pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / asia

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1: + # tzdb data for Asia and environs +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.      # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to   # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see   # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-13): + # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):   #   # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   #   # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source   # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:28:   # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.   # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359   #   # For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:   # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.   # (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   # - # The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables: + # The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables + # (corrections are welcome):   # std dst   # LMT Local Mean Time   # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern European Time   # 2:00 IST IDT Israel   # 5:30 IST India   # 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)   # 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)   # 8:00 CST China -  + # 8:00 PST PDT* Philippine Standard Time   # 8:30 KST KDT Korea when at +0830   # 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)   # 9:00 JST JDT Japan   # 9:00 KST KDT Korea when at +09   # 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time -  + # *I invented the abbreviation PDT; see "Philippines" below.   # Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03   # and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets. Although earlier   # editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every   # offset, this did not reflect common practice.   #   # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.      # From Guy Harris:   # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as   # additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:274:    6:30 - +0630 1942 May    9:00 - +09 1945 May 3    6:30 - +0630      # Cambodia   # See Asia/Bangkok.         # China    + # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02): + # The following comes from Table 1 of: + # Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai. + # Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50. + # http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020 + # The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times. + # Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding + # zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power. + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1940 only - Oct 12 24:00 0 S + Rule Shang 1941 only - Mar 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1941 only - Nov 1 24:00 0 S + Rule Shang 1942 only - Jan 31 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1945 only - Sep 1 24:00 0 S + Rule Shang 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1946 only - Sep 30 24:00 0 S + Rule Shang 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1947 only - Oct 31 24:00 0 S + Rule Shang 1948 1949 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Shang 1948 1949 - Sep 30 24:00 0 S #plan +    # From Guy Harris:   # People's Republic of China. Yes, they really have only one time zone.      # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though   # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the   # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China   # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of   # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:300:      # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):   # CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN   # CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10      # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):   # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight   # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began   # observing daylight saving time in 1986.    - # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): - # Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but - # this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer - # DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so - # go with them for DST rules as follows: + # From P Chan (2018-05-07): + # The start and end time of DST in China [from 1986 on] should be 2:00 + # (i.e. 2:00 to 3:00 at the start and 2:00 to 1:00 at the end).... + # Government notices about summer time: + # + # 1986-04-12 http://www.zj.gov.cn/attach/zfgb/198608.pdf p.21-22 + # (To establish summer time from 1986. On 4 May, set the clocks ahead one hour + # at 2 am. On 14 September, set the clocks backward one hour at 2 am.) + # + # 1987-02-15 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198703.pdf p.114 + # (Summer time in 1987 to start from 12 April until 13 September) + # + # 1987-09-09 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198721.pdf p.709 + # (From 1988, summer time to start from 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-April + # until 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-September) + # + # 1992-03-03 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1992/gwyb199205.pdf p.152 + # (To suspend summer time from 1992) + # + # The first page of People's Daily on 12 April 1988 stating that summer time + # to begin on 17 April. + # http://data.people.com.cn/pic/101p/1988/04/1988041201.jpg +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S - Rule Shang 1941 only - Mar 16 0:00 1:00 D - Rule PRC 1986 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 D - Rule PRC 1986 1991 - Sep Sun>=11 0:00 0 S - Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D + Rule PRC 1986 only - May 4 2:00 1:00 D + Rule PRC 1986 1991 - Sep Sun>=11 2:00 0 S + Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=11 2:00 1:00 D      # From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):   # BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five   # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official   # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).   #   # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):   # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the   # https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county   # boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:333:   # counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are   # therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege   # county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6   # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two   # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.      # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05):   # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:   #   # (1) - # Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) + # Guo Qing-sheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)   # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC   # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology - # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003) + # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料). 2003;24(1):5-9. + # http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZGKS200301000&dbname=CJFD2003   # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was   # officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the   # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not   # been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar   # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued   # to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the   # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it   # could well have ignored any such mandate.   #   # (2)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:513:   # UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,   # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a   # guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of +08 before   # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and   # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the   # +08 mandate back then.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.   Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901 -  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949 +  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949 May 28    8:00 PRC C%sT   # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi   # / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)   Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928    6:00 - +06         # Hong Kong (Xianggang)      # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:535:   # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):   # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong   # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,   # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,   # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing   # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I   # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be   # obtained from   # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm    - # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28): + # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27): + # According to Singaporean newspaper + # http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37 + # the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17): + # Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui. + # "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm + # (except on Sundays and Government holidays)." + # Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983. + # <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf> + # "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order + # of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in + # advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time." + # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc. + # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382 + # + # From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18): + # An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old + # astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight. + # + # From Steve Allen (2018-11-17): + # Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904 + # page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4> + # ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the + # ball was dropped. So that looks like a special case drop for the sake + # of broadcasting the new local time. + # + # From Phake Nick (2018-11-18): + # According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the + # governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to + # make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the + # dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one." + # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18): + # See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required. +  + # From Phake Nick (2018-10-26): + # I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library.... + # on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was + # stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong + # Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00 + # probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given + # the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China + # Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to + # before. After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and + # the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that + # period of time. Some media resumed publication soon after that within the + # same month, but there were not much information about time there. Later they + # started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service, + # explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note + # saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it + # also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was + # captured by Japan. + # + # Image of related sections on newspaper: + # * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow". + # https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese) + # * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset + # time and other things for September 30 and October 1. + # https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg + # * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide. + # https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg + # * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow. + # https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png + # * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning. + # https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png + # Also, the Liberation day of Hong Kong after WWII which British rule + # over the territory resumed was August 30, 1945, which I think should + # be the termination date for the use of JST in the territory.... +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):   # Here are the dates given at - # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm - # as of 2009-10-28: + # https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm + # as of 2014-06-19:   # Year Period - # 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep + # 1941 15 Jun to 30 Sep   # 1942 Whole year   # 1943 Whole year   # 1944 Whole year   # 1945 Whole year   # 1946 20 Apr to 1 Dec   # 1947 13 Apr to 30 Dec   # 1948 2 May to 31 Oct   # 1949 3 Apr to 30 Oct   # 1950 2 Apr to 29 Oct   # 1951 1 Apr to 28 Oct - # 1952 6 Apr to 25 Oct + # 1952 6 Apr to 2 Nov   # 1953 5 Apr to 1 Nov   # 1954 21 Mar to 31 Oct   # 1955 20 Mar to 6 Nov   # 1956 18 Mar to 4 Nov   # 1957 24 Mar to 3 Nov   # 1958 23 Mar to 2 Nov   # 1959 22 Mar to 1 Nov   # 1960 20 Mar to 6 Nov   # 1961 19 Mar to 5 Nov   # 1962 18 Mar to 4 Nov
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:580:   # 1971 18 Apr to 17 Oct   # 1972 16 Apr to 22 Oct   # 1973 22 Apr to 21 Oct   # 1973/74 30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74   # 1975 20 Apr to 19 Oct   # 1976 18 Apr to 17 Oct   # 1977 Nil   # 1978 Nil   # 1979 13 May to 21 Oct   # 1980 to Now Nil - # The page does not give start or end times of day. - # The page does not give a start date for 1942. - # The page does not givw an end date for 1945. - # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25. - # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15. - # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times. + # The page does not give times of day for transitions, + # or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions. + # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25. + # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-16; see: + # Heaver S. The days after the Pacific war ended: unsettling times + # in Hong Kong. Post Magazine. 2016-06-13. + # https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1852990/days-after-pacific-war-ended-unsettling-times-hong-kong + # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the + # transition times.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule HK 1941 only - Apr 1 3:30 1:00 S - Rule HK 1941 only - Sep 30 3:30 0 - +    Rule HK 1946 only - Apr 20 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1946 only - Dec 1 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1947 only - Apr 13 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1947 only - Dec 30 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1948 only - May 2 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1948 1951 - Oct lastSun 3:30 0 - - Rule HK 1952 only - Oct 25 3:30 0 - + Rule HK 1952 1953 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1949 1953 - Apr Sun>=1 3:30 1:00 S - Rule HK 1953 only - Nov 1 3:30 0 - +    Rule HK 1954 1964 - Mar Sun>=18 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1954 only - Oct 31 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1955 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1965 1976 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1965 1976 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -   Rule HK 1973 only - Dec 30 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1979 only - May Sun>=8 3:30 1:00 S   Rule HK 1979 only - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30 -  8:00 HK HK%sT 1941 Dec 25 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 15 + Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30 0:36:42 +  8:00 - HKT 1941 Jun 15 3:30 +  8:00 1:00 HKST 1941 Oct 1 4:00 +  8:30 - HKT 1941 Dec 25 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 16    8:00 HK HK%sT      ###############################################################################      # Taiwan      # From smallufo (2010-04-03):   # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],   # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm   # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:742:   Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei   Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1    8:00 - CST 1937 Oct 1    9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 1:00    8:00 Taiwan C%sT      # Macau (Macao, Aomen) + # + # From P Chan (2018-05-10): + # * LegisMac + # http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt + # A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in + # Chinese and Portuguese. The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for + # searching decrees about summer time. + # * Archives of Macao + # http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/ + # It contains images of old official gazettes. + # * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the + # summer time history. But it is not complete and has some mistakes. + # http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm + # Macau adopted GMT+8 on 30 Oct 1904 to follow Hong Kong. Clocks were + # advanced by 25 minutes and 50 seconds. Which means the LMT used was + # +7:34:10. As stated in the "Portaria No. 204" dated 21 October 1904 + # and published in the Official Gazette on 29 October 1904. + # http://igallery.icm.gov.mo/Images/Archives/BO/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10_00025_Grey.JPG + # + # Therefore the 1911 decree of Portugal did not change time in Macau. + # + # From LegisMac, here is a list of decrees that changed the time ... + # [Decree Gazette-no. date; titles omitted in this quotation] + # DIL 732 BOCM 51 1941.12.20 + # DIL 764 BOCM 9S 1942.04.30 + # DIL 781 BOCM 21 1942.10.10 + # PT 3434 BOCM 8S 1943.04.17 + # PT 3504 BOCM 20 1943.09.25 + # PT 3843 BOCM 39 1945.09.29 + # PT 3961 BOCM 17 1946.04.27 + # PT 4026 BOCM 39 1946.09.28 + # PT 4153 BOCM 16 1947.04.10 + # PT 4271 BOCM 48 1947.11.29 + # PT 4374 BOCM 18 1948.05.01 + # PT 4465 BOCM 44 1948.10.30 + # PT 4590 BOCM 14 1949.04.02 + # PT 4666 BOCM 44 1949.10.29 + # PT 4771 BOCM 12 1950.03.25 + # PT 4838 BOCM 43 1950.10.28 + # PT 4946 BOCM 12 1951.03.24 + # PT 5025 BO 43 1951.10.27 + # PT 5149 BO 14 1952.04.05 + # PT 5251 BO 43 1952.10.25 + # PT 5366 BO 13 1953.03.28 + # PT 5444 BO 44 1953.10.31 + # PT 5540 BO 12 1954.03.20 + # PT 5589 BO 44 1954.10.30 + # PT 5676 BO 12 1955.03.19 + # PT 5739 BO 45 1955.11.05 + # PT 5823 BO 11 1956.03.17 + # PT 5891 BO 44 1956.11.03 + # PT 5981 BO 12 1957.03.23 + # PT 6064 BO 43 1957.10.26 + # PT 6172 BO 12 1958.03.22 + # PT 6243 BO 43 1958.10.25 + # PT 6341 BO 12 1959.03.21 + # PT 6411 BO 43 1959.10.24 + # PT 6514 BO 11 1960.03.12 + # PT 6584 BO 44 1960.10.29 + # PT 6721 BO 10 1961.03.11 + # PT 6815 BO 43 1961.10.28 + # PT 6947 BO 10 1962.03.10 + # PT 7080 BO 43 1962.10.27 + # PT 7218 BO 12 1963.03.23 + # PT 7340 BO 43 1963.10.26 + # PT 7491 BO 11 1964.03.14 + # PT 7664 BO 43 1964.10.24 + # PT 7846 BO 15 1965.04.10 + # PT 7979 BO 42 1965.10.16 + # PT 8146 BO 15 1966.04.09 + # PT 8252 BO 41 1966.10.08 + # PT 8429 BO 15 1967.04.15 + # PT 8540 BO 41 1967.10.14 + # PT 8735 BO 15 1968.04.13 + # PT 8860 BO 41 1968.10.12 + # PT 9035 BO 16 1969.04.19 + # PT 9156 BO 42 1969.10.18 + # PT 9328 BO 15 1970.04.11 + # PT 9418 BO 41 1970.10.10 + # PT 9587 BO 14 1971.04.03 + # PT 9702 BO 41 1971.10.09 + # PT 38-A/72 BO 14 1972.04.01 + # PT 126-A/72 BO 41 1972.10.07 + # PT 61/73 BO 14 1973.04.07 + # PT 182/73 BO 40 1973.10.06 + # PT 282/73 BO 51 1973.12.22 + # PT 177/74 BO 41 1974.10.12 + # PT 51/75 BO 15 1975.04.12 + # PT 173/75 BO 41 1975.10.11 + # PT 67/76/M BO 14 1976.04.03 + # PT 169/76/M BO 41 1976.10.09 + # PT 78/79/M BO 19 1979.05.12 + # PT 166/79/M BO 42 1979.10.20 + # Note that DIL 732 does not belong to "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" according to + # LegisMac.... Note that between 1942 and 1945, the time switched + # between GMT+9 and GMT+10. Also in 1965 and 1965 the DST ended at 2:30am. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-10): + # The 1904 decree says that Macau changed from the meridian of + # Fortaleza do Monte, presumably the basis for the 7:34:10 for LMT. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Macau 1961 1962 - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1961 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 S - Rule Macau 1963 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1964 only - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1965 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1965 only - Oct 31 0:00 0 S - Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 S - Rule Macau 1972 1974 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1972 1973 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 S - Rule Macau 1974 1977 - Oct Sun>=15 3:30 0 S - Rule Macau 1975 1977 - Apr Sun>=15 3:30 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 S - # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition. + Rule Macau 1942 1943 - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 - + Rule Macau 1942 only - Nov 17 23:00 0 - + Rule Macau 1943 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 S + Rule Macau 1946 only - Apr 30 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1946 only - Sep 30 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1947 only - Apr 19 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1947 only - Nov 30 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1948 only - May 2 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1948 only - Oct 31 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1949 1950 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1949 1950 - Oct lastSat 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1951 only - Mar 31 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1951 only - Oct 28 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1952 1953 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1952 only - Nov 1 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1953 1954 - Oct lastSat 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1954 1956 - Mar Sat>=17 23:00s 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1955 only - Nov 5 23:00s 0 S + Rule Macau 1956 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 03:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1957 1964 - Mar Sun>=18 03:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1965 1973 - Apr Sun>=16 03:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1965 1966 - Oct Sun>=16 02:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1967 1976 - Oct Sun>=16 03:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1973 only - Dec 30 03:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1975 1976 - Apr Sun>=16 03:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1979 only - May 13 03:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1979 only - Oct Sun>=16 03:30 0 S +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:20 - LMT 1911 Dec 31 16:00u + Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:10 - LMT 1904 Oct 30 +  8:00 - CST 1941 Dec 21 23:00 +  9:00 Macau +09/+10 1945 Sep 30 24:00    8:00 Macau C%sT         ###############################################################################      # Cyprus      # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00. Stick with LMT.   # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:890:      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Dili 8:22:20 - LMT 1912 Jan 1    8:00 - +08 1942 Feb 21 23:00    9:00 - +09 1976 May 3    8:00 - +08 2000 Sep 17 0:00    9:00 - +09      # India    + # British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset: + # "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah. + # The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours + # east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories. No reason is + # given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be + # chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with + # that of almost the whole of the civilised world." + # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc. + # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382 +    # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic   # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/   # (2015-12-22):   # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the   # outskirts of Bombay.... They were protesting the proposed abolition of   # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time.... Journalists called this   # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks." It lasted nearly half a century.      # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):   # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1060:   # for at least the last 5 years. Before that, for a few years, the   # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last   # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....   #   # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):   # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions   # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic   # leap year calculation involved. There has never been any serious   # plan to change that law....   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):   # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter. - # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates, - # stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow. - # That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar - # calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand. + # I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran" + # lines from 2008 through 2087. Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's + # cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the + # 2008-2087 range disagrees with the the astronomical Persian calendar + # for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058), + # so the following code special-case those years. See Table 15.1, page 264, of: + # Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations: + # The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018). + # https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition + # Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will + # happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code + # stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below. + # (cl-loop + # initially (require 'cal-persia) + # with first-persian-year = 1387 + # with last-persian-year = 1466 + # ;; Exceptional years in the above range, + # ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264: + # with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437) + # with range-start = nil + # for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year + # do + # (let* + # ((exceptional-year-offset + # (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)) + # (beg-dst-absolute + # (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year)) + # exceptional-year-offset)) + # (end-dst-absolute + # (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year)) + # exceptional-year-offset)) + # (next-year-beg-dst-absolute + # (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year))) + # (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))) + # (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute)) + # (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute)) + # (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute + # next-year-beg-dst-absolute)) + # (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst)) + # (range-end (if range-start year "only"))) + # (setq range-start (or range-start year)) + # (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst) + # (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst)) + # (= persian-year last-persian-year)) + # (insert + # (format + # "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n" + # range-start range-end + # (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t) + # (calendar-extract-day beg-dst))) + # (insert + # (format + # "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n" + # range-start range-end + # (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t) + # (calendar-extract-day end-dst))) + # (setq range-start nil))))   #   # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future   # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:   # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for   # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local   # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be   # known exactly, amongst other factors. 2157 is even closer:   # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT. But the Gregorian year 2025 should give   # no interpretation problem whatsoever. By the way, another instant   # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1100:   # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):   # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of   # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24   # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...   # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour   # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will   # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the   # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 19 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 23 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 1991 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 21 0:00 0 - - Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 18 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 22 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1991 only - May 2 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2038 2039 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2038 2039 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2040 2041 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2040 2041 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2042 2043 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2042 2043 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2044 2045 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2044 2045 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2046 2047 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2046 2047 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2048 2049 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2048 2049 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2050 2051 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2050 2051 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2052 2053 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2052 2053 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2054 2055 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2054 2055 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2056 2057 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2056 2057 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2058 2059 - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2058 2059 - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2060 2062 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2060 2062 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2063 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2063 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2064 2066 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2064 2066 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2067 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2067 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2068 2070 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2068 2070 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2071 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2071 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2072 2074 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2072 2074 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2075 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2075 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2076 2078 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2076 2078 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2079 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2079 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2080 2082 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2080 2082 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2083 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2083 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2084 2086 - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2084 2086 - Sep 20 24:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2087 only - Mar 21 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2087 only - Sep 21 24:00 0 -   # - # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038. - # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the - # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format. + # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088. + # These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the + # restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.   # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite   # possibly Iran will change the rules first. - Rule Iran 2036 max - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Iran 2036 max - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2088 max - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2088 max - Sep 20 24:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Tehran 3:25:44 - LMT 1916    3:25:44 - TMT 1946 # Tehran Mean Time    3:30 - +0330 1977 Nov    4:00 Iran +04/+05 1979    3:30 Iran +0330/+0430         # Iraq
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1464:   # Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%   # of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who   # wanted to keep it.)      # From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19):   # The source of information is Japanese law.   # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm   # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm   # ... In summary, it is written as follows. From 24:00 on the first Saturday   # in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September. +  + # From Phake Nick (2018-09-27): + # [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan + # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html + # ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September + # 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time. + # It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed + # during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation + # of the summer time is described in the document. + # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf + # The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at + # September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can + # change the clock before they sleep. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27): + # This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that. zic treats + # it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can + # do in any POSIX or C platform. The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later, + # which should be safe now. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Japan 1948 only - May Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D - Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sun>=9 0:00 0 S + Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sat>=8 25:00 0 S   Rule Japan 1949 only - Apr Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D   Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D      # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):   # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical   # Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.   # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'   # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....   # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).   # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1504:   # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)   #   # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which   # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan   # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.   # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u    9:00 Japan J%sT - # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo. + # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo, + # except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not + # switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.      # Jordan   #   # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>   # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,   # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time   # all year round.   #   # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1794:   # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/   # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on   # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt. But I do not understand   # how that could happen....   #   # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree   # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html   # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in   # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).    - # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): - # The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted. + # From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20): + # Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from + # UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is + # located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   #   # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan   # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,   # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.   Zone Asia/Almaty 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Alma-Ata    5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21    6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31 2:00s    6:00 - +06   # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY) - # This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS); - # see comments below. +    Zone Asia/Qyzylorda 4:21:52 - LMT 1924 May 2    4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21    5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1    5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1    6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29 2:00s    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s -  6:00 - +06 - # The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one - # hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29. The 1991/2 rules for - # Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai - # reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now. - #Zone Asia/Qostanay 4:14:20 - LMT 1924 May 2 - # 4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 - # 5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 - # 5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 - # 6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 - # 5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s - # 4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s - # 5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s - # 6:00 - +06 +  6:00 - +06 2018 Dec 21 0:00 +  5:00 - +05   # -  + # Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS) + # The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai + # reorganization. + Zone Asia/Qostanay 4:14:28 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 +  5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 +    # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)   Zone Asia/Aqtobe 3:48:40 - LMT 1924 May 2    4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21    5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1    5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1    6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s    5:00 - +05   # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)   # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region, - # so include time stamps before 1963. + # so include timestamps before 1963.   Zone Asia/Aqtau 3:21:04 - LMT 1924 May 2    4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21    5:00 - +05 1981 Oct 1    6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25 2:00s    4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31 2:00s    5:00 - +05   # Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1929:   # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html   # According to the Korean Wikipedia   # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시   # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]   # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows.... And I checked old   # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.   # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST   # started at June 1 in that year. For another example, the article in   # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.    + # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27): + # 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end + # date in South Korea should be + # 1955-09-08 without specifying time + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557 + # 1956-09-29 without specifying time + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341 + # 1957-09-21 24 o'clock + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3 + # 1958-09-20 24 o'clock + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189 + # 1959-09-19 24 o'clock + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2 + # 1960-09-17 24 o'clock + # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104 + # ... + # 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says] + # when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international + # aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to + # follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability. +  +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule ROK 1948 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1948 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1949 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1949 1951 - Sep Sun>=8 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1950 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1951 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1955 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1955 only - Sep 9 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1956 only - May 20 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1956 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1957 1960 - May Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1957 1960 - Sep Sun>=18 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 3:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1948 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1948 only - Sep 12 24:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1949 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1949 1951 - Sep Sat>=7 24:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1950 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1951 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1955 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1955 only - Sep 8 24:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1956 only - May 20 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1956 only - Sep 29 24:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1957 1960 - May Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1957 1960 - Sep Sat>=17 24:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 3:00 0 S      # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):   # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:   #   # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)   # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367   # (Announcement No. 338)   # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)   # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1988:   # Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).   #   # From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):   # Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.   # https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf   # ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ... Citation should be Decree   # No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's   # Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.   # From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):   # It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04): + # The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today. + # https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1908 Apr 1    8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1    9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8    9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21    8:30 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10    9:00 ROK K%sT   Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1908 Apr 1    8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1    9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24    9:00 - KST 2015 Aug 15 00:00 -  8:30 - KST 2018 May 5 +  8:30 - KST 2018 May 4 23:30    9:00 - KST      ###############################################################################      # Kuwait   # See Asia/Riyadh.      # Laos   # See Asia/Bangkok.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:2729:    2:00 Zion EET/EEST 1948 May 15    2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5    2:00 Zion I%sT 1996    2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999    2:00 Palestine EE%sT      # Paracel Is   # no information      # Philippines +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18): + # The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time. + # It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from + # 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.   # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the   # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to   # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's   # History of the International Date Line   # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm   # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):   # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:   # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:2750:   # but no details]      # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):   # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again   # March-June, but this is not definite. It also says DST was last proclaimed   # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.   # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.   # Philippine Star 2014-08-05   # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time    + # From Paul Goyette (2018-06-15): + # In the Philippines, there is a national law, Republic Act No. 10535 + # which declares the official time here as "Philippine Standard Time". + # The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although + # the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish + # it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)." + # [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/ + # [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535 + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19): + # I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is + # more popular among reliable English-language news sources. This is + # not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and + # influence of the sources. There is no current abbreviation for DST, + # so use "PDT", the usual American style. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Phil 1937 only - Feb 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Phil 1954 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - - Rule Phil 1978 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Phil 1937 only - Feb 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Phil 1954 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Phil 1978 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Manila -15:56:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31    8:04:00 - LMT 1899 May 11 -  8:00 Phil +08/+09 1942 May -  9:00 - +09 1944 Nov -  8:00 Phil +08/+09 +  8:00 Phil P%sT 1942 May +  9:00 - JST 1944 Nov +  8:00 Phil P%sT      # Qatar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha    4:00 - +04 1972 Jun    3:00 - +03   Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain      # Saudi Arabia   # - # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): + # From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):   # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not - # standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it + # standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it   # has never been made official. Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to   # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines   # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar   # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12   # o'clock for "Arab" time).   # -  + # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi + # Arabia you were in. In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common + # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset - + # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from + # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm + # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they + # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line + # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western. + # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.) Antar writes, + # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power + # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he + # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he + # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is + # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did." See: + # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3. + # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm + # Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing. + # Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3. + #   # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best   # we can do. The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics   # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated   # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and   # Jidda, on March 14, 1947". Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the   # earlier date.   #   # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two   # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of - # the country. Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff. + # the country. Presumably this is documenting airline time. Ignore this, + # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1947 Mar 14    3:00 - +03   Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden # Yemen   Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait      # Singapore   # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)   # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html