1:00    1:00 - CET 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT   
2991:      # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):   # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893) - # <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ... + # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353   # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight   # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one   # hour before the beginning of service.
3023:   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment. -  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time +  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time    1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT   
3145:    2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15    3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time    2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007 -  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u -  2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u -  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u -  2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u    2:00 EU EE%sT   Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.   
3230:    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3243:    1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26    1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00    2:00 - EET 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT
3258:    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   
3284:   # ...   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when - # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only + # most European countries started DST. Before that year, only   # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according   # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on   # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following