Branch: Tag:

2007-02-01

2007-02-01 14:21:02 by Henrik Grubbström (Grubba) <grubba@grubba.org>

Updated to ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/tzdata2007a.tar.gz.

Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/antarctica:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/backward:1.4
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/etcetera:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/factory:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/iso3166.tab:1.3
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/leapseconds:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/northamerica:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/pacificnew:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar87:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar88:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar89:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/southamerica:1.5
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/systemv:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/yearistype.sh:1.4
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/zone.tab:1.5

1: - # @(#)europe 7.75 + # @(#)europe 8.7 + # <pre>      # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to   # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is - # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), - # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   # - # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source + # Gwillim Law writes that a good source   # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries   # of the IATA's data after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, - # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for + # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.   #   # Other sources occasionally used include:   #
24:   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),   # which I found in the UCLA library.   # + # <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf"> + # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition + # </a> (1914-03) + #   # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),   # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">   # History of Summer Time
33:   # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;   # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome! - # std dst - # LMT Local Mean Time - # -4:00 AST Atlantic - # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* - # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* - # 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer - # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer - # 0:00 WET WEST Western Europe - # 1:00 CET CEST Central Europe - # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe - # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow + # std dst 2dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic + # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* + # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* + # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer + # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer + # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe + # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)* + # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)* + # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe + # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)* + # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe + # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),   # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
74:      # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):   #   # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about   # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
95:   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): + # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
122:   # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much   # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.    - # From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): + # From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):   # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
130:   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.   # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,   # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. - # One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. - # See: - # <a href="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/05/18/x-timcrtcrt01011.html"> - # Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18) - # </a> + # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and + # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. + # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18). + # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in + # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular + # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith, + # designed by G. W. Miller, is the the William Willett Memorial Sundial, + # which is permanently set to Summer Time.    -  + # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28): + # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of + # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country + # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which + # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the + # foundations of civilization throughout the world. + # -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm"> + # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly + # </a> +    # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
148:   # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.      # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) - # From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> + # From: Jonathan Leffler   # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.   # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in   # politics making a fortune, not computing.    - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):   # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the   # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published   # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
184:   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,   # so we use `BDST'.    - # Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length + # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. - # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating + # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in   # <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">   # History of legal time in Britain - # </a> (2000-02-12). + # </a>    - # From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): + # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
200:   # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)   # </a>.    - # From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # - # For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. + # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   # - # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: + # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger + # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.   # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
216:   # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.   # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).   # - # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: + # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   # - # The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; + # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.   #   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. + # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than + # Shanks & Pottenger. + # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory + # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was + # to London. For example: + # + # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time." + # -- James Joyce, Ulysses    -  + # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): + # Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include + # various relating to legal time, for example: + # + # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html + # + # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html + # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html + # + # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html + # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html + # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html + # + # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html + # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html + # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html + # + # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is + # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.] + # + # (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these + # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover + # the laws applicable in Ireland.) + # + # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined + # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it + # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time + # being GMT+1.) +    # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):   # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)   # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
362:   # See EU for rules starting in 1996.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST - Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT -  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/BST - Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT + Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey + Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey + Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man + Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00    -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
402:   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 - + # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See: + # <a href="http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/lif/dat/2000/en_300L0084.html" + # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council + # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. + # </a>      # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.   Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
422:   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
476:   # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST   # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.    - # From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): + # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):   # The official German names ... are   #   # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
541:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Austria +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and + # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and + # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged" + # date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition + # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV, + # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 - - Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - +    Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S -  + Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Jun 16 3:00 -  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920 +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s +  1:00 - CET 1946    1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT   
582:   # pp 8-9.   # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:   # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. - # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. + # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.   # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.   # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.   #
637:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Bosnia and Herzegovina - # see Yugoslavia + # see Serbia      # Bulgaria   # - # From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:   # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...   # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
649:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - - Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
664:    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia - # see Yugosloavia + # see Serbia    -  + # Cyprus + # Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia. +    # Czech Republic   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
682:    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT    - # Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland + # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26): + # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law + # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01.... + # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL + # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29. + # + # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL + # + # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes + # in subsequenet decrees with the law + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL + # + # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have + # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST + # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to + # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from + # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know + # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only + # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981: + # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning + # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which + # was suspended on that night): + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11): + # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between + # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11): + # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not + # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
695:   Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways - # about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. +    # - # For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890 -  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time +  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31): + # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in + # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones. + # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,   # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU - # rules at least through 1984. Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.    -  + # From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing + # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15), + # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   # -  + # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC + # is according to the following time line: + # + # The military zone near Thule UTC-4 + # Standard Greenland time UTC-3 + # Scoresbysund UTC-1 + # Danmarkshavn UTC + # + # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be + # introduced. +  + # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01): + # + # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at + # the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have + # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have + # info from earlier correspondence.] + # + # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule + # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight + # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time.... + # + # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund + # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst. + # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the + # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th + # email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in + # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the + # DPC research station at Zackenberg. + # + # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use + # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab). + # + # The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it + # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time + # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules. + # + # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and + # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators + # maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of + # this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be + # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this. +  + # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19): + # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place + # there at 2:00 AM. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; + # the 1995 map as like Godthab. + # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996. + # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error, + # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year. + # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Thule 1993 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - Rule Thule 1993 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit + Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 +  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996 +  0:00 - GMT + Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit    -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29    -1:00 EU EG%sT
734:    -4:00 Thule A%sT      # Estonia - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):   # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards   # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,   # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....   # - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): + # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):   # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,   # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]   # ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
749:   # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to   # summer time next spring.''    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: + # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:   # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">   # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law   # </a>
774:   # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all   # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.    + # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21): + # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics. + # Now we are using again EU rules. + # + # From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28): + # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880    1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
786:    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22    2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1 -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Finland   # - # From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): + # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):   # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,   # and it's supposed to change at 4am...   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): - # Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. - # Go with Strang instead. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # Shanks & Pottenger say Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time + # since 1981. Go with Strang instead.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
807:    2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00    2:00 EU EE%sT    + # Aaland Is + Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn +  +    # France -  +  + # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):   # - # Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. + # Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions + # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993 + # + # Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur, + # Paris, 1991 + # + # Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie, + # Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987 +  +  + # + # Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
823:   Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S   # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st   # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions - # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks. + # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
844:   Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S - # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, - # but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco). + # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger + # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. + # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez, + # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La + # Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Decartes, + # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin, + # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois, + # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collognes (Haute-Savioe).   Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - # Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, - # but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), + # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, + # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),   # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes   # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.   Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
860:   Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - - # Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; + # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;   # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.   Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 - - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,   # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.   # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based   # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time - # Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT. +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.    0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00 -  + # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977
880:      # Germany    - # From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): + # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. - # - # <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm"> - # Realisation of Legal Time in Germany - # </a> + # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]    -  + # From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23): + # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by <a + # href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/"> + # General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08): + # <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf"> + # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20. + # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so + # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4. +  +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes - # the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem) - # (1961-11-25), which gives dates only. Guess 3:00 transition times. - Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Germany 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S - # The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times; - # go with Shanks. +    Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M   Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
912:    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT    + # Georgia + # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi. + # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni) + # is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part. +    # Gibraltar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00    1:00 - CET 1982    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Greece   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
950:    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981 -  # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; +  # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;    # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT   
986:      # Iceland   # - # From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): + # From Adam David (1993-11-06):   # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.   #   # (1993-12-05):
1013:   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): - # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. - # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that - # Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points. + # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely + # that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
1047:      # Italy   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): - # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri - # <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html"> - # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) + # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): + # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893, + # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32). + # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time. + # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff, + # so record only the time in Rome. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and + # F. Pollastri + # <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html"> + # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)   # </a>   # (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute   # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:   # - # year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with: + # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:   # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W   # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s   # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
1111:   Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 -  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1122:      # Latvia    - # From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): + # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):      # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy   # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1163:   # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of   # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).    + # <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html"> + # From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow: + # </a> + # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will + # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported. + # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their + # clocks one hour in the spring.... + # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few + # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European + # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving + # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government + # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it + # appears that they will not do so.... +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
1180:    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29 -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Liechtenstein   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1194:   # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is   # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.    - # From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): + # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):   # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone   # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.   
1211:   # Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism   # </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.    + # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07): + # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will + # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid + # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its + # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of + # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at + # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm +  +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880    1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
1225:    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998    2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u    1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Luxembourg - # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. + # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
1263:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Macedonia - # see Yugoslavia + # see Serbia      # Malta   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1275:   Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1283:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Moldova +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write + # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00. + # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence + # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree). + # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area + # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time. + # But [two people] separately reported via + # Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau. + # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880    1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1297:    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997   # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.    2:00 EU EE%sT - Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880 -  1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT -  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT -  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD +       # Monaco - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's + # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15    0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1316:    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT    + # Montenegro + # see Serbia +    # Netherlands -  +    # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,   # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. -  +  + # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01): + # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00 + # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including + # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time + # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the + # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was + # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law. + # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and + # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd"). + # + # (2001-04-08): + # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to + # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common + # practice of following Amsterdam mean time. + # + # (2001-04-09): + # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the + # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe + # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was + # actually followed. + # + # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to + # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of + # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most + # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically + # adopted Amsterdam mean time. + # + # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety + # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it + # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe + # Amsterdam mean time. +  + # The data before 1945 are taken from + # <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman. - Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time - Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time + Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time + Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time   Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT - # Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks. +    Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST - Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT - Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST - # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT + Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT - Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST - Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST - # Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks. - Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun 5 2:00s 1:00 NST - # For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST + # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week + # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.   Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - - # Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks. +    Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 - + Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + # + # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted + # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May -  0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul -  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:40 + Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835 +  0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1 +  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway -  + # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks & + # Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - - # Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, - # 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 + Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1    1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Svalbard & Jan Mayen -  +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01): + # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and + # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the + # time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared + # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan + # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation + # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came + # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a + # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been + # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100) + # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by + # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever + # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since + # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere + # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive). +  + # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01): + # + # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II, + # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was + # keeping Berlin time. + # + # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists + # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in + # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite + # frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a + # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly + # the UTC offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that + # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules. + # + # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an + # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says + # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ + # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were + # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return, + # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) + # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html> + # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named + # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945. + # + # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970. Unless we can + # come up with more definitive info about the timekeeping during the + # war years it's probably best just do do the following for now:   Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen - # From Whitman: - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT + Link Europe/Oslo Atlantic/Jan_Mayen      # Poland   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 - - # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. + # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, + # Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., + # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> + # Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. + # He also gives these further references: + # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm> + # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf> + Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1409:    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct -  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00 -  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999 - # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ - # <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> - # http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) - # </a> - # says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. - # Stick with W-Eur for now. - # - # From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): - # According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would - # follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not - # worth further discussion. - # - # From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): - # Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 - # or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to - # EU rules in 1999. +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal   # - # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): + # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   # - # Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve + # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #
1450:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. - # Go with Shanks. + # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1468:   Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. +    Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - # Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
1499:   Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - # Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. - # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. + # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. + # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
1512:   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24; + # Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett.   Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time +  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00    1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1521:    1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time    -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time    -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u    -1:00 EU AZO%sT   Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time    -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT
1563:      # Russia    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.   # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, - # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow - # Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. + # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger, + # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat + # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   # - # From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): + # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29): + # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! + # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; + # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching + # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. + # + # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):   # `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with - # Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... + # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....   # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor   # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.   # - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):   # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from   # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...   # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.   # -  + # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from + # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07): + # News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was + # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with + # the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began + # enforcing curfew at the wrong time. + # + # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05): + # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in + # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the + # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan + # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok + # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are + # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have + # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr + # + # Kaliningradskaya oblast'. + Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast', + # Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast', + # Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast', + # Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya, + # Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya, + # Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, + # Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi, + # Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast', + # Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El, + # Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast', + # Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug, + # Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast', + # Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast', + # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg, + # Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast', + # Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan, + # Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast', + # Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast', + # Yaroslavskaya oblast'   Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880    2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time    2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
1594:    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD + # + # Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast', + # Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 + # but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the + # others? But we have no data. + Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3 +  3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time +  3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time +  4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11 +  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika   Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 -  3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev -  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27 +  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev    3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00    4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug, + # Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast', + # Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast', + # Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast', + # Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00    4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time    5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.   Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14    5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme    6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    6:00 Russia OMS%sT - # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): - # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! - # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; - # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching - # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's + # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6. + # Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.   Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00    6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.    6:00 Russia NOV%sT -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Kemerovskaya oblast', Krasnoyarskij kraj, + # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug, + # Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    7:00 Russia KRA%sT -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast', + # Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880    6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time    7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time    8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    8:00 Russia IRK%sT -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast', + # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'. + # The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij, + # Bulunskij, Verkhnekolymskij, Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj, + # Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij, + # Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenekskij, Olekminskij, Srednekolymskij, + # Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij, + # Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij.   Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    9:00 Russia YAK%sT -  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj, + # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). + # The Sakha districts are: Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij, + # Ust'-Yanskij.   Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15    9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    10:00 Russia VLA%sT -  + # + # Sakhalinskaya oblast'. + # The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long. + Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23 +  9:00 - CJT 1938 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25 +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T. +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). + # Probably also: Kuril Islands. + # The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Momskij, + # Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij.   Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    11:00 Russia MAG%sT - # This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug. + # + # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.   Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10    11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time    12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    12:00 Russia PET%sT -  + # + # Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug   Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2    12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time    13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
1661:    11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    12:00 Russia ANA%sT    + # Serbia + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 +  1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s + # Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of + # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. + # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. +  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia +    # Slovakia   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava      # Slovenia - # see Yugoslavia + # see Serbia      # Spain   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. + # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer   Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
1717:   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30    1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT
1738:   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.      # Sweden +  + # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger: + # + # The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879: + # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all + # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at + # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the + # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31. + # + # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" + # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the + # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT.... + # + # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk + # forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning + # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at + # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English + # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west + # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated + # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time + # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT. + # + # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states + # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is + # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00.... + # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later". + # + # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish + # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are + # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available + # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type + # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click + # the Sok-button). + # + # (2001-05-13): + # + # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00 + # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show + # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some + # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already + # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another + # hour before the event took place. + # + # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31 -  1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT -  1:00 - CET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Sep 30 23:00s + Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1 +  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time +  1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00 +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00    1:00 - CET 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT   
1755:   # From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):   Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - - # From Shanks: + # From Shanks & Pottenger:   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1774:   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1783:   Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
1828:   Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.      # Ukraine + # + # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukranian Ministry of Justice, + # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27): + # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's goverment + # regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says: + # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday + # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of + # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am" +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.   Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
1871:    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 - EET 1992 - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched   # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. - # Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened - # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May. + # Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say + # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it + # changed in May.    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May   # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.    3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
1886:    3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u    2:00 EU EE%sT    - # Yugoslavia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 -  1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s - # Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of - # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. - # Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. -  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 -  1:00 EU CE%sT - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia -  +    ###############################################################################      # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
1917:      # ...   # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) - # Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> + # From: Tom Hofmann   # ...   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
1937:   #   # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,   # 4002 Basle, Switzerland - # UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho + # ...      # ...   # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) + # From: Dik T. Winter   # ...   #   # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
1967:   #   # ...   # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland - # INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl - # BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax + # ...      # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # ...