Branch: Tag:

2000-08-01

2000-08-01 16:49:56 by Mirar (Pontus Hagland) <pike@sort.mirar.org>

runtime-compile timezones instead of loading them all

Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Ruleset.pike:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Time.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/TimeRanges.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/Timezone.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/module.pmod:1.2
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/antarctica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/backward:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/etcetera:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/factory:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/iso3166.tab:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/leapseconds:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/northamerica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/pacificnew:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar87:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar88:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/solar89:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/southamerica:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/systemv:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/yearistype.sh:1.1
Rev: lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/zone.tab:1.1

1: + # @(#)europe 7.71    -  + # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to + # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). +  + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # + # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source + # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM), + # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries + # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, + # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. + # + # Other sources occasionally used include: + # + # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences, + # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), + # which I found in the UCLA library. + # + # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH), + # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm"> + # History of Summer Time + # </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) +  + # + # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; + # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. + # Corrections are welcome! + # std dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # -4:00 AST Atlantic + # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* + # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* + # 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer + # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer + # 0:00 WET WEST Western Europe + # 1:00 CET CEST Central Europe + # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe + # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow + # + # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain, + # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). +  + # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), + # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, + # Luxembourg, the Netherlands. + # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom. + # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece. + # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal. + # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for + # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8% + # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous + # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice. + # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.) + # ... + # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT. + # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards. + # ... + # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules]. + # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact + # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the + # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed + # in the Directive. +  +  + ############################################################################### +  + # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire) +  + # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): + # + # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about + # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo + # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph + # of the text said: + # + # `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands + # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude + # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed + # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They + # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament, + # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking + # along the towpath within a few yards of it.' + # + # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's + # position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should + # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. + # + # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.] +  + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): + # + # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time. + # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, + # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country. + # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) + # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). + # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway + # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most + # (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the + # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be + # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. + # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, + # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many + # railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public + # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock + # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, + # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal + # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading + # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. + # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition + # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02. + # + # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single + # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much + # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time. +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): + # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915), + # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society + # who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907) + # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April, + # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. + # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, + # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. + # One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. +  + # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): + # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving'' + # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this + # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the + # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''. +  + # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): + # + # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's + # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom. +  + # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) + # From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> + # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament. + # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in + # politics making a fortune, not computing. +  + # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): + # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the + # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published + # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and + # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T." +  + # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02): + # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the + # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516) + # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945). +  + # Howse writes (p 157) `DBST'; let's assume this is a typo. +  + # Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length + # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. + # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating + # and extending this list, which can be found in + # <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/"> + # History of legal time in Britain + # </a> (2000-02-12). +  + # From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): + # + # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC; + # see Lord Tanlaw's speech + # <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0"> + # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976) + # </a>. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17): + # + # For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. + # + # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: + # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until + # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain. + # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880. + # * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1. + # It actually just had one transition. + # * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II. + # Actually, it conformed to Britain. + # * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18. + # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time. + # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change). + # + # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: + # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT + # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to + # conform with Great Britain. + # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise. + # + # The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; + # we'll ignore it for now. + # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. + # + # + # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. +  + # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28): + # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31) + # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time + # (CT), equivalent to French civil time. + # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that + # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door) + # and Frethun run in CT. + # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities, + # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities, + # and that the time depends on who you're talking to. + # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason, + # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST. + # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST. +  + # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02): + # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, + # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC. + # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate + # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of + # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is + # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # Summer Time Act, 1916 + Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358 + Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274 + Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297 + Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 + Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844 + Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363 + Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264 + Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT + # The Summer Time Act, 1922 + Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT + Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + # The Summer Time Act, 1925 + Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT + Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379 + Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT + # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883 + Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476 + Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST + Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506 + Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST + # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932 + Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312 + Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST + Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST + # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208 + Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT + Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + # The Summer Time Act, 1947 + Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST + Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495) + Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373) + Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518) + # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430) + # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451) + Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT + # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925 + Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT + Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST + # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71) + # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465) + # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81) + Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT + # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101) + # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201) + # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148) + Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST + # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117) + Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST + # The British Standard Time Act, 1968 + # (no summer time) + # The Summer Time Act, 1972 + Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089) + # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673) + # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223) + # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931) + Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST + Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985) + # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729) + # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798) + Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT + # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982) + # See EU for rules starting in 1996. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 +  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 +  0:00 EU GMT/BST + Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT +  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 +  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 +  0:00 EU GMT/BST + Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT +  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 +  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 +  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 +  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 +  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00 +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 +  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 +  0:00 EU GMT/IST +  + ############################################################################### +  + # Continental Europe +  + # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, + # Common Market, etc. +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S + Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - + Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 - + Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 - + Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S + Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 - +  + # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time. + Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 - + Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 - +  + # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables. + # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time. + Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - +  + # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time. + Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S + Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time + Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time + Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time + Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST + Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST + Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 - + Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): + Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + # Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in + # Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): + Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + # + Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 - + Rule Russia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule Russia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - +  + # These are for backward compatibility with older versions. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT + Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT + Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT + Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST + # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage. +  + # From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): + # The official German names ... are + # + # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 + # Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00 + # + # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), + # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111).... + # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution + # + # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) + # Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit" + # Postfach 3345 + # D-38023 Braunschweig + # phone: +49 531 592-0 + # + # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB + # department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the + # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as + # + # Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00 + # Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00 +  +  + # Albania + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914 +  1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16 +  1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Andorra + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901 +  0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30 +  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Austria + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 - + Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Jun 16 3:00 +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Belarus + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880 +  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT +  + # Belgium + # + # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02): + # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from: + # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, + # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991 + # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC), + # pp 8-9. + # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium: + # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. + # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. + # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium. + # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S + # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd + # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier), + # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15 + # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT. + Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880 +  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT +  0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8 +  1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u +  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3 +  1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Bosnia and Herzegovina + # see Yugoslavia +  + # Bulgaria + # + # From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says: + # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... + # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 - + Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880 +  1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT? +  2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 3:00 +  2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00 +  2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00 +  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Croatia + # see Yugosloavia +  + # Czech Republic + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850 +  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s +  1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 - + Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 - + Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 - + Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - + # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways + # about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. + # + # For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890 +  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time +  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn +  0:00 - WET 1981 +  0:00 EU WE%sT + # + # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, + # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab + # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU + # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980. +  + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Thule 1993 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1993 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + # + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormit +  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29 +  -1:00 EU EG%sT + Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk +  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU WG%sT + Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik +  -4:00 Thule A%sT +  + # Estonia + # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): + # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards + # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it, + # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989.... + # + # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): + # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s, + # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:] + # ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different + # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules + # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia.... + # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on + # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to + # summer time next spring.'' +  + # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: + # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390"> + # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law + # </a> + # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between + # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120). + # + # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation + # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg" + # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time). +  + # From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09) + # via Steffen Thorsen: + # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time, + # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6.... + # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European + # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory + # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do + # after that. +  + # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): + # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation + # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all + # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880 +  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul +  1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May +  2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s +  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22 +  2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1 +  2:00 - EET +  + # Finland + # + # From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): + # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one, + # and it's supposed to change at 4am... + # + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): + # Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. + # Go with Strang instead. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31 +  1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time +  2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00 +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # France + # + # Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 - + Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 - + Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S + # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st + # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions + # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks. + Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - + Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S + # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, + # but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco). + Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer + # Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, + # but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), + # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes + # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT. + Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S + Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M + Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S + Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M + Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S + Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M + Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S + Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M + Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - + # Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; + # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT. + Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S + Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 - + # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, + # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21. + # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based + # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC. + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time + # Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT. +  0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25 +  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 +  1:00 France CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Germany +  + # From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): + # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische + # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. + # + # <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm"> + # Realisation of Legal Time in Germany + # </a> +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + # Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes + # the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem) + # (1961-11-25), which gives dates only. Guess 3:00 transition times. + Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - + Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S + # The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times; + # go with Shanks. + Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M + Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Gibraltar + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1982 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Greece + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - + # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. + Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. + Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 - + Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. + Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 - + Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 - + Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 - + Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 - + Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 - + Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 - + Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14 +  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT +  2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30 +  1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4 +  2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981 +  # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; +  # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Hungary + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 - + Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 +  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 1 23:00 +  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Iceland + # + # From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): + # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT. + # + # (1993-12-05): + # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of + # Iceland Almanak. + # + # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour + # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts + # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which + # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT. + # + # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks + # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the + # time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always + # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars. + # + # (1993-12-10): + # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the + # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus + # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question. + # the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day + # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday. + # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style" + # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it + # might mean something else (???). + # + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. + # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that + # Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 - + # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter + Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - + # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter + Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + # 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week + Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837 +  -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time? +  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s +  0:00 - GMT +  + # Italy + # + # From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): + # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri + # <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html"> + # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) + # </a> + # (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute + # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows: + # + # year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with: + # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W + # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s + # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S + # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W + # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S + # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W + # 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S + # 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s + # 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S + # 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s + # 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur) + # 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s + # 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s + # 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S + # 09-20 09-27 00:00 S + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican + Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino +  + # Latvia +  + # From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): +  + # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy + # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the + # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about + # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981.... + # + # Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... + # according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 + # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning + # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00) + # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00). + # + # Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... + # according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 + # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning + # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 + # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of + # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day). + # + # Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... + # according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 + # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, + # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the + # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia + # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00 + # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of + # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00 + # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is + # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock.... + # + # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of + # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of + # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union. +  + # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06): + # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in + # <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm"> + # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of + # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only). +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880 +  1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time +  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer +  1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 +  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 +  1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11 +  2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s +  2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21 +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29 +  2:00 - EET +  + # Liechtenstein + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun +  1:00 - CET 1981 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Lithuania +  + # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is + # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too. +  + # From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): + # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone + # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed. +  + # From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29), + # via Steffen Thorsen: + # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours) + # to be valid here starting from October 31, + # as decided by the national government on Wednesday.... + # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a + # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was + # already done by Estonia. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880 +  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time +  1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12 +  2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9 +  1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 +  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Luxembourg + # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 - + Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun +  1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25 +  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s +  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 +  1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00 +  1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Macedonia + # see Yugoslavia +  + # Malta + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 - + Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 - + Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 - + Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31 +  1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Moldova + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880 +  1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT +  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6 +  2:00 - EET 1991 +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 + # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. +  2:00 EU EE%sT + Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880 +  1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT +  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD +  + # Monaco + # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time +  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 +  1:00 France CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Netherlands + # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940, + # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman. + Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time + Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time + Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT + # Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT + Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST + # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT + Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST + # Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun 5 2:00s 1:00 NST + # For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - + # Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May +  0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul +  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:40 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Norway + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. + Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - + # Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, + # 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. + Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 +  1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Svalbard & Jan Mayen + Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen + # From Whitman: + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT +  + # Poland + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 - + # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 - + Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - + Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S + # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880 +  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00 +  2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00 +  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999 + # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ + # <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> + # http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) + # </a> + # says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. + # Stick with W-Eur for now. + # + # From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): + # According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would + # follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not + # worth further discussion. + # + # From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): + # Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 + # or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to + # EU rules in 1999. +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Portugal + # + # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): + # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone + # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC. + # + # Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve + # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring. + # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter. + # + # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12): + # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions + # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos. + # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00. + # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00. + # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal + # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not + # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. + # Go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S + # Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. + Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + # Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. + Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S + # Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. + Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M + Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M + Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + # Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. + # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. + Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 +  -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u +  0:00 EU WE%sT + Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada +  -1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time +  -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time +  -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u +  -1:00 EU AZO%sT + Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal +  -1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time +  -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  0:00 EU WE%sT +  + # Romania + # + # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): + # <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html"> + # Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at + # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info, + # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997, + # the same year as Bulgaria. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - + Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct +  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s +  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997 +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Russia +  + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations. + # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, + # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow + # Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. + # + # From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): + # `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with + # Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... + # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor + # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there. + # + # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): + # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from + # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ... + # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located. + # + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 +  2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT + Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880 +  2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time +  2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD + Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 +  3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev +  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 +  4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time + Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 +  4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time +  5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time + Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 +  5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme +  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  6:00 Russia OMS%sT + # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): + # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! + # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; + # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching + # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. + Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00 +  6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT + Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6 +  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT + Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880 +  6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time +  7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time +  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  8:00 Russia IRK%sT + Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT + Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 +  9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT + Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT + # This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. + Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10 +  11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time +  12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia PET%sT + Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time +  13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s +  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia ANA%sT +  + # Slovakia + Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava +  + # Slovenia + # see Yugoslavia +  + # Spain + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. + Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M + Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978. + Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S + Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S + Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - + Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 - + Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - + Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 +  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30 +  1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901 +  0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00 +  0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00 +  0:00 - WET 1924 +  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929 +  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 +  1:00 - CET 1986 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. +  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time +  0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s +  0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s +  0:00 EU WE%sT + # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u. + # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU. +  + # Sweden + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31 +  1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT +  1:00 - CET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Sep 30 23:00s +  1:00 - CET 1980 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Switzerland + # From Howse: + # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace + # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep + # mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 .... + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + # From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''): + Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - + # From Shanks: + Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12 +  0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time +  1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981 +  1:00 EU CE%sT +  + # Turkey + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - + # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. + Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880 +  1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time? +  2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15 +  3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time +  2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1986 +  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 +  2:00 EU EE%sT + Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents. +  + # Ukraine + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev. + Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880 +  2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 - EET 1992 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 +  2:00 EU EE%sT + # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. + Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct +  1:00 - CET 1940 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26 +  1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00 +  2:00 - EET 1992 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 +  2:00 EU EE%sT + # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991. + # Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. + Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880 +  2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995 +  2:00 EU EE%sT + # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. + Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 +  2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 - EET 1992 + # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched + # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. + # Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May. +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May + # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. +  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s +  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s + # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. + # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT +  + # Yugoslavia + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 +  1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s + # Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of + # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. + # Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. +  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia +  + ############################################################################### +  + # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from + # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986. + # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else. + # + # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but + # uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules. + # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at + # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey + # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time + # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST) +  + # ... + # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 + # From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) + # Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> + # ... + # + # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when + # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only + # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according + # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on + # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following + # years... + # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions + # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST + # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep + # lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now. + # + # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the + # Soviet Union (as far as I know). + # + # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG, + # 4002 Basle, Switzerland + # UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho +  + # ... + # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 + # From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) + # ... + # + # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct. + # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information + # about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969. + # + # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on + # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September... + # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that + # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982 + # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in + # the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch + # dates... + # + # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g. + # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST... + # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not + # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations + # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always + # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the + # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours + # in advance of normal time. + # + # ... + # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland + # INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl + # BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax +  + # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28): + # ... + # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates). + # Since 1978. Change at midnight. + # ... + # Monaco: has same DST as France. + # ...   Newline at end of file added.