pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / australasia

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.      # This file also includes Pacific islands.      # Notes are at the end of this file      ###############################################################################      # Australia      # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 - - Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 - - Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 - - Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 - - Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 - - Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - - Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 D + Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 S + Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 S + Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 D   # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which   # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that   # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Northern Territory   Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb -  9:00 - CST 1899 May -  9:30 Aus CST +  9:00 - ACST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus AC%sT   # Western Australia   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D   Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec -  8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul -  8:00 AW WST +  8:00 Aus AW%sT 1943 Jul +  8:00 AW AW%sT   Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec -  8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul -  8:45 AW CWST +  8:45 Aus +0845/+0945 1943 Jul +  8:45 AW +0845/+0945      # Queensland   #   # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):   # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast   # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after   # Queensland ceased to.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):   # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,   # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.   # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,   # so use Lindeman.   # -  + # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20): + # There is no location named Holiday Islands in Queensland Australia; holiday + # islands is a colloquial term used globally. Hayman and Lindeman are at the + # north and south extremes of the Whitsunday Islands archipelago, and + # Hamilton is in between; it is reasonable to believe that this time zone + # applies to all of the Whitsundays. + # http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-islands + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S   Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895 -  10:00 Aus EST 1971 -  10:00 AQ EST +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 +  10:00 AQ AE%sT   Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895 -  10:00 Aus EST 1971 -  10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul -  10:00 Holiday EST +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 +  10:00 AQ AE%sT 1992 Jul +  10:00 Holiday AE%sT      # South Australia   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb -  9:00 - CST 1899 May -  9:30 Aus CST 1971 -  9:30 AS CST +  9:00 - ACST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus AC%sT 1971 +  9:30 AS AC%sT      # Tasmania   #   # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16): - # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml> + # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml   # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep -  10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 -  10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb -  10:00 Aus EST 1967 -  10:00 AT EST +  10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 +  10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1967 +  10:00 AT AE%sT   Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep -  10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 -  10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb -  10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul -  10:00 AT EST +  10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 +  10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 Jul +  10:00 AT AE%sT      # Victoria   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb -  10:00 Aus EST 1971 -  10:00 AV EST +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 +  10:00 AV AE%sT      # New South Wales   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb -  10:00 Aus EST 1971 -  10:00 AN EST +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1971 +  10:00 AN AE%sT   Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb -  10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23 -  9:00 - CST 1899 May -  9:30 Aus CST 1971 -  9:30 AN CST 2000 -  9:30 AS CST +  10:00 - AEST 1896 Aug 23 +  9:00 - ACST 1899 May +  9:30 Aus AC%sT 1971 +  9:30 AN AC%sT 2000 +  9:30 AS AC%sT      # Lord Howe Island   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -   Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -   Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -   Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -   Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -   Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -   Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -   Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -   Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb -  10:00 - EST 1981 Mar -  10:30 LH LHST +  10:00 - AEST 1981 Mar +  10:30 LH +1030/+1130 1985 Jul +  10:30 LH +1030/+11      # Australian miscellany   #   # Ashmore Is, Cartier   # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers   # no times are set   #   # Coral Sea Is   # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists   # no times are set   #   # Macquarie   # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;   # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919. See the   # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island - # <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828> - # <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831>. + # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828 + # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831   # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):   # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:   # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not   # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do   # on 4 April.   #   # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):   # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics - # will produce a binary file with an EST-type as the first 32-bit type; + # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;   # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by   # pre-2013 versions of localtime. - Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0 - zzz 1899 Nov -  10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 -  10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb -  10:00 Aus EST 1919 Apr 1 0:00s -  0 - zzz 1948 Mar 25 -  10:00 Aus EST 1967 -  10:00 AT EST 2010 Apr 4 3:00 -  11:00 - MIST # Macquarie I Standard Time + Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0 - -00 1899 Nov +  10:00 - AEST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 +  10:00 1:00 AEDT 1917 Feb +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1919 Apr 1 0:00s +  0 - -00 1948 Mar 25 +  10:00 Aus AE%sT 1967 +  10:00 AT AE%sT 2010 Apr 4 3:00 +  11:00 - +11      # Christmas   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb -  7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time +  7:00 - +07    - # Cook Is - # From Shanks & Pottenger: - # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS - Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 - - Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua -  -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time -  -10:00 Cook CK%sT -  - # Cocos + # Cocos (Keeling) Is   # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.   # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900 -  6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time +  6:30 - +0630    -  +    # Fiji      # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):   # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Fiji plans to re-introduce DST   # from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010.   #   # "Daylight savings to commence this month" - # <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719"> +    # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):   # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved   # amendments: - # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml"> +    # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):   # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on   # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.   # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March   # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).   #   # Official source: - # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166"> +    # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166 - # </a> +    #   # A bit more background info here: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):   # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3   # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...   # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,   # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site: - # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> +    # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 - # </a> - # or - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html - # </a> +       # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):   # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date   # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).   # - # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> - # www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 - # </a> + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155   # which says   # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in   # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to   # 2am on February 26 next year.      # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)   # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for   # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.   # - # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> +    # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 - # </a> +    # states:   #   # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012   # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.   # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start   # on the 23rd of October, 2011.      # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:   # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate   # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st   # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.   # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155      # From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler: - # Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 and end at 3am - # on Sunday 19th January, 2014.... move clocks forward by one hour from 2am + # Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ... + # move clocks forward by one hour from 2am   # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx - # - # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09): - # For now, guess that Fiji springs forward the Sunday before the fourth - # Monday in October. This matches both recent practice and - # timeanddate.com's current spring-forward prediction. - # For the January 2014 transition we guessed right while timeanddate.com - # guessed wrong, so leave the fall-back prediction alone. +     -  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10): + # Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00: + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx +  + # From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20): + # DST will start Nov. 2 this year. + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx +  + # From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77 + # in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28), + # via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02): + # the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time + # commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at + # 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016. +  + # From Raymond Kumar (2016-10-04): + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-6th-NOVEMBER,-2016.aspx + # "Fiji's daylight savings will begin on Sunday, 6 November 2016, when + # clocks go forward an hour at 2am to 3am.... Daylight Saving will + # end at 3.00am on Sunday 15th January 2017." +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-08-21): + # Dominic Fok writes (2017-08-20) that DST ends 2018-01-14, citing + # Extraordinary Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 21 (2017-08-27), + # [Legal Notice No. 41] of an order of the previous day by J Usamate. + # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00 + # the first Sunday on or after January 14. Although ad hoc, it matches + # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future + # practice than guessing no DST. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 - - Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Fiji 2010 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 - - Rule Fiji 2010 max - Oct Sun>=21 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 2010 2013 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Fiji 2011 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 - - Rule Fiji 2012 max - Jan Sun>=18 3:00 0 - + Rule Fiji 2012 2013 - Jan Sun>=18 3:00 0 - + Rule Fiji 2014 only - Jan Sun>=18 2:00 0 - + Rule Fiji 2014 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Fiji 2015 max - Jan Sun>=14 3:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:55:44 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva -  12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time + Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:55:44 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva +  12:00 Fiji +12/+13      # French Polynesia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea -  -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time + Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea +  -9:00 - -09   Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct -  -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time - Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete -  -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time +  -9:30 - -0930 + Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete +  -10:00 - -10   # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;   # it is uninhabited.      # Guam   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 -  9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana -  10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam +  9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana +  10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam    10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time -  + Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is      # Kiribati   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki -  12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time + Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki +  12:00 - +12   Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901 -  -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time -  -11:00 - PHOT 1995 -  13:00 - PHOT +  -12:00 - -12 1979 Oct +  -11:00 - -11 1994 Dec 31 +  13:00 - +13   Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901 -  -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time -  -10:00 - LINT 1995 -  14:00 - LINT +  -10:40 - -1040 1979 Oct +  -10:00 - -10 1994 Dec 31 +  14:00 - +14      # N Mariana Is - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 -  9:43:00 - LMT 1901 -  9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time -  10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23 -  10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time + # See Pacific/Guam.      # Marshall Is   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901 -  11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time -  12:00 - MHT +  11:00 - +11 1969 Oct +  12:00 - +12   Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901 -  11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct -  -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time -  12:00 - MHT +  11:00 - +11 1969 Oct +  -12:00 - -12 1993 Aug 20 +  12:00 - +12      # Micronesia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Chuuk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901 -  10:00 - CHUT # Chuuk Time - Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia -  11:00 - PONT # Pohnpei Time +  10:00 - +10 + Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia +  11:00 - +11   Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901 -  11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time -  12:00 - KOST 1999 -  11:00 - KOST +  11:00 - +11 1969 Oct +  12:00 - +12 1999 +  11:00 - +11      # Nauru   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe -  11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time -  9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15 -  11:30 - NRT 1979 May -  12:00 - NRT + Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe +  11:30 - +1130 1942 Mar 15 +  9:00 - +09 1944 Aug 15 +  11:30 - +1130 1979 May +  12:00 - +12      # New Caledonia   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S + Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 -   Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 - - Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 -   # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.   Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 -  11:00 NC NC%sT + Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa +  11:00 NC +11/+12         ###############################################################################      # New Zealand      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S   Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M   Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S   Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M   Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M   Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S   Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S - # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no - # convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines. + # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a + # there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this + # transition. Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change + # time to percolate out.   Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 -   Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S - Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 -   Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 -   Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S - Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 -   Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 -   Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 -   Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S - Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 -   Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 -   Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S - Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S + Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2    11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1    12:00 NZ NZ%sT - Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1 -  12:45 Chatham CHA%sT + Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1868 Nov 2 +  12:15 - +1215 1946 Jan 1 +  12:45 Chatham +1245/+1345      Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo      # Auckland Is - # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers, + # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,   # and scientific personnel have wintered      # Campbell I   # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914   # scientific station operated 1941/1995;   # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered   # was probably like Pacific/Auckland    -  + # Cook Is + # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 - + Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 - + Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua +  -10:30 - -1030 1978 Nov 12 +  -10:00 Cook -10/-0930 +    ###############################################################################         # Niue   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi -  -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time -  -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1 -  -11:00 - NUT + Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi +  -11:20 - -1120 1951 +  -11:30 - -1130 1978 Oct 1 +  -11:00 - -11      # Norfolk   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston -  11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time -  11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time + Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston +  11:12 - +1112 1951 +  11:30 - +1130 1974 Oct 27 02:00 +  11:30 1:00 +1230 1975 Mar 2 02:00 +  11:30 - +1130 2015 Oct 4 02:00 +  11:00 - +11      # Palau (Belau)   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror -  9:00 - PWT # Palau Time + Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror +  9:00 - +09      # Papua New Guinea   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880 -  9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time -  10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time +  9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time +  10:00 - +10 + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13): + # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have + # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War. + # + # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates + # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns. + # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta. + # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942, + # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia + # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm + # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender. + # + # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11 + # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00. They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time". + # See: + # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/ + # + Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 - LMT 1880 +  9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 +  10:00 - +10 1942 Jul +  9:00 - +09 1945 Aug 21 +  10:00 - +10 2014 Dec 28 2:00 +  11:00 - +11      # Pitcairn   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown -  -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00 -  -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time + Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown +  -8:30 - -0830 1998 Apr 27 0:00 +  -8:00 - -08      # American Samoa - Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 + Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1892 Jul 5    -11:22:48 - LMT 1911 -  -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time -  -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome -  -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering -  -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa +  -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa + Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands    - # Samoa + # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):   # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received   # the following info:   #   # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year   # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first   # Sunday of April 2011."   #   # Background info: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html   #   # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not   # contain any dates: - # <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf"> +    # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf - # </a> +       # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):   # Please see - # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws"> +    # http://www.mcil.gov.ws - # </a>, +    # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday   # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight   # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks   # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"      # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07): - # I believe this will be posted shortly on the website - # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws"> - # www.mcil.gov.ws - # </a> + # [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]   # - # PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME - # - # Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision, - # businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight - # saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11). - # - # The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes - # the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, - # then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be - # adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs). - # - # Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE, - # INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011 + # ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am + # or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to + # measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock + # (3:00am or 0300Hrs).    - # From David Zuelke (2011-05-09): + # From David Zülke (2011-05-09):   # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line   # - # <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963"> +    # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963 - # </a> +     - # From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17): - # I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law - # Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she - # confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather - # than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But - # the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa - # changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13: - # - # International Date Line Bill 2011 - # - # AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make - # consequential amendments to the position of the International Date - # Line, and for related purposes. - # - # BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament - # assembled as follows: - # - # 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the - # International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act - # commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3) - # Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State. - # - # [snip] - # - # 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any - # other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the - # time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time. - # - # 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa - # standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated - # Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's - # time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and - # instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to - # Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this - # Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that - # it defines Samoa standard time.... + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27): + # The International Date Line Act 2011 + # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf + # changed Samoa from UT -11 to +13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on + # Thursday 29th December 2011". The International Date Line was adjusted + # accordingly.      # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02): - # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html"> +    # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html - # </a> +    #   # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change   #   # DST - # Year End Time Start Time - # 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am - # 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - - + # Year End Time Start Time + # 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am + # 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - -   #   # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011   # Thursday 29th December 2011 23:59:59 Hours   # Saturday 31st December 2011 00:00:00 Hours   # - # Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03): - # Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 - # seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on - # a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below. - # - # From Nicky (2012-09-10): + # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):   # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and - # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013. - # - # Please find link below for more information. + # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....   # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html   # - # That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well - # which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the - # future, so for now, we will guess this will continue. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): + # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4. + # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.    - # Western Samoa +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule WS 2012 max - Sep lastSun 3:00 1 D + Rule WS 2010 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 1 - + Rule WS 2011 only - Apr Sat>=1 4:00 0 - + Rule WS 2011 only - Sep lastSat 3:00 1 -   Rule WS 2012 max - Apr Sun>=1 4:00 0 - -  + Rule WS 2012 max - Sep lastSun 3:00 1 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5 + Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1892 Jul 5    -11:26:56 - LMT 1911 -  -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time -  -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26 -  -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 2 4:00 -  -11:00 - WST 2011 Sep 24 3:00 -  -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Dec 30 -  13:00 1:00 WSDT 2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00 -  13:00 WS WS%sT +  -11:30 - -1130 1950 +  -11:00 WS -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00 +  13:00 WS +13/+14      # Solomon Is   # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara -  11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time + Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara +  11:00 - +11    - # Tokelau Is + # Tokelau   #   # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)   # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping   # December 31 this year ...   #   # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)   # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking   # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13.... - # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change - # actually was to UTC-11 back then. + # Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change + # actually was to UT-11 back then.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)   # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of   # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948, - # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau + # <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau   # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T." Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger   # are off by an hour starting in 1901.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901 -  -11:00 - TKT 2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time -  13:00 - TKT +  -11:00 - -11 2011 Dec 30 +  13:00 - +13      # Tonga   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 - - Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 - -  + Rule Tonga 2016 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Tonga 2017 only - Jan Sun>=15 3:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901 -  12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time -  13:00 - TOT 1999 -  13:00 Tonga TO%sT +  12:20 - +1220 1941 +  13:00 - +13 1999 +  13:00 Tonga +13/+14      # Tuvalu   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901 -  12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time +  12:00 - +12         # US minor outlying islands      # Howland, Baker   # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British   # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.   # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;   # uninhabited thereafter. - # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT-10:30) in 1937; + # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937;   # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,   # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).   # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935   # until they were abandoned after the war.      # Jarvis   # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.   # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;   # uninhabited thereafter.   # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati      # Johnston   # - # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-03): + # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): + # Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind. + # Details are uncertain. We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so + # treat it like Hawaii for now. Since Johnston is now uninhabited, + # its link to Pacific/Honolulu is in the 'backward' file. + #   # In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945   # <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,   # "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM   # Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time." This was in June 1945, and   # confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945. - # We have no better information, so for now, assume this has been true - # indefinitely into the past. +    # - # See 'northamerica' for Pacific/Johnston. + # From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11): + # [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used + # was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships, + # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours. This apparently applied to at least the + # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last + # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin, + # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the + # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976. + # https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf + # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a + # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time + # Minus One Hour".      # Kingman   # uninhabited      # Midway - # - # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23): - # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies, - # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3] - # reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly - # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting - # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone - # designations that I've never seen before:.... - # Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun. - # " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A " - # - Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901 -  -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3 -  -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2 -  -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome -  -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering -  -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa + # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.      # Palmyra   # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati      # Wake   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901 -  12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time +  12:00 - +12         # Vanuatu   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 - - Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 - + Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 -   Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 - - Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila -  11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time + Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila +  11:00 Vanuatu +11/+12      # Wallis and Futuna   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901 -  12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time +  12:00 - +12      ###############################################################################      # NOTES    - # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see + # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21): - # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): + # + # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). -  + # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   # - # Gwillim Law writes that a good source - # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source + # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries - # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted, + # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for - # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. - # +    # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which   # I found in the UCLA library.   #   # For data circa 1899, a common source is: - # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 - # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. + # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94. + # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   # - # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; - # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. + # The following abbreviations are from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome! - # std dst - # LMT Local Mean Time - # 8:00 WST WST Western Australia - # 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia* - # 9:00 JST Japan - # 9:30 CST CST Central Australia - # 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia - # 10:00 ChST Chamorro - # 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe* - # 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945 - # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present - # 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham* - # -11:00 SST Samoa - # -10:00 HST Hawaii - # - 8:00 PST Pitcairn* + # std dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # 8:00 AWST AWDT Western Australia + # 9:30 ACST ACDT Central Australia + # 10:00 AEST AEDT Eastern Australia + # 10:00 GST Guam through 2000 + # 10:00 ChST Chamorro + # 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945 + # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present + # -11:00 SST Samoa + # -10:00 HST Hawaii   # - # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii. - # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is. + # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii. + # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.      ###############################################################################      # Australia    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30): + # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting + # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global. + # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving + # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native + # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was + # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a + # Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded + # Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables + # about fading curtains and crazed farm animals." + # Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03) + # http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm +    # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08): - # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml"> +    # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia - # </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. + # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml + # summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.      # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12): - # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving"> +    # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales - # </a> covers New South Wales in particular. + # http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving + # covers New South Wales in particular.      # From John Mackin (1991-03-06): - # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time. - # It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer' - # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the + # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time. + # It is called 'summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer' + # and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the   # abbreviation does _not_ change...   # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least   # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the   # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses - # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight + # the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight   # time'.   # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian - # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time' - # or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the + # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time' + # or 'Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the   # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers   # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases - # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times; + # prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;   # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.    - # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): - # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is: - # CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30 - # WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00 - # EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00 -  - # From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01): - # I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones: - # <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time> - # And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations: - # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml> -  - # From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST" - # versus "AEST" etc.: + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):   # - # I see the following points of dispute: + # Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this + # file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer + # Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST". + # However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common + # practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints + # about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage. + # For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important; + # what matters is the abbreviation. It's difficult to survey the web + # directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for + # strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an + # abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the + # following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:   # - # * How important are unique time zone abbreviations? + # 10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits] + # 10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au + # 10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au + # 13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au + # 18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au + # 28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au + # 39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits] + # 53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits] + # 54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au + # 182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au   # - # Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris - # Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper - # operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity - # (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian - # Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon. - # In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique - # abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't - # think it's that important to cater to such software these days. + # 17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits] + # 46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au   # - # On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous - # abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is - # particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for - # time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second. + # I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but + # they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits. I also looked for pages + # mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since + # there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:   # - # * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used? + # 156 "western standard time" AWST site:au + # 226 "western standard time" WST site:au   # - # Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in - # many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about - # which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard - # Time, for example. + # I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as + # listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au" + # and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results. + # All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT". The papers + # surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail, + # The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser, + # The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).   # - # Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to - # refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a - # tiebreaker. + # I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations + # like "AEDT" are new. A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/> + # found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style + # dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't + # fully indexed. The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations + # like "AEDT". The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather + # column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column + # (1993-01-24, p 16). The style was the typical usage but was not + # strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..." + # (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and + # WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel + # about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two + # territories has prompted one group to form its very own political + # party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."   # - # * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern - # Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with - # the word "Australian"? + # I also surveyed federal government sources. They did not agree:   # - # My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are - # common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more - # popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more - # often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the - # following count of page hits: + # The Australian Government (2014-03-26) + # http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time + # (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.) + # AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT   # - # 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au - # 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au - # 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au - # 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au + # Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08) + # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml + # EST CST WST EDT CDT   # - # Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight", - # particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US, - # say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer - # Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time. + # Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated) + # http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml + # EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)   # - # For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of - # ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and - # many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here - # are the hit counts anyway: + # Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24) + # http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp + # AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT   # - # 161,304 "EST" and domain:au - # 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au - # 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au - # 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au + # Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10) + # https://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf + # EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used   # - # 14,538 "CST" and domain:au - # 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au - # 176 "ACST" and domain:au - # 29 "ACDT" and domain:au + # The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports, + # and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like. + # Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits: + # 311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT". + # "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to + # appear in reports of events with international implications.   # - # 7,539 "WST" and domain:au - # 68 "AWST" and domain:au - # - # This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in - # practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given - # the ambiguities involved. - # - # * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database? - # - # If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3 - # against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay, - # saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and - # understood in Australia. + # From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in + # Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although + # some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in + # the minority. The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it + # seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all + # the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments, + # it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A". The current + # version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and + # "AEDT" for Australian time zones.      # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):   # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.   # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper   # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,   # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970 - # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time. + # and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.   # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.      # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):   #   # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,   # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more   # relevant entries in this database.   #   # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill): - # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html"> +    # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04) - # </a> + # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html   # ACT - # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html"> +    # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 - # </a> + # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html   # SA - # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html"> +    # Standard Time Act, 1898 - # </a> + # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html      # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):   # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by   # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.   # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday   # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.   #   # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):   # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan   # to extend DST together in 2006.   # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt   # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html   # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html   # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772   # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles   # allude to it.   # But not Queensland - # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html. + # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html      # Northern Territory      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]   # # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.   # ...   # Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1082:   # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney   # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at   # work at 9.00am.)   # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse   # everybody again.      # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):   # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;   # it matches what was used in the past.    - # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm"> +    # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ - # </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses + # http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm + # (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses   # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-01): + # The Guardian Express of Perth, Australia reported today that the + # government decided to advance the clocks permanently on January 1, + # 2019, from UT +08 to UT +09. The article noted that an exemption + # would be made for people aged 61 and over, who "can apply in writing + # to have the extra hour of sunshine removed from their area." See: + # Daylight saving coming to WA in 2019. Guardian Express. 2018-04-01. + # https://www.communitynews.com.au/guardian-express/news/exclusive-daylight-savings-coming-wa-summer-2018/ +    # Queensland -  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-26): + # I lack access to the following source for Queensland DST: + # Pearce C. History of daylight saving time in Queensland. + # Queensland Hist J. 2017 Aug;23(6):389-403 + # https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=994682348436426;res=IELHSS +    # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]   # # [ Dec 1990 ]   # ...   # Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST   # ...   # Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E   # Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1125:   # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...   # ...   # Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S   # ...      # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):   # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.      # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning - # from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01): + # from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):   # WA are trialing DST for three years. - # <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf> + # http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf      # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):   # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the   # southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western   # Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The   # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so   # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the   # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South   # Australia and Western Australia....   #   # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):   # This is confirmed by the section entitled   # "What's the deal with time zones???" in - # <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>. + # http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html   #   # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):   # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,   # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern   # coast of the continent.   #   # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no   # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border   # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west   # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1289:   # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):   # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.      # New South Wales      # From Arthur David Olson:   # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.   # Based on law library research by John Mackin,   # who notes:   # In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the - # individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time'' + # individual states. Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"   # [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common   # use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the   # legislation. This is very important to understand.   # I have researched New South Wales time only...      # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):   # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual - # October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore, - # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html"> - # Two months more daylight saving - # </a> - # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).] + # October in 2000. See: Matthew Moore, + # Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26). + # http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html      # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):   # See the following official NSW source: - # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ"> +    # Daylight Saving in New South Wales. - # </a> + # http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ   #   # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of   # daylight saving next year. See: - # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm"> +    # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving - # </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens. + # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm + # (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.   # - # Victoria will following NSW. See: - # <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm"> - # Vic to extend daylight saving - # </a> (1999-07-28). + # Victoria will follow NSW. See: + # Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28) + # http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm   #   # However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See: - # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm"> - # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request - # </a> (1999-07-19). + # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19) + # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm   #   # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See: - # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm"> +    # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics - # </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying - # ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time + # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm + # (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying + # "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time   # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very   # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of   # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night. - # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.'' + # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."   #   # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See: - # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm"> - # Broken Hill to be behind the times - # </a> (1999-07-21). + # Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21) + # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm      # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian   # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken   # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.      # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:   # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW   # towns to use Queensland time.      # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):   # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.      # Yancowinna      # From John Mackin (1989-01-04): - # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna. + # 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]   # # [ Dec 1990 ]   # ...   # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the   # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings   # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government   # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have   # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1411:      # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):   # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):   # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight   # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009   # summer (southern hemisphere).   #   # From - # <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf"> +    # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf - # </a> +    # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling   # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.   # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each   # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.   # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia   # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and   # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...   #   # We have a wrap-up here: - # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html"> - # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html - # </a> + # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html   ###############################################################################      # New Zealand      # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):   # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.   # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for   # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start). - # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office. + # source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!   # # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.   # # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]   # ...   # Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1463:      # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);   # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.   # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight   # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard   # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.   # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history, - # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references. + # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.html for the full references.   # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.   #   # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with   # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham   # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.      # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):   # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the   # first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning   # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.   # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14): + # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by + # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26). + # https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf + # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand + # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard + # time in the Chatham Islands. The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New + # Zealand time. I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow." + # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time + # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match + # LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did + # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST. +    ###############################################################################         # Fiji      # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji   # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time   # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).      # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):   # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01   # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will   # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.      # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):   # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow.      # From the BBC World Service in   # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC): - # The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to + # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to   # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also   # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning   # of the new millennium.      # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)   # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.    - # Johnston +     - # Johnston data is from usno1995. -  -  +    # Kiribati      # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):   # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati - # ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995'' + # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"   # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.    -  + # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03): + # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition + # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995. + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04): + # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All: + # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).      # Kwajalein      # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:   # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,   # 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with   # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,   # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.         # N Mariana Is, Guam    - # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the - # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones + # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the + # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones   # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.   # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;   # see Asia/Manila.    - # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time, + # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,   # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation,   # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,   # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".         # Micronesia      # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16), - # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk" - # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.'' + # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk' + # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."   # - # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 + # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11   # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):   # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in - # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html"> - # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information - # </a> (1999-01-26) - # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11. - # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now. + # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26) + # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html + # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11. + # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.         # Midway      # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),   # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection   # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):   # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight   # Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,   # your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956   # we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to   # air at 6am your time.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):   # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they   # started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years   # in Midway, but we have no record of it.    -  + # Norfolk    -  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23): + # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100: + # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text + # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015. + # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf +  + # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23): + # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted + # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's + # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST + # other than in 1974/5. See: + # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html +    # Pitcairn      # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):   # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998   # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.   #   # The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be   # Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known   # as Pitcairn Standard Time.   #   # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several   # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation   # somehow in light of this proclamation.      # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):   # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998   # ... at midnight.      # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:   # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as - # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in + # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be ½ hour different from us here in   # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.       - # Samoa + # (Western) Samoa and American Samoa    - # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald) - # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change - # ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, - # ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that - # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.'' + # Howse writes (p 153) that after the 1879 standardization on Antipodean + # time by the British governor of Fiji, the King of Samoa decided to change + # "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system, + # ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that + # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year." + # This happened in 1892, according to the Evening News (Sydney) of 1892-07-20. + # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl.htm    -  + # Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UT -11:30 + # in 1911, and to -11 in 1950. many earlier sources give -11 + # for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards + # circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932. + # Assume American Samoa switched to -11 in 1911, not 1950, + # and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a + # day in 2011. Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New + # Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.    -  +    # Tonga      # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22): - # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting - # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.'' + # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting + # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."   # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.      # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle - # <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm"> - # How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins' - # </a>: -  + # How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins': + # http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm + #   # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST   # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its   # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its   # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of - # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees + # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13°   # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).   # - # Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince - # Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time + # Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince + # Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time   # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.   #   # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer   # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40   # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40   # minutes we have lost?"   #   # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that   # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth   # to say your prayers in the morning."
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1653:   # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium   # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.   # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from   # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan   # Government.      # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # * Tonga will introduce DST in November   #   # I was given this link by John Letts: - # <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm"> +    # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm - # </a> +    #   # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November   # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead   # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead   # (12 + 1 hour DST).      # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20): - # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html"> - # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html - # </a>: + # According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:   # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000   # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the   # third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on   # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and   # set back an hour on the closing date."   # Alas, no indication of the time of day.      # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):   # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.   # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):   # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com   # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19   # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article   # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the   # text, and I have forgotten to report it here. - # (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm ) + # (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)      # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):   # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.      # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:   # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom   # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday   # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one   # hour to 1:00am.    - # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05): + # From Pulu ʻAnau (2002-11-05):   # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.    -  + # From Pulu ʻAnau (2016-10-27): + # http://mic.gov.to/news-today/press-releases/6375-daylight-saving-set-to-run-from-6-november-2016-to-15-january-2017 + # Cannot find anyone who knows the rules, has seen the duration or has seen + # the cabinet decision, but it appears we are following Fiji's rule set. + # + # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-26): + # Assume Tonga will observe DST from the first Sunday in November at 02:00 + # through the third Sunday in January at 03:00, like Fiji, for now.    -  + # From David Wade (2017-10-18): + # In August government was disolved by the King. The current prime minister + # continued in office in care taker mode. It is easy to see that few + # decisions will be made until elections 16th November. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18): + # For now, guess that DST is discontinued. That's what the IATA is guessing. +  +    # Wake      # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,   # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):   # - # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the + # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ... The time was all the   # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the   # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we   # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time   # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost   # impossible.   # - # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm + # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):   # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.      ###############################################################################      # The International Date Line      # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1738:   # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most   # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line   # has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific   # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international   # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is   # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some   # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not   # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the   # correct date is ambiguous.    - # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31): + # From Wikipedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):   # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting   # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's   # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's   # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the   # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all   # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones   # on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any   # nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted   # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's - # entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were + # entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight. These zones were   # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many   # independent merchant ships until World War II.      # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen   # (2005-03-20):   #   # The American Practical Navigator (2002) - # <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187> + # http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187   # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in   # international waters; it ignores the international date line.