pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / africa

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.    - # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see + # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): + # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09):   # - # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). -  + # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   # - # Gwillim Law writes that a good source - # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source + # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries - # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted, + # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for - # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. - # +    # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which   # I found in the UCLA library.   #   # For data circa 1899, a common source is: - # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 - # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. + # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. + # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   # -  + # European-style abbreviations are commonly used along the Mediterranean. + # For sub-Saharan Africa abbreviations were less standardized.   # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT - # for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively, - # but Mark R V Murray reports that - # `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa, - # `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and - # `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for - # the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''. - # He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference. + # for UT +00 through +03, respectively, + # but in 1997 Mark R V Murray reported that + # 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +02 in the country of South Africa, + # 'CAT' is commonly used for +02 in countries north of South Africa, and + # 'WAT' is probably the best name for +01, as the common phrase for + # the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".   # - # To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago; - # I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00, - # and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00. - # This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African - # mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara. + # To summarize, the following abbreviations seemed to have some currency: + # +00 GMT Greenwich Mean Time + # +02 CAT Central Africa Time + # +02 SAST South Africa Standard Time + # and Murray suggested the following abbreviation: + # +01 WAT West Africa Time + # Murray's suggestion seems to have caught on in news reports and the like. + # I vaguely recall 'WAT' also being used for -01 in the past but + # cannot now come up with solid citations.   # - # To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency: - # -1:00 WAT West Africa Time (no longer used) - # 0:00 GMT Greenwich Mean Time - # 2:00 CAT Central Africa Time - # 2:00 SAST South Africa Standard Time - # and Murray suggests the following abbreviation: - # 1:00 WAT West Africa Time - # I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00 - # for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of - # until we get more information. - # +    # I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome! - # 2:00 WAST West Africa Summer Time - # 2:30 BEAT British East Africa Time (no longer used) - # 2:45 BEAUT British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used) - # 3:00 CAST Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used) - # 3:00 SAST South Africa Summer Time (no longer used) - # 3:00 EAT East Africa Time - # 4:00 EAST East Africa Summer Time (no longer used) + # +02 WAST West Africa Summer Time (no longer used) + # +03 CAST Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used) + # +03 SAST South Africa Summer Time (no longer used) + # +03 EAT East Africa Time + # 'EAT' also seems to have caught on; the others are rare but are paired + # with better-attested non-DST abbreviations.      # Algeria   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Algeria 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Algeria 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:87:   Rule Algeria 1971 only - Sep 26 23:00s 0 -   Rule Algeria 1977 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1977 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 -   Rule Algeria 1978 only - Mar 24 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1978 only - Sep 22 3:00 0 -   Rule Algeria 1980 only - Apr 25 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Algeria 1980 only - Oct 31 2:00 0 -   # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's   # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Algiers 0:12:12 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time -  0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1940 Feb 25 2:00 + Zone Africa/Algiers 0:12:12 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time +  0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1940 Feb 25 2:00    1:00 Algeria CE%sT 1946 Oct 7    0:00 - WET 1956 Jan 29    1:00 - CET 1963 Apr 14    0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1977 Oct 21    1:00 Algeria CE%sT 1979 Oct 26    0:00 Algeria WE%sT 1981 May    1:00 - CET      # Angola - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Luanda 0:52:56 - LMT 1892 -  0:52:04 - AOT 1911 May 26 # Angola Time -  1:00 - WAT -  +    # Benin - # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Porto-Novo 0:10:28 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.      # Botswana - # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): - # Milne says they were regulated by the Cape Town Signal in 1899; - # assume they switched to 2:00 when Cape Town did. - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Gaborone 1:43:40 - LMT 1885 -  1:30 - SAST 1903 Mar -  2:00 - CAT 1943 Sep 19 2:00 -  2:00 1:00 CAST 1944 Mar 19 2:00 -  2:00 - CAT + # See Africa/Maputo.      # Burkina Faso - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Ouagadougou -0:06:04 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Burundi - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Bujumbura 1:57:28 - LMT 1890 -  2:00 - CAT + # See Africa/Maputo.      # Cameroon - # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Douala 0:38:48 - LMT 1912 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.    - # Cape Verde + # Cape Verde / Cabo Verde + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16): + # Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02. + # For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree + # (see Europe/Lisbon). + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 - LMT 1907 # Praia -  -2:00 - CVT 1942 Sep -  -2:00 1:00 CVST 1945 Oct 15 -  -2:00 - CVT 1975 Nov 25 2:00 -  -1:00 - CVT + Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 - LMT 1912 Jan 01 2:00u # Praia +  -2:00 - -02 1942 Sep +  -2:00 1:00 -01 1945 Oct 15 +  -2:00 - -02 1975 Nov 25 2:00 +  -1:00 - -01      # Central African Republic - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Bangui 1:14:20 - LMT 1912 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.      # Chad   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 - LMT 1912 + Zone Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 - LMT 1912 # N'Djamena    1:00 - WAT 1979 Oct 14    1:00 1:00 WAST 1980 Mar 8    1:00 - WAT      # Comoros - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Comoro 2:53:04 - LMT 1911 Jul # Moroni, Gran Comoro -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.    - # Democratic Republic of Congo - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Kinshasa 1:01:12 - LMT 1897 Nov 9 -  1:00 - WAT - Zone Africa/Lubumbashi 1:49:52 - LMT 1897 Nov 9 -  2:00 - CAT + # Democratic Republic of the Congo + # See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern.      # Republic of the Congo - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Brazzaville 1:01:08 - LMT 1912 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.    - # Cote D'Ivoire + # Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Abidjan -0:16:08 - LMT 1912    0:00 - GMT -  + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako # Mali + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul # Gambia + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry # Guinea + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar # Senegal + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown # Sierra Leone + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome # Togo + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott # Mauritania + Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou # Burkina Faso + Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena # St Helena      # Djibouti - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Djibouti 2:52:36 - LMT 1911 Jul -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      ###############################################################################      # Egypt      # Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh   # observatory; round to nearest. Milne also says that the official time for   # Egypt was mean noon at the Great Pyramid, 2:04:30.5, but apparently this   # did not apply to Cairo, Alexandria, or Port Said.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:224:   Rule Egypt 1990 1994 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S   # IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.   # Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):   # "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight   # saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of   # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."   #   # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time - # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168"> +    # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168 - # </a> +    # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html - # </a> +    Rule Egypt 1995 2010 - Apr lastFri 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Egypt 1995 2005 - Sep lastThu 23:00s 0 - + Rule Egypt 1995 2005 - Sep lastThu 24:00 0 -   # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):   # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:   # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday   # after observing the daylight saving time since May.   # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf - Rule Egypt 2006 only - Sep 21 23:00s 0 - + Rule Egypt 2006 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 -   # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):   # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight   # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07. - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:] + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]   # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53 + # https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53   # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:   # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm - Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 23:00s 0 - + Rule Egypt 2007 only - Sep Thu>=1 24:00 0 -   # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):   # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter   # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each   # year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite   # hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by   # shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,   # unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.   # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):   # For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:281:   # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =   # Aug 27   # > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200   #   # > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=   # :59)   # > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/   #   # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.   # - # [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263"> - # https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263 - # </a> - # [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53 - # </a> - # [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/"> - # http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/ - # </a> + # [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263 + # [2] https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53 + # [3] https://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/      # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):   # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth   # Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday   # in September.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):   # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet   # Information and Decision Support Center: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html   #   # The Middle East News Agency - # <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx"> - # http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx - # </a> + # https://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx   # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"   # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."   # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,   # and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine   # (at least today).      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20): - # According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has + # According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has   # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during   # Ramadan.   #   # Arabic translation: - # "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again" - # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again"> + # "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"   # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html - # </a> +     - Rule Egypt 2008 only - Aug lastThu 23:00s 0 - - Rule Egypt 2009 only - Aug 20 23:00s 0 - - Rule Egypt 2010 only - Aug 11 0:00 0 - - Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep 10 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep lastThu 23:00s 0 - + # From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07): + # Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15 + # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/100735/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-government-to-reapply-daylight-saving-time-.aspx    -  + # From Gunther Vermier (2014-05-13): + # our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00) +  + # From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04): + # We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes + # in Egypt. The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at + # http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ... + # [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ... + # translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to + # take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014, + # to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014, + # and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve + # o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014." This statement has been + # reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]... + # http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04): + # Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says + # the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited + # above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption. There is + # no information about when DST will end this fall. See: + # http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833 +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-04-08): + # Egypt will start DST on midnight after Thursday, April 30, 2015. + # This is based on a law (no 35) from May 15, 2014 saying it starts the last + # Thursday of April.... Clocks will still be turned back for Ramadan, but + # dates not yet announced.... + # http://almogaz.com/news/weird-news/2015/04/05/1947105 ... + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-starts-dst-2015.html +  + # From Ahmed Nazmy (2015-04-20): + # Egypt's ministers cabinet just announced ... that it will cancel DST at + # least for 2015. + # + # From Tim Parenti (2015-04-20): + # http://english.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/NewsContentP/1/128195/Egypt/No-daylight-saving-this-summer-Egypts-prime-minist.aspx + # "Egypt's cabinet agreed on Monday not to switch clocks for daylight saving + # time this summer, and carry out studies on the possibility of canceling the + # practice altogether in future years." + # + # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-24): + # Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his + # decision to abandon DST permanently. See Ahram Online 2015-04-24. + # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29): + # Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October.... + # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx + # From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04): + # Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST, +  + Rule Egypt 2008 only - Aug lastThu 24:00 0 - + Rule Egypt 2009 only - Aug 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Egypt 2010 only - Aug 10 24:00 0 - + Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep 9 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Egypt 2010 only - Sep lastThu 24:00 0 - + Rule Egypt 2014 only - May 15 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Egypt 2014 only - Jun 26 24:00 0 - + Rule Egypt 2014 only - Jul 31 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Egypt 2014 only - Sep lastThu 24:00 0 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Cairo 2:05:09 - LMT 1900 Oct    2:00 Egypt EE%sT      # Equatorial Guinea - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Malabo 0:35:08 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT 1963 Dec 15 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.      # Eritrea - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Asmara 2:35:32 - LMT 1870 -  2:35:32 - AMT 1890 # Asmara Mean Time -  2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT -  3:00 - EAT -  +    # Ethiopia - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones - # between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890. - # We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera. - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 - LMT 1870 -  2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # Gabon - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Libreville 0:37:48 - LMT 1912 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.      # Gambia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Banjul -1:06:36 - LMT 1912 -  -1:06:36 - BMT 1935 # Banjul Mean Time -  -1:00 - WAT 1964 -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Ghana -  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30): + # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present"; + # Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942 with 20 minutes of DST, + # with transitions on 09-01 and 12-31 at 00:00. + # Page 33 of Parish GCB, Colonial Reports - Annual. No. 1066. Gold + # Coast. Report for 1919. (March 1921), OCLC 784024077 + # http://libsysdigi.library.illinois.edu/ilharvest/africana/books2011-05/5530214/5530214_1919/5530214_1919_opt.pdf + # lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18, + # "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes + # during the last four months of each year; the object in view being + # to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available + # for evening recreation after office hours." + # Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33, + # writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich + # time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of + # UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists + # the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24. + # The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government + # intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T. + # The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced." + # These sources are incomplete and contradictory. Possibly what is + # now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years. For + # lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a + # typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present''; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Sep 1 0:00 0:20 GHST - Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 GMT + Rule Ghana 1920 1942 - Sep 1 0:00 0:20 - + Rule Ghana 1920 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Accra -0:00:52 - LMT 1918 -  0:00 Ghana %s +  0:00 Ghana GMT/+0020      # Guinea - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Conakry -0:54:52 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26 -  -1:00 - WAT 1960 -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Guinea-Bissau -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16): + # Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT, + # evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree + # (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Bissau -1:02:20 - LMT 1911 May 26 -  -1:00 - WAT 1975 + Zone Africa/Bissau -1:02:20 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 1:00u +  -1:00 - -01 1975    0:00 - GMT      # Kenya   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Nairobi 2:27:16 - LMT 1928 Jul    3:00 - EAT 1930 -  2:30 - BEAT 1940 -  2:45 - BEAUT 1960 +  2:30 - +0230 1940 +  2:45 - +0245 1960    3:00 - EAT -  + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa # Ethiopia + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara # Eritrea + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala # Uganda + Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu # Somalia + Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo # Madagascar + Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro + Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte      # Lesotho - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Maseru 1:50:00 - LMT 1903 Mar -  2:00 - SAST 1943 Sep 19 2:00 -  2:00 1:00 SAST 1944 Mar 19 2:00 -  2:00 - SAST + # See Africa/Johannesburg.      # Liberia - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch - # from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes. - # Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday. - # Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - # For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and - # Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02): + # + # The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30. + # + # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset + # that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes. The 1972 change was on + # 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of: + # Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of + # President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972. + # Monrovia: Executive Mansion. + # + # Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric + # abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 - LMT 1882    -0:43:08 - MMT 1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time -  -0:44:30 - LRT 1972 May # Liberia Time +  -0:44:30 - MMT 1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT    0:00 - GMT      ###############################################################################      # Libya      # From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):   # Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10. - # http://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/ + # https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/   # Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc   #   # Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in - # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html   #   # From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):   # Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.   # The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe   # (either two days before them or five days after them, so as to fall on   # lastFri instead of lastSun).      # From Even Scharning (2013-10-25):   # The scheduled end of DST in Libya on Friday, October 25, 2013 was   # cancelled yesterday.... - # http://www.libyaherald.com/2013/10/24/correction-no-time-change-tomorrow/ + # https://www.libyaherald.com/2013/10/24/correction-no-time-change-tomorrow/   #   # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-25): - # For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UTC+2. + # For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Libya 1951 only - Oct 14 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 1952 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Libya 1953 only - Oct 9 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 1954 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Libya 1955 only - Sep 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 1956 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Libya 1982 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 1982 1985 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:476:   Rule Libya 1997 only - Apr 4 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 1997 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -   Rule Libya 2013 only - Mar lastFri 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Libya 2013 only - Oct lastFri 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Tripoli 0:52:44 - LMT 1920    1:00 Libya CE%sT 1959    2:00 - EET 1982    1:00 Libya CE%sT 1990 May 4   # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger; - # the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors. + # the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.    2:00 - EET 1996 Sep 30    1:00 Libya CE%sT 1997 Oct 4 -  2:00 - EET 2012 Nov 10 2:00 -  1:00 Libya CE%sT 2013 Oct 25 2:00 +  2:00 - EET 2012 Nov 10 2:00 +  1:00 Libya CE%sT 2013 Oct 25 2:00    2:00 - EET      # Madagascar - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 - LMT 1911 Jul -  3:00 - EAT 1954 Feb 27 23:00s -  3:00 1:00 EAST 1954 May 29 23:00s -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # Malawi - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Blantyre 2:20:00 - LMT 1903 Mar -  2:00 - CAT + # See Africa/Maputo.      # Mali - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Bamako -0:32:00 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26 -  -1:00 - WAT 1960 Jun 20 -  0:00 - GMT -  +    # Mauritania - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Nouakchott -1:03:48 - LMT 1912 -  0:00 - GMT 1934 Feb 26 -  -1:00 - WAT 1960 Nov 28 -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Mauritius      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):   # Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial   # basis....   # It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to   # 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful.... - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html      # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):   # http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):   # The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A   # final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving   # would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.      # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):   # Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):   # According to - # <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216"> +    # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216 - # </a> +    # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier   # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31). The new start   # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time   # given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).   #   # A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date   # to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date,   # but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in   # USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder   # why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which   # changes two days later.      # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):   # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving - # time: Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally + # time: Energy conservation?"- No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally   # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...   #   # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction - # de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26 - # and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one. - # ... - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html"> + # de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26 + # and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....   # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html - # </a> +       # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):   # The Government of Mauritius weblink - # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD"> +    # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD - # </a> +    # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:   #   # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly   # of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in   # Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of   # the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United   # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the   # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on   # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the - # year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008 + # year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008   # and end on 29 March 2009.      # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):   # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the   # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the   # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March. - # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf"> +    # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):   # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe   # DST the coming summer...   #   # Some sources, in French: - # <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB"> +    # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB - # </a> - # <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-"> +    # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints- - # </a> +    #   # Our wrap-up: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html      # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):   # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:   # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour   # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Mauritius 1982 only - Oct 10 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Mauritius 1982 only - Oct 10 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Mauritius 1983 only - Mar 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Mauritius 2008 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Mauritius 2008 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Mauritius 2009 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Mauritius 3:50:00 - LMT 1907 # Port Louis -  4:00 Mauritius MU%sT # Mauritius Time + Zone Indian/Mauritius 3:50:00 - LMT 1907 # Port Louis +  4:00 Mauritius +04/+05   # Agalega Is, Rodriguez   # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius      # Mayotte - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Mayotte 3:00:56 - LMT 1911 Jul # Mamoutzou -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # Morocco - # See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta). + # See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).      # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):   # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between   # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.   #   # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will   # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to - # Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...." + # Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."   # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html"> - # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html - # </a> - # OR - # <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html   # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html - # </a> +       # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09): - # The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse: - # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view"> + # The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe + # Presse:   # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view - # </a> +    #   # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.   # spokesman.      # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):   # According to this article: - # <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html"> - # http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html - # </a> - # (and republished here: - # <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html"> - # http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html - # </a> - # ) - # the changes occurs at midnight: + # https://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html + # (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>) + # the changes occur at midnight:   # - # saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be - # intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday) - # sunday night the 28th at midnight + # Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be + # interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday) + # Sunday night the 28th at midnight   # - # Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say - # the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and - # monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive - # june1st to sept 27th. + # Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say + # the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and + # Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive + # June 1st to Sept 27th.   #   # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree   # published on the web.   #   # It's also confirmed here: - # <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm"> +    # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm - # </a> - # on a government portal as being between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet - # posted in english). + # on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet + # posted in English).   # - # The following google query will generate many relevant hits: - # <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search"> - # http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search - # </a> + # The following Google query will generate many relevant hits: + # https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):   # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31   # and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end   # of September:   #   # One article about it (in French): - # <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default"> +    # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default - # </a> +    #   # We have some further details posted here: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):   # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according   # to many sources, such as - # <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html"> +    # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312"> +    # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312 - # </a> +    # (French)   #   # Our summary: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):   # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre, - # Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics + # Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics   # - # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967) + # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 June 1967)   # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of   # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be   # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.   # - # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf"> +    # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf - # </a> - # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):   # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization   # of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from   # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.   #   # Example: - # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html"> +    # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html - # </a> +    # (French)   # Our page: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html      # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):   # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format) - # The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00 - # The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00 + # The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00 + # The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00   # ...Official links of change in morocco   # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio   # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at   # +212.537.71.84.00 - # <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/"> +    # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/ - # </a> +    # They said that - # <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view"> +    # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view - # </a> +    # is the official publication to look at.   # They said that the decision was already taken.   #   # More articles in the press - # <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev"> - # http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev - # </a> - # e.html - # <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923"> + # https://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html   # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim"> +    # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim - # anche-prochain-5538.html - # </a> +       # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):   # They have it written in English here: - # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view"> +    # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view - # </a> +    #   # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,   # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of   # wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has   # also been like that in the past.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09): - # According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma), - # on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale: - # Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute; - # <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9"> + # According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma), + # on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale: + # Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été   # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9 - # </a> +    # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on   # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on   # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)   # except the month of Ramadan.   # or (brief) - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):   # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in   # effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day;   # it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX.   # Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about   # start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX.      # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):   # Seen Morocco change again: - # <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php"> +    # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php - # </a> - # "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars, - # comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment." + # "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars, + # comme annoncé précédemment."      # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):   # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government: - # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288"> +    # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French] - # </a> +    #   # Google translation, lightly edited:   # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)   # Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18,   # 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the   # Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry   # of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return   # of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until   # Monday, August 20, 2012. So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from   # 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes   # August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am.      # From Paul Eggert (2013-03-06):   # Morocco's daylight-saving transitions due to Ramadan seem to be   # announced a bit in advance. On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government   # announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be   # 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see - # <http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288>. + # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288      # From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02):   # Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings   # transitions would be 2013-07-07 and 2013-08-10; see:   # http://www.maroc.ma/en/news/morocco-suspends-daylight-saving-time-july-7-aug10      # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-28):   # Morocco extends DST by one month, on very short notice, just 1 day   # before it was going to end. There is a new decree (2.13.781) for   # this, where DST from now on goes from last Sunday of March at 02:00   # to last Sunday of October at 03:00, similar to EU rules. Official   # source (French):   # http://www.maroc.gov.ma/fr/actualites/lhoraire-dete-gmt1-maintenu-jusquau-27-octobre-2013   # Another source (specifying the time for start and end in the decree):   # http://www.lemag.ma/Heure-d-ete-au-Maroc-jusqu-au-27-octobre_a75620.html    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-03): - # To estimate what the Moroccan government will do in future years, - # transition dates for 2014 through 2038 were determined by running - # the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3: + # From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18): + # http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp +  + # From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05): + # The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return + # to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time.... DST + # will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014.... + # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586 +  + # From Milamber (2015-06-08): + # (Google Translation) The hour will thus be delayed 60 minutes + # Sunday, June 14 at 3:00, the ministry said in a statement, adding + # that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19, + # 2015 at 2:00. The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I + # 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of + # 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015). + # Source (french): + # https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/   # - # (let ((islamic-year 1435)) - # (while (< islamic-year 1461) - # (let ((a - # (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute - # (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))) - # (b - # (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute - # (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year))))) - # (insert - # (format - # (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n" - # "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n") - # (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a)) - # (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b))))) - # (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year)))) + # From Milamber (2015-06-09): + # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863   # - # with spring-forward transitions removed for 2023-2025, when the - # normal spring-forward date falls during the estimated Ramadan; with - # all transitions removed for 2026-2035, where the estimated Ramadan - # falls entirely outside daylight-saving time; and with fall-back - # transitions removed for 2036-2037, where the normal fall-back - # date falls during the estimated Ramadan. Normally, the table would - # stop after 2037 because 32-bit time_t values roll around early in 2038, - # but that would imply a prediction of perpetual DST after March 2038 - # due to the year-2037 glitches. So, this table instead stops after - # 2038, the first non-glitchy year after the 32-bit rollover. - # An advantage of stopping after 2038 is that it lets zic guess - # TZ='WET0WEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3' for time stamps far in the future. + # From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09): + # [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go + # from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch.... + # I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in + # <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees + # with the patch.    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2015-06-08): + # For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use 2015's rules, + # and guess that Morocco will switch to standard time at 03:00 the last + # Sunday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 02:00 the first Sunday after + # Ramadan. To implement this, transition dates for 2016 through 2037 were + # determined by running the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the + # results integrated by hand into the table below. + # (let ((islamic-year 1437)) + # (require 'cal-islam) + # (while (< islamic-year 1460) + # (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year))) + # (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year))) + # (sunday 0)) + # (while (/= sunday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7))) + # (while (/= sunday (mod b 7)) + # (setq b (1+ b))) + # (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a)) + # (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b)) + # (insert + # (format + # (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n" + # "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n") + # (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a)) + # (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b))))) + # (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year)))) +    # RULE NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S      Rule Morocco 1939 only - Sep 12 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1939 only - Nov 19 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1940 only - Feb 25 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1945 only - Nov 18 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1950 only - Jun 11 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1950 only - Oct 29 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 2008 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 2008 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 2009 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2009 only - Aug 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2009 only - Aug 21 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 2010 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Morocco 2010 only - Aug 8 0:00 0 -   Rule Morocco 2011 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2011 only - Jul 31 0 0 - - Rule Morocco 2012 2013 - Apr lastSun 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2012 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2012 only - Jul 20 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2012 only - Aug 20 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2013 only - Jul 7 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2013 only - Aug 10 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2013 2035 - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2014 2022 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2014 only - Jun 29 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2014 only - Jul 29 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2015 only - Jun 18 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2015 only - Jul 18 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2016 only - Jun 7 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2016 only - Jul 7 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2017 only - May 27 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2017 only - Jun 26 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2018 only - May 16 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2018 only - Jun 15 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2019 only - May 6 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2019 only - Jun 5 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2020 only - Apr 24 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2020 only - May 24 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2021 only - Apr 13 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2021 only - May 13 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2022 only - Apr 3 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2022 only - May 3 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2023 only - Apr 22 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2024 only - Apr 10 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2025 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2026 max - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2036 only - Oct 21 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2037 only - Oct 11 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2038 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - - Rule Morocco 2038 only - Oct 30 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Morocco 2038 max - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2011 only - Jul 31 0:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2012 2013 - Apr lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2012 only - Jul 20 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2012 only - Aug 20 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2012 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2013 only - Jul 7 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2013 only - Aug 10 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2013 max - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2014 2021 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2014 only - Jun 28 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2014 only - Aug 2 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2015 only - Jun 14 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2015 only - Jul 19 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2016 only - Jun 5 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2016 only - Jul 10 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2017 only - May 21 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2017 only - Jul 2 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2018 only - May 13 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2018 only - Jun 17 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2019 only - May 5 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2019 only - Jun 9 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2020 only - Apr 19 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2020 only - May 24 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2021 only - Apr 11 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2021 only - May 16 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2022 only - May 8 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2023 only - Apr 23 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2024 only - Apr 14 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2025 only - Apr 6 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2026 max - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Morocco 2036 only - Oct 19 3:00 0 - + Rule Morocco 2037 only - Oct 4 3:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Casablanca -0:30:20 - LMT 1913 Oct 26    0:00 Morocco WE%sT 1984 Mar 16    1:00 - CET 1986    0:00 Morocco WE%sT      # Western Sahara   #   # From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22):   # A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters   # ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as   # Morocco does.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23):   # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,   # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.    - Zone Africa/El_Aaiun -0:52:48 - LMT 1934 Jan -  -1:00 - WAT 1976 Apr 14 + Zone Africa/El_Aaiun -0:52:48 - LMT 1934 Jan # El Aaiún +  -1:00 - -01 1976 Apr 14    0:00 Morocco WE%sT      # Mozambique -  + # + # Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT. + # Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree + # https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf + # merely made it official? + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Maputo 2:10:20 - LMT 1903 Mar    2:00 - CAT -  + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre # Malawi + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura # Burundi + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone # Botswana + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare # Zimbabwe + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali # Rwanda + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi # E Dem. Rep. of Congo + Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka # Zambia    -  +    # Namibia - # The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger. - # Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA. +     - # From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in - # <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>: + # From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09): + # The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at + # www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf + # and includes this nugget: + # Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the + # first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall + # commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on + # Sunday 4 September 1994. +  + # From Michael Deckers (2017-04-06): + # ... both summer and winter time are called "standard" + # (which differs from the use in Ireland) ... +  + # From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30): + # http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html   # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other   # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there   # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions. Chief of   # Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of   # the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest   # of the country.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31): - # Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but - # we have no details. In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone. + # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22): + # Although the Zambezi Region (formerly known as Caprivi) informally + # observes Botswana time, we have no details about historical practice. + # In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone. + # See: Immanuel S. The Namibian. 2017-02-23. + # https://www.namibian.com.na/51480/read/Time-change-divides-lawmakers    -  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09): + # Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST: + # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/ + # This video is from the government decision: + # https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665 + # We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at + # the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September: + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09): + # Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally. + # However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST. See, e.g.: + # http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706 + # https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia + # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/ + # Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible + # with Namibia's neighbors. +    # RULE NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Namibia 1994 max - Sep Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Namibia 1995 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 - + # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. + Rule Namibia 1994 only - Mar 21 0:00 -1:00 WAT + Rule Namibia 1994 2017 - Sep Sun>=1 2:00 0 CAT + Rule Namibia 1995 2017 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 -1:00 WAT + # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. + #Rule Namibia 1994 only - Mar 21 0:00 0 WAT + #Rule Namibia 1994 2017 - Sep Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 CAT + #Rule Namibia 1995 2017 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 WAT + # End of rearguard section. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 - LMT 1892 Feb 8 -  1:30 - SWAT 1903 Mar # SW Africa Time -  2:00 - SAST 1942 Sep 20 2:00 -  2:00 1:00 SAST 1943 Mar 21 2:00 +  1:30 - +0130 1903 Mar +  2:00 - SAST 1942 Sep 20 2:00 +  2:00 1:00 SAST 1943 Mar 21 2:00    2:00 - SAST 1990 Mar 21 # independence -  2:00 - CAT 1994 Apr 3 -  1:00 Namibia WA%sT + # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. +  2:00 Namibia %s + # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. + # 2:00 - CAT 1994 Mar 21 0:00 + # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07): + # The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24. See: + # http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf + # 1:00 Namibia %s 2017 Oct 24 + # 2:00 - CAT + # End of rearguard section.      # Niger - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Niamey 0:08:28 - LMT 1912 -  -1:00 - WAT 1934 Feb 26 -  0:00 - GMT 1960 -  1:00 - WAT + # See Africa/Lagos.      # Nigeria   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Lagos 0:13:36 - LMT 1919 Sep    1:00 - WAT -  + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui # Central African Republic + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala # Cameroon + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west) + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville # Gabon + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda # Angola + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo # Equatorial Guinea + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey # Niger + Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo # Benin    - # Reunion + # Réunion   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Reunion 3:41:52 - LMT 1911 Jun # Saint-Denis -  4:00 - RET # Reunion Time + Zone Indian/Reunion 3:41:52 - LMT 1911 Jun # Saint-Denis +  4:00 - +04   # - # Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows. + # Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file. + # + # Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.   # The following information about them is taken from - # Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French; - # no longer available as of 1999-08-17). + # Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22, + # in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).   # We have no info about their time zone histories.   #   # Bassas da India - uninhabited   # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families   # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958   # Juan de Nova - uninhabited   # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958      # Rwanda - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Kigali 2:00:16 - LMT 1935 Jun -  2:00 - CAT + # See Africa/Maputo.      # St Helena - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Atlantic/St_Helena -0:22:48 - LMT 1890 # Jamestown -  -0:22:48 - JMT 1951 # Jamestown Mean Time -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.   # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:   # Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA - # Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA + # Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA   # Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):   # on GMT, says the CIA - # Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT + # Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited    - # Sao Tome and Principe - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # São Tomé and Príncipe +  + # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition. +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08): + # Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as + # they entered the year 2018. + # From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08): + # the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017] + # http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017 +    Zone Africa/Sao_Tome 0:26:56 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 # Lisbon Mean Time -  0:00 - GMT +  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 00:00u # Lisbon MT +  0:00 - GMT 2018 Jan 1 01:00 +  1:00 - WAT      # Senegal - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Dakar -1:09:44 - LMT 1912 -  -1:00 - WAT 1941 Jun -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Seychelles   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Mahe 3:41:48 - LMT 1906 Jun # Victoria -  4:00 - SCT # Seychelles Time + Zone Indian/Mahe 3:41:48 - LMT 1906 Jun # Victoria +  4:00 - +04   # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):   # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the   # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory   # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976. We don't know   # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.   # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.      # Sierra Leone - # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule SL 1935 1942 - Jun 1 0:00 0:40 SLST - Rule SL 1935 1942 - Oct 1 0:00 0 WAT - Rule SL 1957 1962 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 SLST - Rule SL 1957 1962 - Sep 1 0:00 0 GMT - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Freetown -0:53:00 - LMT 1882 -  -0:53:00 - FMT 1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time -  -1:00 SL %s 1957 -  0:00 SL %s + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Somalia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Mogadishu 3:01:28 - LMT 1893 Nov -  3:00 - EAT 1931 -  2:30 - BEAT 1957 -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # South Africa   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule SA 1942 1943 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 -   Rule SA 1943 1944 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 - LMT 1892 Feb 8    1:30 - SAST 1903 Mar    2:00 SA SAST -  + Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru # Lesotho + Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane # Swaziland + #   # Marion and Prince Edward Is   # scientific station since 1947   # no information      # Sudan - # - # From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html"> - # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13) - # </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen: +  + # From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html> + # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13), + # also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:   # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon   # Saturday.... This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for   # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin. -  +  + # From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17): + # ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00) + # to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017.   # -  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): + # A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the + # year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia + # Abdalla of NTC, archived at: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Sudan 1970 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Sudan 1970 1985 - Oct 15 0:00 0 -   Rule Sudan 1971 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Sudan 1972 1985 - Apr lastSun 0:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 - LMT 1931    2:00 Sudan CA%sT 2000 Jan 15 12:00 -  3:00 - EAT +  3:00 - EAT 2017 Nov 1 +  2:00 - CAT      # South Sudan - Link Africa/Khartoum Africa/Juba + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Africa/Juba 2:06:28 - LMT 1931 +  2:00 Sudan CA%sT 2000 Jan 15 12:00 +  3:00 - EAT      # Swaziland - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Mbabane 2:04:24 - LMT 1903 Mar -  2:00 - SAST + # See Africa/Johannesburg.      # Tanzania - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 - LMT 1931 -  3:00 - EAT 1948 -  2:45 - BEAUT 1961 -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # Togo - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893 -  0:00 - GMT + # See Africa/Abidjan.      # Tunisia      # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30): - # My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST, + # My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,   # this time in Tunisia. According to Yahoo France News   # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP   # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by   # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1. Henceforth, Tunisian time will be   # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1. The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next   # Saturday." (My translation)   #   # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02): - # LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ... - # <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html> + # La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ... + # http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html   # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,   # 1h standard time.   #   # From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):   # The daylight saving time will be the same each year:   # Beginning : the last Sunday of March at 02:00   # Ending : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...   # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):   # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.   # (Arabic) - # <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546"> +    # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp"> - # http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp - # </a> + # https://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp   #   # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.   # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):   # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency   #   # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):   #   # (in English) - # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157"> +    # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157 - # </a> +    #   # (in Arabic) - # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1"> +    # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1 - # </a> +     - # From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18): - # The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact - # that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time. - # Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long." - # So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the future). + # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18): + # The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is + # due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period + # concerned by summer time. Therefore, the standard time will be kept + # unchanged the whole year long." So foregoing DST seems to be an exception + # (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):   # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010   #   # (translation):   # "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on   # Sunday...   # Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also   # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."   #   # (in Arabic) - # <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1"> +    # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1 - # <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036"> +    # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036 - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Tunisia 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Tunisia 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule Tunisia 1940 only - Feb 25 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Tunisia 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 0 -   Rule Tunisia 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Tunisia 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -   Rule Tunisia 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/africa:1261:   Rule Tunisia 2005 only - May 1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Tunisia 2005 only - Sep 30 1:00s 0 -   Rule Tunisia 2006 2008 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Tunisia 2006 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -      # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's   # more precise 0:09:21.   # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Africa/Tunis 0:40:44 - LMT 1881 May 12 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time    1:00 Tunisia CE%sT      # Uganda - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Kampala 2:09:40 - LMT 1928 Jul -  3:00 - EAT 1930 -  2:30 - BEAT 1948 -  2:45 - BEAUT 1957 -  3:00 - EAT + # See Africa/Nairobi.      # Zambia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Lusaka 1:53:08 - LMT 1903 Mar -  2:00 - CAT -  +    # Zimbabwe - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Africa/Harare 2:04:12 - LMT 1903 Mar -  2:00 - CAT + # See Africa/Maputo.