Branch: Tag:

2007-02-01

2007-02-01 14:19:52 by Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) <grubba@grubba.org>

Updated to ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/tzdata2007a.tar.gz.

Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1.4
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/antarctica:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1.6
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1.6
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/backward:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/etcetera:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1.6
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/factory:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/iso3166.tab:1.4
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/leapseconds:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/northamerica:1.6
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/pacificnew:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar87:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar88:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar89:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/southamerica:1.6
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/systemv:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/yearistype.sh:1.4
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/zone.tab:1.6

1: - # @(#)europe 7.83 + # @(#)europe 8.7 + # <pre>      # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to   # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is - # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), - # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   #   # Gwillim Law writes that a good source   # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
15:   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries   # of the IATA's data after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, - # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for + # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.   #   # Other sources occasionally used include:   #
24:   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),   # which I found in the UCLA library.   # + # <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf"> + # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition + # </a> (1914-03) + #   # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),   # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">   # History of Summer Time
51:   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),   # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
77:      # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):   #   # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about   # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
98:   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): + # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
125:   # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much   # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.    - # From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): + # From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):   # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
133:   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.   # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,   # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. - # One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. - # See: - # <a href="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/05/18/x-timcrtcrt01011.html"> - # Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18) - # </a> - # A monument was erected in 1927 to Willett, in an open space in a 45-acre wood - # near Chiselhurst, Kent that was purchased by popular subscription and open - # to the public. + # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and + # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. + # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18). + # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in + # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular + # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith, + # designed by G. W. Miller, is the the William Willett Memorial Sundial, + # which is permanently set to Summer Time.    -  + # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28): + # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of + # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country + # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which + # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the + # foundations of civilization throughout the world. + # -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm"> + # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly + # </a> +    # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
154:   # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.      # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) - # From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> + # From: Jonathan Leffler   # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.   # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in   # politics making a fortune, not computing.    - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):   # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the   # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published   # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
190:   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,   # so we use `BDST'.    - # Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length + # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. - # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating + # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in   # <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">   # History of legal time in Britain   # </a>    - # From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): + # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
206:   # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)   # </a>.    - # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-18): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # - # For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. + # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   # - # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: + # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger + # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.   # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
222:   # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.   # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).   # - # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: + # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   # - # The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; + # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.   #   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. + # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than + # Shanks & Pottenger.   # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory   # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was   # to London. For example:
241:   # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."   # -- James Joyce, Ulysses    + # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): + # Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include + # various relating to legal time, for example: + # + # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html + # + # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html + # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html + # + # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html + # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html + # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html + # + # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html + # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html + # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html + # + # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is + # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.] + # + # (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these + # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover + # the laws applicable in Ireland.) + # + # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined + # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it + # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time + # being GMT+1.) +    # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):   # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)   # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
374:   # See EU for rules starting in 1996.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST - Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin/Dunsink MT -  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/BST + Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey + Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey + Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man   Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2    -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00    -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
439:   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
493:   # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST   # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.    - # From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): + # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):   # The official German names ... are   #   # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
559:      # Austria    - # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-28): Shanks gives 1918-06-16 and + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and   # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and   # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"   # date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition - # Shanks gives 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV, and guess 02:00 - # for 1945-04-12. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV, + # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
609:   # pp 8-9.   # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:   # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. - # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. + # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.   # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.   # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.   #
664:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Bosnia and Herzegovina - # see Serbia and Montenegro + # see Serbia      # Bulgaria   # - # From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:   # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...   # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
676:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - - Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
691:    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia - # see Serbia and Montenegro + # see Serbia    -  + # Cyprus + # Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia. +    # Czech Republic   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
709:    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT    - # Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland + # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26): + # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law + # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01.... + # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL + # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29. + # + # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL + # + # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes + # in subsequenet decrees with the law + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL + # + # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have + # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST + # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to + # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from + # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know + # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only + # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981: + # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning + # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which + # was suspended on that night): + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11): + # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between + # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11): + # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not + # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
722:   Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways - # about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. +    # - # For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890 -  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time +  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31): + # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in + # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones. + # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,   # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU - # rules at least through 1984. Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.   
795:   # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place   # there at 2:00 AM.    - # From Paul Eggert (2001-11-19): - # The 1997 CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; the 1995 map as like Godthab. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; + # the 1995 map as like Godthab.   # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.   # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error, - # so go with Shanks for all Thule transitions. + # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year. + # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S - Rule Thule 1993 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - Rule Thule 1993 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28    -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996    0:00 - GMT - Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit + Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit    -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29    -1:00 EU EG%sT
823:    -4:00 Thule A%sT      # Estonia - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):   # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards   # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,   # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....   # - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): + # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):   # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,   # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]   # ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
838:   # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to   # summer time next spring.''    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: + # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:   # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">   # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law   # </a>
887:      # Finland   # - # From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): + # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):   # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,   # and it's supposed to change at 4am...   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): - # Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. - # Go with Strang instead. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # Shanks & Pottenger say Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time + # since 1981. Go with Strang instead.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
904:    2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00    2:00 EU EE%sT    + # Aaland Is + Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn +  +    # France      # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
919:         # - # Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. + # Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
933:   Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S   # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st   # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions - # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks. + # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
954:   Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S - # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks writes - # that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. + # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger + # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.   # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,   # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La   # Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Decartes,
963:   # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,   # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collognes (Haute-Savioe).   Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - # Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, - # but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), + # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, + # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),   # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes   # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.   Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
976:   Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - - # Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; + # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;   # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.   Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 - - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,   # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.   # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based   # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01    0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT - # Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.    0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00   # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation; - # go with Shanks. + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977
998:      # Germany    - # From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): + # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.   # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1034:    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT    + # Georgia + # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi. + # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni) + # is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part. +    # Gibraltar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00    1:00 - CET 1982    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Greece   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
1072:    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981 -  # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; +  # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;    # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT   
1108:      # Iceland   # - # From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): + # From Adam David (1993-11-06):   # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.   #   # (1993-12-05):
1135:   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): - # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. - # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that - # Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points. + # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely + # that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
1176:   # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,   # so record only the time in Rome.   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): - # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and + # F. Pollastri   # <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html"> - # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) + # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)   # </a>   # (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute   # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:   # - # year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with: + # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:   # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W   # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s   # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
1240:   Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 -  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1251:      # Latvia    - # From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): + # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):      # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy   # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1323:    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29 -  2:00 - EET 2001 +  2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Liechtenstein
1338:   # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is   # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.    - # From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): + # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):   # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone   # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.   
1382:    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Luxembourg - # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. + # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
1417:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Macedonia - # see Serbia and Montenegro + # see Serbia      # Malta   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1429:   Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1438:      # Moldova    - # From Paul Eggert (2001-02-11): - # A previous version of this database followed Shanks, who writes that - # Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write + # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.   # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence   # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).   # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area   # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time. - # But moldavizolit@tirastel.md and mk@tirastel.md separately reported via + # But [two people] separately reported via   # Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.   # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.   
1465:    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Monaco - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's + # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15    0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1473:    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT    + # Montenegro + # see Serbia +    # Netherlands      # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1548:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway + # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks & + # Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - - # Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, - # 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1590:   # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01):   #   # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II, - # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Olso was + # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was   # keeping Berlin time.   #   # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1607:   # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were   # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,   # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) - # <http://www.utpress.utoronto.ca/publishing/rights/dege_warnorthof80.htm> + # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>   # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named   # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.   #
1621:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 - - # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. + # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, + # Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., + # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> + # Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. + # He also gives these further references: + # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm> + # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf> + Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1647:    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct -  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00 -  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999 - # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ - # <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> - # http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) - # </a> - # says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. - # Stick with W-Eur for now. - # - # From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): - # According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would - # follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not - # worth further discussion. - # - # From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): - # Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 - # or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to - # EU rules in 1999. +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal   # - # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): + # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   # - # Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve + # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #
1688:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. - # Go with Shanks. + # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1706:   Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. +    Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - # Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
1737:   Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - # Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. - # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. + # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. + # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
1750:   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24; + # Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett.   Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time +  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00    1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1801:      # Russia    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.   # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, - # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow - # Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. + # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger, + # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat + # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   # - # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): + # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):   # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!   # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;   # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching   # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.   # - # From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): + # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):   # `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with - # Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... + # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....   # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor   # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.   # - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):   # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from   # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...   # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
1850:    2:00 Russia EE%sT   #   # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast', Astrakhanskaya oblast', + # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',   # Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast', - # Volgogradskaya oblast', Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast', + # Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',   # Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,   # Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,   # Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, - # Respublika Kareliya, Kirovskaya oblast', Respublika Komi, + # Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,   # Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',   # Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,   # Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',   # Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,   # Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',   # Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast', - # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg, Saratovskaya oblast', + # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,   # Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',   # Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,   # Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
1878:    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD   # + # Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast', + # Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 + # but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the + # others? But we have no data. + Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3 +  3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time +  3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time +  4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11 +  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT + #   # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]   # Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika   Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 -  3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev -  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27 +  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev    3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
1908:    5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    6:00 Russia OMS%sT   # - # Novosibirskaya oblast'. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's + # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6. + # Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.   Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00    6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.    6:00 Russia NOV%sT   #   # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]   # Kemerovskaya oblast', Krasnoyarskij kraj, - # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug, Tomskaya oblast', + # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,   # Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
1936:    7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    8:00 Russia IRK%sT   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]   # Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',   # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'. - # - # From Alan Pritchard (2001-08-24): [The Sakha districts are:] - # Aldansky, Amginsky, Anabarsky, Bulunsky, Churapchinsky, - # Eveno-Bytantaisky, Gorny, Khangalassky, Kobyaisky, Lensky, - # Megino-Kangalassky, Mirninsky, Namsky, Nyurbinsky, Olenyoksky, - # Olyokminsky, Srednekolymsky, Suntarsky, Tattinsky, Ust-Aldansky, - # Verkhnekolymsky, Verkhnevilyuisky, Vilyuisky, Zhigansky. + # The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij, + # Bulunskij, Verkhnekolymskij, Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj, + # Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij, + # Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenekskij, Olekminskij, Srednekolymskij, + # Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij, + # Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij.   Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    9:00 Russia YAK%sT   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]   # Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,   # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). - # - # From Alan Pritchard (2001-08-24): [The Sakha districts are:] - # Tomponsky, Ust-Maisky, Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansky. + # The Sakha districts are: Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij, + # Ust'-Yanskij.   Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15    9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1974:    11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s    10:00 Russia SAK%sT   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]   # Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). - # - # From Alan Pritchard (2001-08-24): [The Sakha districts are:] - # Abyisky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Oimyakonsky. + # Probably also: Kuril Islands. + # The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Momskij, + # Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij.   Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2003:    11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    12:00 Russia ANA%sT    - # Serbia and Montenegro + # Serbia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884    1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s - # Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of + # Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of   # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. - # Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. + # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.    1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27    1:00 EU CE%sT   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia -  + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
2023:   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava      # Slovenia - # see Serbia and Montenegro + # see Serbia      # Spain   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. + # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer   Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
2075:   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30    1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT
2097:      # Sweden    - # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks: + # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:   #   # The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:   # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2158:   # From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):   Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - - # From Shanks: + # From Shanks & Pottenger:   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2177:   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2186:   Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2283:    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 - EET 1992 - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched   # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. - # Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened - # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May. + # Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say + # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it + # changed in May.    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May   # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.    3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
2313:      # ...   # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) - # Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> + # From: Tom Hofmann   # ...   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
2333:   #   # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,   # 4002 Basle, Switzerland - # UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho + # ...      # ...   # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) + # From: Dik T. Winter   # ...   #   # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
2363:   #   # ...   # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland - # INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl - # BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax + # ...      # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # ...