pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / asia

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.    - # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see + # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11): + # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-13):   # - # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). -  + # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   # - # Gwillim Law writes that a good source - # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source + # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries - # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted, + # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for - # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. - # +    # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which   # I found in the UCLA library.   #   # For data circa 1899, a common source is: - # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 - # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. + # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. + # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359   # -  + # For Russian data circa 1919, a source is: + # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. + # (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.) + #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   # - # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; - # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. - # Corrections are welcome! + # The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables:   # std dst   # LMT Local Mean Time   # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern European Time   # 2:00 IST IDT Israel - # 3:00 AST ADT Arabia* - # 3:30 IRST IRDT Iran - # 4:00 GST Gulf* +    # 5:30 IST India - # 7:00 ICT Indochina* +    # 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)   # 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)   # 8:00 CST China - # 9:00 CJT Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)* + # 8:30 KST KDT Korea when at +0830   # 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)   # 9:00 JST JDT Japan - # 9:00 KST KDT Korea - # 9:30 CST (Australian) Central Standard Time + # 9:00 KST KDT Korea when at +09 + # 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time + # Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03 + # and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets. Although earlier + # editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every + # offset, this did not reflect common practice.   # - # See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia. + # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.      # From Guy Harris:   # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as   # additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental   # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide - - # Worldwide Edition). The names for time zones are guesses. + # Worldwide Edition).      ###############################################################################    - # These rules are stolen from the `europe' file. + # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EUAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EUAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EUAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 - - Rule E-EurAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S + Rule E-EurAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 -   Rule E-EurAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule E-EurAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 - - Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 -   Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - - Rule RussiaAsia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule RussiaAsia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S - Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 - - Rule RussiaAsia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule RussiaAsia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule RussiaAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule RussiaAsia 1984 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule RussiaAsia 1985 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule RussiaAsia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -      # Afghanistan   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Kabul 4:36:48 - LMT 1890 -  4:00 - AFT 1945 -  4:30 - AFT +  4:00 - +04 1945 +  4:30 - +0430      # Armenia   # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)   # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then   # readopting Russian DST in 1997. Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even   # when they disagree with others. Edgar Der-Danieliantz   # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST   # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995. IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that   # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:105:   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):   # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,   # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html   #   # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the   # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of   # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.   # or   # (brief)   # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Armenia 2011 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule Armenia 2011 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Yerevan 2:58:00 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  3:00 - YERT 1957 Mar # Yerevan Time -  4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  3:00 1:00 YERST 1991 Sep 23 # independence -  3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 1995 Sep 24 2:00s -  4:00 - AMT 1997 -  4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 2012 Mar 25 2:00s -  4:00 - AMT +  3:00 - +03 1957 Mar +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1997 +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2011 +  4:00 Armenia +04/+05      # Azerbaijan -  +    # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):   # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997 - # Resolution available at: http://aif.az/docs/daylight_res.pdf + # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17). + # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17): + # ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to + # daylight saving time.... + # https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html + # http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html + # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Azer 1997 max - Mar lastSun 4:00 1:00 S - Rule Azer 1997 max - Oct lastSun 5:00 0 - + Rule Azer 1997 2015 - Mar lastSun 4:00 1:00 - + Rule Azer 1997 2015 - Oct lastSun 5:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  3:00 - BAKT 1957 Mar # Baku Time -  4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  3:00 1:00 BAKST 1991 Aug 30 # independence -  3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT 1992 Sep lastSat 23:00 -  4:00 - AZT 1996 # Azerbaijan time -  4:00 EUAsia AZ%sT 1997 -  4:00 Azer AZ%sT +  3:00 - +03 1957 Mar +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1996 +  4:00 EUAsia +04/+05 1997 +  4:00 Azer +04/+05      # Bahrain - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Al Manamah -  4:00 - GST 1972 Jun -  3:00 - AST + # See Asia/Qatar.      # Bangladesh   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):   # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce   # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30   #   # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16 - # <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288"> +    # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html - # </a> +    #   # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from   # June   # 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with   # crippling power crisis. "   #   # The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if   # implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):   # They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between   # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.   #   # Some sources: - # <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601"> - # http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601 - # </a> - # <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2"> + # https://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601   # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2 - # </a> +    #   # Our wrap-up: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html      # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):   # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start   # time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh   # Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).   #   # No DST end date has been announced yet.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):   # Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,   # instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.   #   # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":   # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1" - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):   # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:   # Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make   # maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would   # "continue for an indefinite period."   #   # One of many places where it is published: - # <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html"> +    # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):   # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"   # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.   #   # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night. - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228 - # </a> - # and - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html - # </a> +    #   # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour   # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,   # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime   # Minister's Office last night..."      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):   # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"   # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time - # <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817"> +    # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html - # </a> +       # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Dec 31 23:59 0 - + Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 - + Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Dec 31 24:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Dhaka 6:01:40 - LMT 1890    5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time? -  6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time -  5:30 - IST 1942 Sep -  6:30 - BURT 1951 Sep 30 -  6:00 - DACT 1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time -  6:00 - BDT 2009 -  6:00 Dhaka BD%sT +  6:30 - +0630 1942 May 15 +  5:30 - +0530 1942 Sep +  6:30 - +0630 1951 Sep 30 +  6:00 - +06 2009 +  6:00 Dhaka +06/+07      # Bhutan   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Thimphu 5:58:36 - LMT 1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu -  5:30 - IST 1987 Oct -  6:00 - BTT # Bhutan Time +  5:30 - +0530 1987 Oct +  6:00 - +06      # British Indian Ocean Territory   # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the   # 1997 and later maps say 6:00. Assume the switch occurred in 1996.   # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;   # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which   # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Indian/Chagos 4:49:40 - LMT 1907 -  5:00 - IOT 1996 # BIOT Time -  6:00 - IOT +  5:00 - +05 1996 +  6:00 - +06      # Brunei   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Brunei 7:39:40 - LMT 1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan -  7:30 - BNT 1933 -  8:00 - BNT + Zone Asia/Brunei 7:39:40 - LMT 1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan +  7:30 - +0730 1933 +  8:00 - +08      # Burma / Myanmar      # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20): + # Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is + # used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead + # of Greenwich." This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630, + # a transition for which Shanks is the only source. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Rangoon 6:24:40 - LMT 1880 # or Yangon -  6:24:40 - RMT 1920 # Rangoon Mean Time? -  6:30 - BURT 1942 May # Burma Time -  9:00 - JST 1945 May 3 -  6:30 - MMT # Myanmar Time + Zone Asia/Yangon 6:24:47 - LMT 1880 # or Rangoon +  6:24:47 - RMT 1920 # Rangoon local time +  6:30 - +0630 1942 May +  9:00 - +09 1945 May 3 +  6:30 - +0630      # Cambodia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9 -  7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? -  7:00 - ICT 1912 May -  8:00 - ICT 1931 May -  7:00 - ICT + # See Asia/Bangkok.    -  +    # China      # From Guy Harris:   # People's Republic of China. Yes, they really have only one time zone.      # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though   # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the - # Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China - # has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of + # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China + # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of   # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.   #   # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too - # painful to suck in another copy.. So, here is what I have for + # painful to suck in another copy. So, here is what I have for   # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):   #   # 1986 May 4 - Sept 14   # 1987 mid-April - ??      # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):   # CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN   # CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau) - # has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST - # from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's - # note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986. - # Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now. I made up names for the other - # pre-1980 time zones. + # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11): + # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight + # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began + # observing daylight saving time in 1986.    - # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but + # this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer + # DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so + # go with them for DST rules as follows:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Shang 1941 only - Mar 16 0:00 1:00 D   Rule PRC 1986 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 D   Rule PRC 1986 1991 - Sep Sun>=11 0:00 0 S   Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D      # From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):   # BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five   # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official   # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).   # - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):   # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the - # http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county + # https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county   # boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two   # counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,   # counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are   # therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege   # county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6   # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two   # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.    - # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11): - # I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk - # about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986 - # talking about China being in one time zone. (That article was: Jim - # Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight - # time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05. By the way, this - # article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began - # observing daylight saving time in 1986. + # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05): + # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:   # - # From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11): - # I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated - # separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't - # implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near - # Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a - # "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was - # ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s). + # (1) + # Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) + # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC + # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology + # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003) + # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was + # officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the + # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not + # been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar + # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued + # to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the + # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it + # could well have ignored any such mandate.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30): - # There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949 - # rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a - # reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with - # Shanks & Pottenger. -  - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) + # (2) + # Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China) + # A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China + # [undated and unknown publication location] + # It says several things: + # * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China. + # * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective + # the official calendar book of 1914. + # * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in + # French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei) + # Observatory and set to local mean time. + # * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8. + # * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers) + # eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it + # became used by railways as well. + # * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into + # five time zones (see below for details). This caught on + # at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8. + # * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7. In practice + # this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in + # Japanese-occupied territory. + # * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time. + # * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into + # place (with some modifications) in March 1948. It's not clear + # how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control. + # * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war. + # + # An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the + # Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is + # different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour + # ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai." Guess that the + # Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT +08. + # + # In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but + # this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger. + # This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and + # Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility. + # Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice + # mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were: + # + # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT +08:30 + # Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.   # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin - Zone Asia/Harbin 8:26:44 - LMT 1928 # or Haerbin -  8:30 - CHAT 1932 Mar # Changbai Time -  8:00 - CST 1940 -  9:00 - CHAT 1966 May -  8:30 - CHAT 1980 May -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") + # + # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT +08 + # Now part of Asia/Shanghai.   # most of China - # Milne gives 8:05:56.7; round to nearest. - Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:57 - LMT 1928 -  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949 -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) + # Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest. + # Guo says Shanghai switched to UT +08 "from the end of the 19th century". + # + # Long-shu Time (probably as Long and Shu were two names of the area) UT +07 + # Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.   # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan; - # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong + # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; east Qinghai; and the Guangdong   # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,   # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu. - Zone Asia/Chongqing 7:06:20 - LMT 1928 # or Chungking -  7:00 - LONT 1980 May # Long-shu Time -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") + # + # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT +06 + # This region is now part of either Asia/Urumqi or Asia/Shanghai with + # current boundaries uncertain; times before 1970 for areas that + # disagree with Ürümqi or Shanghai are not recorded here.   # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;   # the Guangdong counties Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,   # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;   # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi; - # east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe, + # east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,   # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,   # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,   # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan. - Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 # or Urumchi -  6:00 - URUT 1980 May # Urumqi Time -  8:00 PRC C%sT - # Kunlun Time + # + # Kunlun Time UT +05:30 + # This region is now in the same status as Xin-zang Time (see above).   # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;   # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,   # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,   # and Yarkand.      # From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):   # Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in   # Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,   # but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on   # what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese   # they implicitly use Beijing time.   #   # On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the   # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two - # hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang + # hours behind Beijing time, or UT +06. The government of the Xinjiang   # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as - # local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in + # local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in   # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as - # "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language + # "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language   # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.   #   # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its   # widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in   # Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)   #   # (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990   # or 1991 when summer time was in use. The confusion was severe, with   # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same   # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and   # others moving their clocks ahead.) - # - # ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time. - # - # The first few lines of the Google translation of - # <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39"> - # http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39 - # </a> - # (retrieved 2009-10-13) - # > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least - # > 500 million yuan - # > - # > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20), - # > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River - # > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men - # > have worked continuously for 22 hours... +       # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):   # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common   # English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):   #   # 1. Wulumuqi...   # 2. Kashi...   # 3. Urumqi...   # 4. Kashgar...   # ... - # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the + # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the   # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding   # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.   #   # 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any   # start date for Xinjiang time.   #   # Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally   # publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur   # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also   # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)    - Zone Asia/Kashgar 5:03:56 - LMT 1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar -  5:30 - KAST 1940 # Kashgar Time -  5:00 - KAST 1980 May + # From David Cochrane (2014-03-26): + # Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986: + # https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html +  + # From Luther Ma (2014-04-22): + # I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from + # different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's + # report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David + # Cochrane. Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially + # recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least + # the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time; + # and Beijing Time. There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers + # to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some + # population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other. The only + # problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as + # having the same time as Beijing. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT +06) + # but this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun, + # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN + # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x. + # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone. + # + # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized. E.g., see + # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government" + # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22). + # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986. + # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty, + # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan + # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of + # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be + # quite a trick. Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to + # UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren, + # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a + # guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of +08 before + # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and + # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the + # +08 mandate back then. +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai. + Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901 +  8:00 Shang C%sT 1949    8:00 PRC C%sT -  + # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi + # / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.) + Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928 +  6:00 - +06         # Hong Kong (Xianggang)      # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.      # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):   # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong   # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,   # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,   # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing   # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I   # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be   # obtained from - # <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm"> +    # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm - # </a>. +       # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):   # Here are the dates given at - # <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm"> +    # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm - # </a> +    # as of 2009-10-28:   # Year Period   # 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep   # 1942 Whole year   # 1943 Whole year   # 1944 Whole year   # 1945 Whole year   # 1946 20 Apr to 1 Dec   # 1947 13 Apr to 30 Dec   # 1948 2 May to 31 Oct
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:582:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30    8:00 HK HK%sT 1941 Dec 25    9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 15    8:00 HK HK%sT      ###############################################################################      # Taiwan    - # Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it - # was still controlled by Japan. This is hard to believe, but we don't - # have any other information. -  +    # From smallufo (2010-04-03): - # According to Taiwan's CWB, - # <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm"> + # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],   # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm - # </a> +    # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.    - # From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07): - # Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page: - # Decade Name Start and end date - # Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time May 1 to September 30 - # 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952) Daylight Saving Time March 1 to October 31 - # Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to October 31 - # In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959) Summer Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961) Summer Time June 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time - # Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD) Daylight Saving Time April 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD) Stop Daylight Saving Time - # Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979) Daylight Saving Time July 1 to September 30 - # Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980) Stop Daylight Saving Time + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): + # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of + # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that + # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands + # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on + # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be + # found on Wikisource: + # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) + # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because + # during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone + # declared officially. + # + # Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa + # Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of + # revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard + # time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in + # western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan + # territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time + # (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can + # be found on Wikisource: + # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件 + # + # That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UT+9 on Oct 1, 1937.    -  + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): + # I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UT+9 + # back to UT+8 after WW2. I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945. In a document + # during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time + # zone back to Western Standard Time (UT+8) on Sep 21. And in another + # history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a + # note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time". From these two + # materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21. And + # today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald" + # from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact + # that: + # + # 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using + # the time at 135E (GMT+9) + # + # 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan + # 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands, + # as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called + # Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8. + # + # 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the + # territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard + # Time. + # + # [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan: + # http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037 + # [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site: + # http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm + # [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475: + # http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf +  + # Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03): + # I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to + # Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan. It's Taiwan Governor-General + # Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ... + # [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local + # bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on + # Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21. I think this bulletin is much more + # official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the + # top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this + # would be a good one. + # [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945: + # http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener +  + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02): + # In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from + # Central Weather Bureau website was not correct. + # + # Original Bulletin: + # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF + # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.) + # + # In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that + # telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government: + # + # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431 + # + # Here is a brief translation: + # + # The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20 + # midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time + # adoption till Oct 31 midnight. + # + # The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can + # be found from historical government announcement database. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03): + # As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT +09 from 1937-10-01 + # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger. + # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Taiwan 1952 only - Mar 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1952 1954 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Taiwan 1953 1959 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1955 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S   Rule Taiwan 1960 1961 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S - Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S + Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei + # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei + Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1 +  8:00 - CST 1937 Oct 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 1:00    8:00 Taiwan C%sT      # Macau (Macao, Aomen)   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Macau 1961 1962 - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1961 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 - - Rule Macau 1963 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1964 only - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1965 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1965 only - Oct 31 0:00 0 - - Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 - - Rule Macau 1972 1974 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1972 1973 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 - - Rule Macau 1974 1977 - Oct Sun>=15 3:30 0 - - Rule Macau 1975 1977 - Apr Sun>=15 3:30 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 - + Rule Macau 1961 1962 - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1961 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1963 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1964 only - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1965 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1965 only - Oct 31 0:00 0 S + Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1972 1974 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1972 1973 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 S + Rule Macau 1974 1977 - Oct Sun>=15 3:30 0 S + Rule Macau 1975 1977 - Apr Sun>=15 3:30 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 S + # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:20 - LMT 1912 -  8:00 Macau MO%sT 1999 Dec 20 # return to China -  8:00 PRC C%sT + Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:20 - LMT 1911 Dec 31 16:00u +  8:00 Macau C%sT         ###############################################################################      # Cyprus - # +    # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00. Stick with LMT. -  + # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09): + # Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's + # lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round. + # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/   # -  + # From Even Scharning (2016-10-31): + # Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night. + # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/ +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): + # Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus + # staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus. See: Anastasiou A. + # Cyprus to remain united in time. Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17. + # https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/ +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Apr 13 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Oct 12 0:00 0 -   Rule Cyprus 1976 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Cyprus 1976 only - Oct 11 0:00 0 -   Rule Cyprus 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Cyprus 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Cyprus 1978 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Cyprus 1979 1997 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Cyprus 1981 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Nicosia 2:13:28 - LMT 1921 Nov 14    2:00 Cyprus EE%sT 1998 Sep    2:00 EUAsia EE%sT - # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time. + Zone Asia/Famagusta 2:15:48 - LMT 1921 Nov 14 +  2:00 Cyprus EE%sT 1998 Sep +  2:00 EUAsia EE%sT 2016 Sep 8 +  3:00 - +03 2017 Oct 29 1:00u +  2:00 EUAsia EE%sT      # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.   # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.   Link Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia      # Georgia   # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):   # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward   # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,   # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:691:   # Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia   # will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,   # President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.   #   # From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):   #   # Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday... The former Soviet   # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow. As a result it   # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours   # ahead. The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia, - # Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process + # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process   # of integration into Europe.      # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):   # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on   # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.   # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT   # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document   # about it. As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,   # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....   # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our   # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.    -  + # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11. + # Go with Byalokoz.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:16 - LMT 1880 -  2:59:16 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time -  3:00 - TBIT 1957 Mar # Tbilisi Time -  4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  3:00 1:00 TBIST 1991 Apr 9 # independence -  3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 1992 # Georgia Time -  3:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1994 Sep lastSun -  4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1996 Oct lastSun -  4:00 1:00 GEST 1997 Mar lastSun -  4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 2004 Jun 27 -  3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 2005 Mar lastSun 2:00 -  4:00 - GET + Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:11 - LMT 1880 +  2:59:11 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time +  3:00 - +03 1957 Mar +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 +  3:00 E-EurAsia +03/+04 1994 Sep lastSun +  4:00 E-EurAsia +04/+05 1996 Oct lastSun +  4:00 1:00 +05 1997 Mar lastSun +  4:00 E-EurAsia +04/+05 2004 Jun 27 +  3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 2005 Mar lastSun 2:00 +  4:00 - +04      # East Timor      # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.    - # From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in - # <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm"> + # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in   # East Timor may be late for its millennium - # </a> (1999-12-26/31): + # <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):   # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun   # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the   # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it   # conflicts with their way of life.      # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):   # We don't have any record of the above attempt.   # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.    - # <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html"> +    # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General - # (2000-08-16)</a>: + # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html + # (2000-08-16):   # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided   # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour. The time change,   # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at   # midnight on Saturday, September 16.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Dili 8:22:20 - LMT 1912 -  8:00 - TLT 1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23 -  9:00 - TLT 1976 May 3 -  8:00 - WITA 2000 Sep 17 00:00 -  9:00 - TLT + Zone Asia/Dili 8:22:20 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 +  8:00 - +08 1942 Feb 21 23:00 +  9:00 - +09 1976 May 3 +  8:00 - +08 2000 Sep 17 0:00 +  9:00 - +09      # India -  +  + # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic + # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/ + # (2015-12-22): + # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the + # outskirts of Bombay.... They were protesting the proposed abolition of + # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time.... Journalists called this + # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks." It lasted nearly half a century. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20): + # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India. + # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic + # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras + # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time, + # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time: + # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19. + # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present + # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time. The citizen of + # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of + # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat + # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change + # the time they are using, for that of what they regard as a benighted + # Presidency; while Madras, having for long given the standard time to the + # rest of India, would resist the adoption of any other Indian standard in its + # place." -- Oldham RD. On Time in India: a suggestion for its improvement. + # Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (April 1899), 49-55. + # + # "In 1870 ... Madras time - 'now used by the telegraph and regulated from the + # only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time, + # first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR).... + # Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their + # local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and + # Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145. + # + # Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8. + # https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212 + # This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on + # 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530. Some + # municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta + # continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at + # government offices. Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or + # at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book). Railway time is more + # appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do + # elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was + # consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata. So, use railway + # time for 1870-1941. Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the + # 1941-1945 data. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Kolkata 5:53:28 - LMT 1880 # Kolkata -  5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time? -  6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time + Zone Asia/Kolkata 5:53:28 - LMT 1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata +  5:53:20 - HMT 1870 # Howrah Mean Time? +  5:21:10 - MMT 1906 Jan 1 # Madras local time +  5:30 - IST 1941 Oct +  5:30 1:00 +0630 1942 May 15    5:30 - IST 1942 Sep -  5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15 +  5:30 1:00 +0630 1945 Oct 15    5:30 - IST - # The following are like Asia/Kolkata: + # Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:   # Andaman Is   # Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)   # Nicobar Is      # Indonesia   # -  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06): + # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia + # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta. + #   # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger: - # <http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime> + # http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime   # says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01. Looking at some   # time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat   # and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):   # Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.   # JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in   # Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and   # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus   # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.   # These would be the earliest possible times for a change. - # Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions + # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions   # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched - # from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura + # from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura   # (Hollandia). For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura   # switched on 1945-09-23.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):   # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in   # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even   # when writing in English. For example, see the English-language   # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the   # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,   # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29). - # The abbreviations are: + # The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:   # - # WIB - UTC+7 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time) - # WITA - UTC+8 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time) - # WIT - UTC+9 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time) + # WIB - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time) + # WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time) + # WIT - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Java, Sumatra   Zone Asia/Jakarta 7:07:12 - LMT 1867 Aug 10   # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,   # but this must be a typo.    7:07:12 - BMT 1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia -  7:20 - JAVT 1932 Nov # Java Time -  7:30 - WIB 1942 Mar 23 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23 -  7:30 - WIB 1948 May -  8:00 - WIB 1950 May -  7:30 - WIB 1964 +  7:20 - +0720 1932 Nov +  7:30 - +0730 1942 Mar 23 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 23 +  7:30 - +0730 1948 May +  8:00 - +08 1950 May +  7:30 - +0730 1964    7:00 - WIB   # west and central Borneo   Zone Asia/Pontianak 7:17:20 - LMT 1908 May    7:17:20 - PMT 1932 Nov # Pontianak MT -  7:30 - WIB 1942 Jan 29 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23 -  7:30 - WIB 1948 May -  8:00 - WIB 1950 May -  7:30 - WIB 1964 +  7:30 - +0730 1942 Jan 29 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 23 +  7:30 - +0730 1948 May +  8:00 - +08 1950 May +  7:30 - +0730 1964    8:00 - WITA 1988 Jan 1    7:00 - WIB   # Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo   Zone Asia/Makassar 7:57:36 - LMT 1920    7:57:36 - MMT 1932 Nov # Macassar MT -  8:00 - WITA 1942 Feb 9 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23 +  8:00 - +08 1942 Feb 9 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 23    8:00 - WITA   # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua   Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov -  9:00 - WIT 1944 Sep 1 -  9:30 - CST 1964 +  9:00 - +09 1944 Sep 1 +  9:30 - +0930 1964    9:00 - WIT      # Iran      # From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):   # This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).   # The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:   #   # Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]   # No. 16760/T233 H 1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:863:   # at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return   # to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of   # Shahrivar.   #   # First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi   #   # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed   # for at least the last 5 years. Before that, for a few years, the   # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last   # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates.... - # I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct - # here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time. +    #   # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):   # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions   # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic   # leap year calculation involved. There has never been any serious   # plan to change that law....   #   # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.   # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:897:   # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between   # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:   # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT. The Java version of   # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date   # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):   # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:   # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm   # - # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen: + # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:   # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce   # daylight saving time ... - # http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916 + # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916   #   # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):   # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of - # Iran, Volume 63, Number 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24 + # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24   # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...   # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour   # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will   # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the   # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 19 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 23 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 1991 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S - Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S + Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 19 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 23 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1991 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 21 0:00 0 - + Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 22 0:00 0 - + # + # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038. + # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the + # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format. + # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite + # possibly Iran will change the rules first. + Rule Iran 2036 max - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iran 2036 max - Sep 21 0:00 0 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Tehran 3:25:44 - LMT 1916 -  3:25:44 - TMT 1946 # Tehran Mean Time -  3:30 - IRST 1977 Nov -  4:00 Iran IR%sT 1979 -  3:30 Iran IR%sT +  3:25:44 - TMT 1946 # Tehran Mean Time +  3:30 - +0330 1977 Nov +  4:00 Iran +04/+05 1979 +  3:30 Iran +0330/+0430         # Iraq   #   # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):   # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in   # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:   # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and   # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:988:   # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi   # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time. They referred   # to daylight saving as Saddam time. But, as of today, the time zone   # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.   #   # So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):   # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following   # news sources (in Arabic): - # <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html"> +    # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10"> +    # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10 - # </a> +    #   # We have published a short article in English about the change: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iraq 1982 1984 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S - Rule Iraq 1983 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 S - Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 D - # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo. + Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iraq 1982 1984 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Iraq 1983 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 - + # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.   # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.   # - Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 D - Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Oct 1 3:00s 0 S + Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 - + Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Oct 1 3:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Baghdad 2:57:40 - LMT 1890 -  2:57:36 - BMT 1918 # Baghdad Mean Time? -  3:00 - AST 1982 May -  3:00 Iraq A%sT +  2:57:36 - BMT 1918 # Baghdad Mean Time? +  3:00 - +03 1982 May +  3:00 Iraq +03/+04         ###############################################################################      # Israel      # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):   #   # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988. Until then there were three   # different abbreviations in use:
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1083:   Rule Zion 1974 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 1974 only - Oct 13 0:00 0 S   Rule Zion 1975 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 1975 only - Aug 31 0:00 0 S   Rule Zion 1985 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 1985 only - Sep 15 0:00 0 S   Rule Zion 1986 only - May 18 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 1986 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 S   Rule Zion 1987 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 1987 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S - Rule Zion 1988 only - Apr 9 0:00 1:00 D - Rule Zion 1988 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S +     -  + # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05): + # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the + # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath + # ends and changes to Sunday. + Rule Zion 1988 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 D + Rule Zion 1988 only - Sep 4 0:00 0 S +    # From Ephraim Silverberg   # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,   # and 2005-02-17):      # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of   # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.   # One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150   # days of daylight savings time annually. From 1993-1998, the change to   # daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to   # 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1237:   #   # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday   # in March. DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Zion 2013 max - Mar Fri>=23 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Zion 2013 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Jerusalem 2:20:54 - LMT 1880 -  2:20:40 - JMT 1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time? +  2:20:40 - JMT 1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?    2:00 Zion I%sT            ###############################################################################      # Japan    - # `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris. + # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.      # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):   # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had - # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued - # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.'' + # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued + # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."    - # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times - # <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>: + # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times: + # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm   # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on   # [1948-05-01].... But lack of prior debate and the execution of   # daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated   # deep hatred of the concept.... The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to   # dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San   # Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%   # of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who   # wanted to keep it.)    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows: + # From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19): + # The source of information is Japanese law. + # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm + # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm + # ... In summary, it is written as follows. From 24:00 on the first Saturday + # in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Japan 1948 only - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sat>=8 2:00 0 S - Rule Japan 1949 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - # but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since - # their audience is astrologers) were US military bases. For now, assume - # that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what - # would have been the point of the 1951 poll? + Rule Japan 1948 only - May Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D + Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sun>=9 0:00 0 S + Rule Japan 1949 only - Apr Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D + Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sat>=1 24:00 1:00 D      # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):   # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical - # Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0. + # Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.   # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'   # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....   # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).   # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.      # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):   # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan, - # which stands for the time on E 135 degree. + # which stands for the time on 135° E.   # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central   # standard time". And the same ordinance also established "western standard - # time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree.... But "western standard + # time", which stands for the time on 120° E.... But "western standard   # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937). In the ordinance No.   # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is   # standard....   #   # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.   # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.    - # Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few - # places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki. Guess that all - # ordinances took effect on Jan 1. + # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12): + # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause + # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. + # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時) + # + # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which + # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan + # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. + # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u -  9:00 - JST 1896 -  9:00 - CJT 1938 +     9:00 Japan J%sT   # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.      # Jordan   # - # From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html"> - # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html> + # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,   # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time   # all year round.   # - # From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html"> - # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09): + # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html> + # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):   # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back   # by one hour. This is the latest government decision and it's final!   # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in   # government's departments from six to seven hours.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):   # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):   # For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year   # about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:   # http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm   # "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".   #    - # From Phil Pizzey (2009-04-02): - # ...I think I may have spotted an error in the timezone data for - # Jordan. - # The current (2009d) asia file shows Jordan going to daylight - # saving - # time on the last Thursday in March. - # - # Rule Jordan 2000 max - Mar lastThu 0:00s 1:00 S - # - # However timeanddate.com, which I usually find reliable, shows Jordan - # going to daylight saving time on the last Friday in March since 2002. - # Please see - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11 - # </a> -  +    # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):   # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic): - # <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279"> +    # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279 - # </a> +    #   # Google's translation:   #   # > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely   # > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday   # > of the month of March of each year.   #   # So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.      # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):   # We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):   # Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not   # switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST   # until about the same time next year (at least).   # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950 - # - # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-21): - # It's looking like this change will be permanent; see - # Petra News Agency, Cancelling winter saved Jordan $7 million (2013-02-20) - # <http://www.albawaba.com/business/jordan-winter-electricity--472005>. - # So move Jordan to UTC+3 as of the abovementioned date. +     -  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11): + # Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to + # UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight: + # http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime + # Official, in Arabic: + # http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14 + # ... Our background/permalink about it + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html + # ... + # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P + # ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future + # (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule). +  + # From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11): + # As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Jordan 1973 only - Jun 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1973 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Jordan 1974 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1976 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Jordan 1977 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Jordan 1978 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1978 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -   Rule Jordan 1985 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1985 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1408:   Rule Jordan 1993 1998 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1994 only - Sep Fri>=15 0:00 0 -   Rule Jordan 1995 1998 - Sep Fri>=15 0:00s 0 -   Rule Jordan 1999 only - Jul 1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 1999 2002 - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 -   Rule Jordan 2000 2001 - Mar lastThu 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 2002 2012 - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S   Rule Jordan 2003 only - Oct 24 0:00s 0 -   Rule Jordan 2004 only - Oct 15 0:00s 0 -   Rule Jordan 2005 only - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 - - Rule Jordan 2006 2012 - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 - + Rule Jordan 2006 2011 - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 - + Rule Jordan 2013 only - Dec 20 0:00 0 - + Rule Jordan 2014 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Jordan 2014 max - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Amman 2:23:44 - LMT 1931 -  2:00 Jordan EE%sT 2012 Oct 26 0:00s -  3:00 - AST +  2:00 Jordan EE%sT         # Kazakhstan    - # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): - # Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan - # stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk) - # and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones. - # Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time - # IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan. -  - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses - # RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it. - # Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules. - # Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger: - # - # - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991. - # - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00. - # - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989. -  - # <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm"> - # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21): - # </a> + # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11 + # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):   # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing   # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health   # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.   #   # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):   # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone   # was "blended" with the Central zone. Therefore, Kazakhstan now has   # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour. The zone   # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the - # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau, - # Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan. The other zone encompasses + # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū, + # Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan. The other zone encompasses   # everything else.... I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones   # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.    -  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27): + # Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/ + # produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:   # -  + # 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR + # from 1991-02-04 No. 20 + # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545 + # removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR + # starting with the last Sunday of March 1991. + # It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR, + # Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time. + # + # The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers + # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet + # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its + # text. + # + # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20 + # (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via + # http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during + # transition to "summer" time: + # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova, + # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug + # were to move clocks 1 hour forward. + # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik + # SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts + # of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards. + # Other territories were to not move clocks. + # When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be + # moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding + # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan. + # + # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170 + # was one of such changes. + # + # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время + # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that + # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast) + # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks + # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards. + # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an + # article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not + # move clocks.) + # + # This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while + # the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06 + # to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth + # time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ... + # + # 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 1992-01-13 No. 28 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_ + # (text includes modification from the 1996 act) + # introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian + # 1992-01-08 act. It specified that time would be calculated + # according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks + # on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at + # 2:00, specified DST rules. It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was + # located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the + # border between them to be located east of Qostanay and Aktyubinsk + # oblasts (notably including Turgai and Qyzylorda oblasts into the fifth + # time belt). + # + # This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for + # Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyraū and Qostanay oblasts; from + # +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk).... + # + # 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 1992-03-27 No. 284 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_ + # cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Qyzylorda oblasts + # since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth + # and the fifth time belts respectively. + # + # 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 1994-09-23 No. 384 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_ + # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangghystaū + # oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on + # the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a + # result).... + # + # 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 1996-05-08 No. 575 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_ + # amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead + # of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act. + # + # 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 1999-03-26 No. 305 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_ + # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyraū oblast since the + # last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth + # time belt. + # + # This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05.... + # + # 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 2000-11-23 No. 1749 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000 + # replaces the previous five documents. + # + # The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the + # fourth and the fifth time belts. They account for changes in spelling + # and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997 + # probably changed time in territories incorporated into Qostanay oblast + # (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Qyzylorda oblast + # from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the + # fourth time belt (no change in practice). + # + # 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 2003-12-29 No. 1342 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_ + # modified the 2000-11-23 act. No relevant changes, apparently. + # + # 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 2004-07-20 No. 775 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004 + # modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Qostanay and Qyzylorda oblasts into + # the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not + # using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time + # zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07). The changes were to be implemented + # during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically + # amended before implementation happened. + # + # 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 2004-09-15 No. 1059 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_ + # modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time" + # (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the + # 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyraū, West Kazakhstan, + # Qostanay, Qyzylorda and Mangghystaū oblasts by not moving clocks + # during the 2004 transition to "winter" time. + # + # This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyraū oblast (no + # zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to + # +06/+07 for Qostanay oblast (Qostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently) + # and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00.... + # + # 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan + # from 2005-03-15 No. 231 + # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_ + # removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the + # (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15 + # acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication. + # The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer + # time. + # + # Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation + # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details]. + # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27 + # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992. +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08): + # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay + # oblast. Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone. + # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations + # according to wikipedia.) + # + # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/ + # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on + # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt. But I do not understand + # how that could happen.... + # + # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree + # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html + # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in + # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03). +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): + # The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   #   # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan -  + # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA, + # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.   Zone Asia/Almaty 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Alma-Ata -  5:00 - ALMT 1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time -  6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 1991 -  6:00 - ALMT 1992 -  6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 2005 Mar 15 -  6:00 - ALMT - # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) +  5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21 +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 + # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY) + # This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS); + # see comments below.   Zone Asia/Qyzylorda 4:21:52 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  4:00 - KIZT 1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time -  5:00 - KIZT 1981 Apr 1 -  5:00 1:00 KIZST 1981 Oct 1 -  6:00 - KIZT 1982 Apr 1 -  5:00 RussiaAsia KIZ%sT 1991 -  5:00 - KIZT 1991 Dec 16 # independence -  5:00 - QYZT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 -  6:00 RussiaAsia QYZ%sT 2005 Mar 15 -  6:00 - QYZT - # Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Akt'ubinsk) +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 +  5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 + # The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one + # hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29. The 1991/2 rules for + # Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai + # reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now. + #Zone Asia/Qostanay 4:14:20 - LMT 1924 May 2 + # 4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 + # 5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 + # 5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 + # 6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 + # 5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s + # 4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s + # 5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s + # 6:00 - +06 + # + # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)   Zone Asia/Aqtobe 3:48:40 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  4:00 - AKTT 1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time -  5:00 - AKTT 1981 Apr 1 -  5:00 1:00 AKTST 1981 Oct 1 -  6:00 - AKTT 1982 Apr 1 -  5:00 RussiaAsia AKT%sT 1991 -  5:00 - AKTT 1991 Dec 16 # independence -  5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time -  5:00 - AQTT - # Mangghystau +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 +  5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  5:00 - +05 + # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)   # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,   # so include time stamps before 1963.   Zone Asia/Aqtau 3:21:04 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  4:00 - FORT 1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T -  5:00 - FORT 1963 -  5:00 - SHET 1981 Oct 1 # Shevchenko Time -  6:00 - SHET 1982 Apr 1 -  5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT 1991 -  5:00 - SHET 1991 Dec 16 # independence -  5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time -  4:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15 -  5:00 - AQTT - # West Kazakhstan +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  5:00 - +05 + # Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from + # +04/+05 to +05/+06 in spring 1999, not fall 1994. + Zone Asia/Atyrau 3:27:44 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1999 Mar 28 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  5:00 - +05 + # West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP) + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).   Zone Asia/Oral 3:25:24 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ural'sk -  4:00 - URAT 1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time -  5:00 - URAT 1981 Apr 1 -  5:00 1:00 URAST 1981 Oct 1 -  6:00 - URAT 1982 Apr 1 -  5:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00 -  4:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1991 -  4:00 - URAT 1991 Dec 16 # independence -  4:00 RussiaAsia ORA%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time -  5:00 - ORAT +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 +  5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31 2:00s +  5:00 - +05      # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)   # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):   # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway - # <http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml> + # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml   # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system. I take the article   # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.   # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):   # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.   # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Apr Sun>=7 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Apr Sun>=7 0:00s 1:00 -   Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - - Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:30 1:00 S + Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:30 1:00 -   Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2004 - Oct lastSun 2:30 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Bishkek 4:58:24 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  5:00 - FRUT 1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time -  6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  5:00 1:00 FRUST 1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence -  5:00 Kyrgyz KG%sT 2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time -  6:00 - KGT +  5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21 +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31 2:00 +  5:00 Kyrgyz +05/+06 2005 Aug 12 +  6:00 - +06      ###############################################################################      # Korea (North and South)    - # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10) in - # <http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp>: - # The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has already - # commissioned a research project [to reintroduce DST] and has said - # the system may begin as early as 2008.... Korea ran a daylight - # saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it during the 1950-53 Korean War. + # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10): + # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012 + # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it + # during the 1950-53 Korean War. The system was temporarily enforced + # between 1987 and 1988 ...    - # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29): + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html + # According to the Korean Wikipedia + # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시 + # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC] + # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows.... And I checked old + # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia. + # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST + # started at June 1 in that year. For another example, the article in + # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule ROK 1960 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1960 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S - Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 D - Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1948 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1948 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1949 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1949 1951 - Sep Sun>=8 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1950 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1951 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1955 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1955 only - Sep 9 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1956 only - May 20 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1956 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1957 1960 - May Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1957 1960 - Sep Sun>=18 0:00 0 S + Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D + Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 3:00 0 S    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23): + # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets: + # + # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5) + # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367 + # (Announcement No. 338) + # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17) + # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07) + # + # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30 + # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.) + # + # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same + # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST + # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII. + # + # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we + # have no information otherwise. +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07): + # According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to + # the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example: + # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049 + # + # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15): + # Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations. See: + # Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time' + # http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html + # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone. + # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK. +  + # From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29): + # North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang + # Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time). + # + # From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30): + # Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan. + # https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf + # ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ... Citation should be Decree + # No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's + # Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun. + # From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29): + # It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1890 -  8:30 - KST 1904 Dec -  9:00 - KST 1928 -  8:30 - KST 1932 + Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1908 Apr 1 +  8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8    9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21 -  8:00 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10 -  8:30 - KST 1968 Oct +  8:30 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10    9:00 ROK K%sT - Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1890 -  8:30 - KST 1904 Dec -  9:00 - KST 1928 -  8:30 - KST 1932 -  9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21 -  8:00 - KST 1961 Aug 10 + Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1908 Apr 1 +  8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24 +  9:00 - KST 2015 Aug 15 00:00 +  8:30 - KST 2018 May 5    9:00 - KST      ###############################################################################      # Kuwait - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # From the Arab Times (2007-03-14): - # The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded - # by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in - # Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba. - # <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>. - # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29): - # We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen, - # so for now we assume no DST. - Zone Asia/Kuwait 3:11:56 - LMT 1950 -  3:00 - AST + # See Asia/Riyadh.      # Laos - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Vientiane 6:50:24 - LMT 1906 Jun 9 # or Viangchan -  7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? -  7:00 - ICT 1912 May -  8:00 - ICT 1931 May -  7:00 - ICT + # See Asia/Bangkok.    -  +    # Lebanon   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -   Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1622:   Rule Lebanon 1992 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -   Rule Lebanon 1993 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Lebanon 1993 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Lebanon 1999 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Beirut 2:22:00 - LMT 1880    2:00 Lebanon EE%sT      # Malaysia   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Sep 14 0:00 0:20 TS # one-Third Summer + Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Sep 14 0:00 0:20 -   Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Dec 14 0:00 0 -   #   # peninsular Malaysia - # The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) - # <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>. + # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) + # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur 6:46:46 - LMT 1901 Jan 1    6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T. -  7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time -  7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1 -  7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1 -  7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12 -  7:30 - MALT 1982 Jan 1 -  8:00 - MYT # Malaysia Time +  7:00 - +07 1933 Jan 1 +  7:00 0:20 +0720 1936 Jan 1 +  7:20 - +0720 1941 Sep 1 +  7:30 - +0730 1942 Feb 16 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 12 +  7:30 - +0730 1982 Jan 1 +  8:00 - +08   # Sabah & Sarawak - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # The data here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 and 1982 - # transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12): + # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 + # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Kuching 7:21:20 - LMT 1926 Mar -  7:30 - BORT 1933 # Borneo Time -  8:00 NBorneo BOR%sT 1942 Feb 16 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12 -  8:00 - BORT 1982 Jan 1 -  8:00 - MYT +  7:30 - +0730 1933 +  8:00 NBorneo +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 12 +  8:00 - +08      # Maldives   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male -  4:54:00 - MMT 1960 # Male Mean Time -  5:00 - MVT # Maldives Time + Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Malé +  4:54:00 - MMT 1960 # Malé Mean Time +  5:00 - +05      # Mongolia      # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but - # usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03) - # both say that it has just one. + # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World + # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.      # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11): - # <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm"> +    # General Information Mongolia - # </a> (1999-09) + # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)   # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of - # Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and + # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and   # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus   # eight hours."      # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):   # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998   # being the last year it was implemented. The dates of implementation I am   # unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time   # of implementation may have been different....   # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time   # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod, - # Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij. + # Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):   # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.   # We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;   # the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,   # and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd   # is good enough for our purposes.      # From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):   # In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier   # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),   # there are three time zones.   # - # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai - # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov, - # Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi - # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar + # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai + # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv, + # Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi + # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar   #   # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]      # From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):   # Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.   # It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of   # September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):   # For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs   # Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.      # From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):   # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.   # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says   # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft - # Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that - # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST. + # Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that + # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UT +07, +08) with no DST.   # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in   # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.   # He also found - # <http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&> + # http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&   # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"   # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.   # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT - # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT. + # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.   # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the   # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."   # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.      # From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):   # Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.   # They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....   # http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742      # From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):   # We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for   # Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT   # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz   # database on this, e.g.:   # - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx"> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026   # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx - # </a> +    #   # both say GMT+08:00.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):   # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight   # schedule here: - # <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112"> +    # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112 - # </a> +    # (click the English flag for English)   # - # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive + # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive   # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the - # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern - # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are + # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern + # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are   # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and - # Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed). + # Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):   # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.   # XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition   # was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);   # this is almost surely wrong.    -  + # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10): + # It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use + # daylight saving time in Mongolia.... Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of + # March 2015, daylight saving time starts. And 00:00AM of last Saturday of + # September daylight saving time ends. Source: + # http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969 +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Mongol 1983 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Mongol 1983 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Mongol 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   # Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,   # but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00. Also, IATA SSIM   # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25. Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.   #   # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches - # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place + # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place   # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of   # the country. That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their   # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly   # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.    - Rule Mongol 1985 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S + # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09): + # Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight + # saving time adoption in Mongolia. Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192 +  + Rule Mongol 1985 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Mongol 1984 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST. - Rule Mongol 2001 only - Apr lastSat 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Mongol 2001 only - Apr lastSat 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Mongol 2001 2006 - Sep lastSat 2:00 0 - - Rule Mongol 2002 2006 - Mar lastSat 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Mongol 2002 2006 - Mar lastSat 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Mongol 2015 2016 - Mar lastSat 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Mongol 2015 2016 - Sep lastSat 0:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta   Zone Asia/Hovd 6:06:36 - LMT 1905 Aug -  6:00 - HOVT 1978 # Hovd Time -  7:00 Mongol HOV%sT +  6:00 - +06 1978 +  7:00 Mongol +07/+08   # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga   Zone Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 - LMT 1905 Aug -  7:00 - ULAT 1978 # Ulaanbaatar Time -  8:00 Mongol ULA%sT - # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tuemen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan, +  7:00 - +07 1978 +  8:00 Mongol +08/+09 + # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,   # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan   Zone Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 - LMT 1905 Aug -  7:00 - ULAT 1978 -  8:00 - ULAT 1983 Apr -  9:00 Mongol CHO%sT 2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time -  8:00 Mongol CHO%sT +  7:00 - +07 1978 +  8:00 - +08 1983 Apr +  9:00 Mongol +09/+10 2008 Mar 31 +  8:00 Mongol +08/+09      # Nepal   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Kathmandu 5:41:16 - LMT 1920 -  5:30 - IST 1986 -  5:45 - NPT # Nepal Time +  5:30 - +0530 1986 +  5:45 - +0545      # Oman -  + # See Asia/Dubai.    - # Milne says 3:54:24 was the meridian of the Muscat Tidal Observatory. -  - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920 -  4:00 - GST -  +    # Pakistan      # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):   # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a   # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002   # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002. This is what I was   # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the   # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.      # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15): - # Jesper Norgaard found this URL: + # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:   # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm   # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to   # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first   # Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on   # 15th October each year". This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,   # but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like   # it's not on a trial basis. Also, the "between the first Saturday   # and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the   # transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:1861:   # one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.   #   # The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather   # shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.      # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):   #   # Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time   # on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.   # - # "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to help - # reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 9pm and - # moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. - # ...." + # "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to + # help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at + # 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."   # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html"> - # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html - # </a> - # OR - # <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html   # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4 - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):   # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):   # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced - # for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31 + # for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31   # instead of August 31.   # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html - # </a> - # OR - # <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html"> +    # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):   # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to   # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance   # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in   # official working." - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280 - # </a> +    #   # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to   # introduce DST from April 15, 2009   #   # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan   # April 08, 2009   # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15 - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1 - # </a> - # - # or - # - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html - # </a> +    #   # ....   # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to   # advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to   # conserve energy"      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):   # "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal   # Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the   # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to   # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in   # this regard." - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168 - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):   # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that - # Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October - # 1, 2009. + # Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from + # October 1, 2009.   #   # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct" - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm - # </a> -  - # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29): - # Alexander Krivenyshev wrote: - # > According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that - # > Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October - # > 1, 2009. +    # -  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):   # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date: - # <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742"> +    # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742 - # </a> +    # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.   # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on   # Monday."   #   # And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:   # "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour   # on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without   # obtaining prior approval, the officials added."   #   # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of   # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html    - # From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01): + # From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):   # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan   # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):   # Steffen Thorsen wrote:   # > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in   # > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.   # >   # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the   # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time   # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but   # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.   # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:   #   # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks" - # <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041"> +    # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041 - # </a> +    #   # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST" - # <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2"> +    # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2 - # </a> +       # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:01 1:00 S - Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Oct Sun>=2 0:01 0 - + Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -   Rule Pakistan 2008 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Pakistan 2008 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - + Rule Pakistan 2008 2009 - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Pakistan 2009 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Pakistan 2009 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - +       # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907 -  5:30 - IST 1942 Sep -  5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15 -  5:30 - IST 1951 Sep 30 -  5:00 - KART 1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time +  5:30 - +0530 1942 Sep +  5:30 1:00 +0630 1945 Oct 15 +  5:30 - +0530 1951 Sep 30 +  5:00 - +05 1971 Mar 26    5:00 Pakistan PK%sT # Pakistan Time      # Palestine      # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):   #   # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now   # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.   # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:2074:      # From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,   # forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:   #   # Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time   # last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks   # one-hour forward at this time. As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,   # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20): - # Daoud Kuttab writes in - # <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html"> - # Holiday havoc - # </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that + # Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc + # http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html + # (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that   # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.   # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).   # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,   # and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.      # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):   # Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):   # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of   # the Ramadan. Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think   # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks - # earlier--the same goes for Jordan. + # earlier - the same goes for Jordan.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):   # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the   # same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I   # was informed that they started DST one day after Israel. I was not   # able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if   # Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as   # the West Bank.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):   # according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):   # http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5   # > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule   # > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday. It is also time to turn   # > back the clocks for winter. Friday will begin an hour late this week.   # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,   # because of the Ramadan.    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):   # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the   # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.      # From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):   # My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when   # the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit   # surprised if they agreed about DST. But for now, assume they agree.   # For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be   # the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):   # Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.   #   # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while   # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).   # - # <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001"> +    # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001 - # </a> - # <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087"> +    # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):   # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian   # government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March   # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.   #   # (in Arabic) - # <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850"> +    # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850 - # </a> +    # - # or +    # (English translation) - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):   # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to   # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.   #   # One news source: - # <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158"> +    # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158 - # </a> +    # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),   # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah   # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of   # 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty   # minutes per hour as of Friday morning."   #   # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different   # end date, we will keep this page updated: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):   # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.   #   # According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan   # to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.   #   # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"   # (from Palestinian National Authority): - # <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505 +    # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html - # </a> +       # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):   # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March   # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri   # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)   # - # <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697"> +    # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697 - # </a> +    # (in Arabic) - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):   # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will   # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or   # noon though:   # - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178 - # </a> +    # (Ma'an News Agency)   # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to   # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."      # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):   # According to several sources, including - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795 - # </a> +    # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in   # Gaza and the West Bank.   # Some more background info: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html      # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):   # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of   # August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30   # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of   # Ramadan.   # - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217 - # </a> +    # Additional info: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):   # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:   # "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to   # move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the   # Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.   # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after   # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."   # ... - # <a href="http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650"> - # http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html"> + # https://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650   # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html - # </a> - # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file. + # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):   # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30   # 00:00).   # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.   #   # Many sources, including: - # <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808"> +    # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808 - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):   # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST   # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).   # Some of many sources in Arabic: - # <a href="http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638"> +    # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638 - # </a> +    # - # <a href="http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html"> +    # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html - # </a> +    #   # Our brief summary: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html      # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):   # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving   # time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).   # [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]   # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120   # http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html      # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):   # The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight   # (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).   # This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect   # at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":   # http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246   # official source...:   # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-24): - # For future dates, guess the last Thursday in March at 24:00 through - # the first Friday on or after September 21 at 00:00. This is consistent with - # the predictions in today's editions of the following URLs, - # which are for Gaza and Hebron respectively: - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=702 - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=2364 + # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03): + # Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257 + # and https://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will + # start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03): + # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014 + # says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.    -  + # From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09): + # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728 + # [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight + # saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning, + # 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead." +  + # From Sharef Mustafa (2016-10-19): + # [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on + # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf + # states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00. + # + # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19): + # Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on. + # This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring + # predictions. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19): + # It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today: + # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza + # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron +  + # From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16): + # Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the + # clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on + # the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact + # time of the time shift. + # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817 + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-03-16): + # For 2016 on, predict spring transitions on March's fourth Saturday at 01:00. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EgyptAsia 1957 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S   Rule EgyptAsia 1957 1958 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule EgyptAsia 1958 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1967 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S   Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1965 - Sep 30 3:00 0 -   Rule EgyptAsia 1966 only - Oct 1 3:00 0 -      Rule Palestine 1999 2005 - Apr Fri>=15 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 1999 2003 - Oct Fri>=15 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:2333:   Rule Palestine 2007 only - Sep Thu>=8 2:00 0 -   Rule Palestine 2008 2009 - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 2008 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Palestine 2009 only - Sep Fri>=1 1:00 0 -   Rule Palestine 2010 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 2010 only - Aug 11 0:00 0 -   Rule Palestine 2011 only - Apr 1 0:01 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 2011 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - - Rule Palestine 2012 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Palestine 2012 2014 - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S   Rule Palestine 2012 only - Sep 21 1:00 0 - - Rule Palestine 2013 max - Sep Fri>=21 0:00 0 - + Rule Palestine 2013 only - Sep Fri>=21 0:00 0 - + Rule Palestine 2014 2015 - Oct Fri>=21 0:00 0 - + Rule Palestine 2015 only - Mar lastFri 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Palestine 2016 max - Mar Sat>=22 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Palestine 2016 max - Oct lastSat 1:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Gaza 2:17:52 - LMT 1900 Oct -  2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15 +  2:00 Zion EET/EEST 1948 May 15    2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5    2:00 Zion I%sT 1996    2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999 -  2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2008 Aug 29 0:00 +  2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2008 Aug 29 0:00    2:00 - EET 2008 Sep    2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2010 -  2:00 - EET 2010 Mar 27 0:01 +  2:00 - EET 2010 Mar 27 0:01    2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2011 Aug 1    2:00 - EET 2012    2:00 Palestine EE%sT      Zone Asia/Hebron 2:20:23 - LMT 1900 Oct -  2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15 +  2:00 Zion EET/EEST 1948 May 15    2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5    2:00 Zion I%sT 1996    2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999    2:00 Palestine EE%sT      # Paracel Is   # no information      # Philippines - # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the + # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the   # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to - # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01. Robert H. van Gent has a - # transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>. - # The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger. + # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's + # History of the International Date Line + # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm + # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25): - # Tomorrow's Manila Standard reports that the Philippines Department of - # Trade and Industry is considering adopting DST this June when the - # rainy season begins. See - # <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>. - # For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details. - # - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):   # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:   # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/   # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,   # but no details]    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14): + # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again + # March-June, but this is not definite. It also says DST was last proclaimed + # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details. + # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time. + # Philippine Star 2014-08-05 + # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Phil 1937 only - Feb 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Phil 1954 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Phil 1978 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Manila -15:56:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31    8:04:00 - LMT 1899 May 11 -  8:00 Phil PH%sT 1942 May -  9:00 - JST 1944 Nov -  8:00 Phil PH%sT +  8:00 Phil +08/+09 1942 May +  9:00 - +09 1944 Nov +  8:00 Phil +08/+09      # Qatar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha -  4:00 - GST 1972 Jun -  3:00 - AST + Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha +  4:00 - +04 1972 Jun +  3:00 - +03 + Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain      # Saudi Arabia -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): + # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not + # standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it + # has never been made official. Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to + # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines + # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar + # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12 + # o'clock for "Arab" time). + # + # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best + # we can do. The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics + # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated + # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and + # Jidda, on March 14, 1947". Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the + # earlier date. + # + # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two + # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of + # the country. Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1950 -  3:00 - AST + Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1947 Mar 14 +  3:00 - +03 + Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden # Yemen + Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait      # Singapore - # The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) - # <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>. + # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30) + # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1    6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T. -  7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time -  7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1 -  7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1 -  7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12 -  7:30 - MALT 1965 Aug 9 # independence -  7:30 - SGT 1982 Jan 1 # Singapore Time -  8:00 - SGT +  7:00 - +07 1933 Jan 1 +  7:00 0:20 +0720 1936 Jan 1 +  7:20 - +0720 1941 Sep 1 +  7:30 - +0730 1942 Feb 16 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 12 +  7:30 - +0730 1982 Jan 1 +  8:00 - +08      # Spratly Is   # no information      # Sri Lanka      # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):   # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898. Prior to this Colombo   # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used." But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably   # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with   # Shanks and Pottenger.      # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout" - # (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24, + # (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,   # no longer available as of 1999-08-17) - # reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at - # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.'' + # reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at + # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."   #   # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted - # by Shamindra in - # <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net"> - # Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26) - # </a>: + # by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section + # <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):   # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996   # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online   # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):   # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)   # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).      # From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in: - # <http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML> + # http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML   # [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply   # kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean   # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.   # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):   # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],   # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.    - # From K Sethu (2006-04-25): - # I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at - # the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government - # twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization - # agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard. + # From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19): + # According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units, + # Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka + # standard time is SLST.   # - # I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments - # mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka - # Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation. - # - # If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News - # Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they - # use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news - # item.... - # - # Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and - # adminsitrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the - # nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well - # known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are - # slt.lk and sltnet.lk). - # - # But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation - # (that we have not known so far) then it is better that it be used for - # all computers. + # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18): + # "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time + # zone nerd sources. I searched Google News and found three uses of + # it in the International Business Times of India in February and + # March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing + # since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in + # other English-language news sources. Our old abbreviation "LKT" is + # even worse. For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can + # switch to "SLST" if it catches on.    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25): - # One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down - # and then see what people actually say in practice. -  +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Colombo 5:19:24 - LMT 1880 -  5:19:32 - MMT 1906 # Moratuwa Mean Time -  5:30 - IST 1942 Jan 5 -  5:30 0:30 IHST 1942 Sep -  5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 16 2:00 -  5:30 - IST 1996 May 25 0:00 -  6:30 - LKT 1996 Oct 26 0:30 -  6:00 - LKT 2006 Apr 15 0:30 -  5:30 - IST +  5:19:32 - MMT 1906 # Moratuwa Mean Time +  5:30 - +0530 1942 Jan 5 +  5:30 0:30 +06 1942 Sep +  5:30 1:00 +0630 1945 Oct 16 2:00 +  5:30 - +0530 1996 May 25 0:00 +  6:30 - +0630 1996 Oct 26 0:30 +  6:00 - +06 2006 Apr 15 0:30 +  5:30 - +0530      # Syria   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0 -   Rule Syria 1962 only - Apr 29 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 1962 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -   Rule Syria 1963 1965 - May 1 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 1963 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -   Rule Syria 1964 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/asia:2549:   Rule Syria 1997 1998 - Mar lastMon 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 1999 2006 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   # From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):   # According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]   # this year [only].... This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.   Rule Syria 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -   # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):   # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."   # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php   Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S - # From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27): + # From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):   # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will   # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or   # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than   # having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the   # weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now   # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27): - # Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote: + # Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:   #   # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1   # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."   #   # I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):   # http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247   #   # which using Google's translate tools says:   # Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on   # identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th   # minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.   Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -      # From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):   # For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for - # this month (March 2008) in the last day or so...This is the data IATA - # are now using: + # this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....   # Country Time Standard --- DST Start --- --- DST End --- DST   # Name Zone Variation Time Date Time Date   # Variation   # Syrian Arab   # Republic SY +0200 2200 03APR08 2100 30SEP08 +0300   # 2200 02APR09 2100 30SEP09 +0300   # 2200 01APR10 2100 30SEP10 +0300      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):   # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News   # Agency (SANA)... - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm - # </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the + # ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the   # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April   # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."   # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times   # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): - # My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1"; + # My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";   # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone   # compilers can't handle or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).   # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):   # Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,   # according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).   #   # The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to   # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting   # clocks back 60 minutes).   # - # <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm"> +    # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):   # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,   # two examples:   # - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm - # </a> +    # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency) - # <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209"> +    # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209 - # </a> +    # (Arabic, gov-site)   #   # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.   #   # Our summary - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):   # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will   # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday   # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30: - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic) - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):   # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last   # Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or   # something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):   # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of   # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday   # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday): - # <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421"> +    # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic) - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):   # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday   # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.   #   # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic: - # <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm"> +    # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm - # </a> +    #   # Our brief summary: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):   # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.      Rule Syria 2008 only - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 2008 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Syria 2009 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 2010 2011 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 2012 max - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Syria 2009 max - Oct lastFri 0:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Damascus 2:25:12 - LMT 1920 # Dimashq + Zone Asia/Damascus 2:25:12 - LMT 1920 # Dimashq    2:00 Syria EE%sT      # Tajikistan   # From Shanks & Pottenger.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Dushanbe 4:35:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  5:00 - DUST 1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time -  6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  5:00 1:00 DUSST 1991 Sep 9 2:00s -  5:00 - TJT # Tajikistan Time +  5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21 +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 1:00 +05/+06 1991 Sep 9 2:00s +  5:00 - +05      # Thailand   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Bangkok 6:42:04 - LMT 1880    6:42:04 - BMT 1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time -  7:00 - ICT +  7:00 - +07 + Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh # Cambodia + Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane # Laos      # Turkmenistan   # From Shanks & Pottenger.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Ashgabat 3:53:32 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ashkhabad -  4:00 - ASHT 1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time -  5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00 -  4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Oct 27 # independence -  4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 -  5:00 - TMT +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00 +  5:00 - +05      # United Arab Emirates   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Asia/Dubai 3:41:12 - LMT 1920 -  4:00 - GST +  4:00 - +04 + Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat # Oman      # Uzbekistan -  + # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  4:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time -  5:00 - SAMT 1981 Apr 1 -  5:00 1:00 SAMST 1981 Oct 1 -  6:00 - TAST 1982 Apr 1 # Tashkent Time -  5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence -  5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992 -  5:00 - UZT - Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time -  6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00 -  5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence -  5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992 -  5:00 - UZT + Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:53 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 - +05 1981 Apr 1 +  5:00 1:00 +06 1981 Oct 1 +  6:00 - +06 1982 Apr 1 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 +  5:00 - +05 + # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest. + Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:11 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21 +  6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 +  5:00 - +05      # Vietnam    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): + # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):   # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being   # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam. But this is quite a ways   # from Saigon's location. For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks - # and Pottenger. + # and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.      # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18): - # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City"; - # we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters. + # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh + # City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.    - # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân: + # Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)" + # (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50, + # is quoted verbatim in: + # http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01 + # is translated by Brian Inglis in: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html + # and is the basis for the information below. + # + # The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to + # Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104° 17' 17" east of Paris. + # It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or + # the Paris Meridian (2° 20' 14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333... + # and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30, + # which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory + # is closer to 07:06:31. Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT. + # + # The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954) + # and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954): + # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01. + # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00. + # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00. + # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam. + # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina. + # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam. + # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam. + # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam. + # + # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above. + # + # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội, + # No. 9, Paris, February 1982. + # + # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)", + # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000. + # + # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu", + # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh 7:06:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9 -  7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT? -  7:00 - ICT 1912 May -  8:00 - ICT 1931 May -  7:00 - ICT + Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh 7:06:40 - LMT 1906 Jul 1 +  7:06:30 - PLMT 1911 May 1 # Phù Liễn MT +  7:00 - +07 1942 Dec 31 23:00 +  8:00 - +08 1945 Mar 14 23:00 +  9:00 - +09 1945 Sep 2 +  7:00 - +07 1947 Apr 1 +  8:00 - +08 1955 Jul 1 +  7:00 - +07 1959 Dec 31 23:00 +  8:00 - +08 1975 Jun 13 +  7:00 - +07      # Yemen -  - # Milne says 2:59:54 was the meridian of the saluting battery at Aden, - # and that Yemen was at 1:55:56, the meridian of the Hagia Sophia. -  - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Asia/Aden 2:59:54 - LMT 1950 -  3:00 - AST + # See Asia/Riyadh.