pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / australasia

version» Context lines:

pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1: - # @(#)australasia 7.61 + # <pre> + # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of + # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson. +    # This file also includes Pacific islands.      # Notes are at the end of this file      ###############################################################################      # Australia    -  + # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -   Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -   Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -   Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -   # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which   # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that   # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Northern Territory   Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb    9:00 - CST 1899 May    9:30 Aus CST   # Western Australia -  + # + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec    8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul -  8:00 - WST 1974 Oct lastSun 2:00s -  8:00 1:00 WST 1975 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s -  8:00 - WST 1983 Oct lastSun 2:00s -  8:00 1:00 WST 1984 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s -  8:00 - WST 1991 Nov 17 2:00s -  8:00 1:00 WST 1992 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s -  8:00 - WST +  8:00 AW WST + Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec +  8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul +  8:45 AW CWST +    # Queensland   # - # From Alex Livingston <alex@agsm.unsw.edu.au> (1996-11-01): + # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):   # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast   # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after   # Queensland ceased to.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):   # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,   # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.   # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,   # so use Lindeman.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:59:    10:00 AQ EST   Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895    10:00 Aus EST 1971    10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul    10:00 Holiday EST      # South Australia   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AS 1987 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -   Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1990 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1991 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1992 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1993 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1994 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 - - Rule AS 1995 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb    9:00 - CST 1899 May    9:30 Aus CST 1971    9:30 AS CST      # Tasmania -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16): + # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml> + # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AT 1991 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 - -  + Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep    10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00    10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb    10:00 Aus EST 1967    10:00 AT EST -  + Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep +  10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00 +  10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb +  10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul +  10:00 AT EST      # Victoria   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AV 1995 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AV 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb    10:00 Aus EST 1971    10:00 AV EST      # New South Wales   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -   Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule AN 1996 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule AN 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - + Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb    10:00 Aus EST 1971    10:00 AN EST   Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb    10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23    9:00 - CST 1899 May    9:30 Aus CST 1971    9:30 AN CST 2000    9:30 AS CST      # Lord Howe Island   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 - - Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - - Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 - - Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 0:30 - - Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - - Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule LH 1996 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - - Rule LH 2001 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0:30 - + Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 - + Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 - + Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 - + Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 - + Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 - + Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 - + Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 - + Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -   Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb    10:00 - EST 1981 Mar    10:30 LH LHST      # Australian miscellany   #   # Ashmore Is, Cartier   # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers - # like Australia/Perth, says Turner + # no times are set   #   # Coral Sea Is   # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists - # no information + # no times are set   #   # Macquarie   # permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;   # sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917 - # like Australia/Hobart, says Turner + # like Australia/Hobart      # Christmas   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb    7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time      # Cook Is - # From Shanks: + # From Shanks & Pottenger:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS   Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -   Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua    -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time    -10:00 Cook CK%sT      # Cocos - # From USNO (1989): + # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978. + # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Indian/Cocos 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time + Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900 +  6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time      # Fiji -  +  + # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva. +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10): + # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Fiji plans to re-introduce DST + # from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010. + # + # "Daylight savings to commence this month" + # <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719"> + # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719 + # </a> + # or + # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html + # </a> +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10): + # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved + # amendments: + # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml"> + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml + # </a> +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03): + # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on + # 2010-03-28 at 03:00. + # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March + # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?). + # + # Official source: + # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166"> + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166 + # </a> + # + # A bit more background info here: + # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html"> + # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html + # </a> +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24): + # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3 + # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011... + # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands, + # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site: + # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 + # </a> + # or + # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html + # </a> +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03): + # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date + # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong). + # + # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> + # www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 + # </a> + # which says + # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in + # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to + # 2am on February 26 next year. +  + # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24) + # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for + # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22. + # + # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155"> + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155 + # </a> + # states: + # + # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012 + # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012. + # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start + # on the 23rd of October, 2011. +  + # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen: + # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate + # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st + # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013. + # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155 + # + # From Paul Eggert (2012-08-31): + # For now, guess a pattern of the penultimate Sundays in October and January. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 - -  + Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 2010 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 - + Rule Fiji 2010 max - Oct Sun>=18 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Fiji 2011 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 - + Rule Fiji 2012 max - Jan Sun>=18 3:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva + Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:55:44 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva    12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time      # French Polynesia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea    -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time   Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct    -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time   Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete    -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time   # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;   # it is uninhabited.      # Guam   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Guam 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana -  10:00 - GST + Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 +  9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana +  10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam +  10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time      # Kiribati   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki    12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time   Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901    -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time    -11:00 - PHOT 1995    13:00 - PHOT   Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901    -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time    -10:00 - LINT 1995    14:00 - LINT      # N Mariana Is   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Saipan 9:43:00 - LMT 1901 + Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31 +  9:43:00 - LMT 1901    9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time -  10:00 - MPT +  10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23 +  10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time      # Marshall Is   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901    11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time    12:00 - MHT   Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901    11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct    -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time    12:00 - MHT      # Micronesia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Yap 9:12:32 - LMT 1901 # Colonia -  9:00 - YAPT 1969 Oct # Yap Time -  10:00 - YAPT - Zone Pacific/Truk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901 -  10:00 - TRUT # Truk Time - Zone Pacific/Ponape 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia -  11:00 - PONT # Ponape Time + Zone Pacific/Chuuk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901 +  10:00 - CHUT # Chuuk Time + Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia +  11:00 - PONT # Pohnpei Time   Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901    11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time    12:00 - KOST 1999    11:00 - KOST      # Nauru   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe    11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time    9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15    11:30 - NRT 1979 May    12:00 - NRT      # New Caledonia   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -   Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks says the following was at 2:00; go with IATA. + # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.   Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13    11:00 NC NC%sT         ###############################################################################      # New Zealand      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Shanks gives 1927 Nov 6 - 1928 Mar 4, 1928 Oct 14 - 1929 Mar 17, - # 1929 Oct 13 - 1930 Mar 16; go with Whitman. - Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 26 2:00 0:30 HD - Rule NZ 1928 1929 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 S - Rule NZ 1928 only - Nov 4 2:00 0:30 HD - Rule NZ 1929 only - Oct 30 2:00 0:30 HD - Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 S - Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 HD - # Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base UT offset - # didn't change until 1945 Apr 30; go with Shanks. - Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 S - Rule NZ 1934 1939 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 HD - Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov 3 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S + Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M + Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S + Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M + Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M + Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S + Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S + # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no + # convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines. + Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S   Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct 8 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule NZ 1990 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D - Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb 23 2:00s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D   Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S - Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S - Rule Chatham 1990 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D - Rule Chatham 1991 max - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S + Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S + Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S + Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D + Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D + Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S + Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 -  11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1940 Sep 29 2:00 + Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2 +  11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1    12:00 NZ NZ%sT - Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT + Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1 +  12:45 Chatham CHA%sT         # Auckland Is   # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,   # and scientific personnel have wintered      # Campbell I   # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914   # scientific station operated 1941/1995;   # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:348:    11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time      # Palau (Belau)   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror    9:00 - PWT # Palau Time      # Papua New Guinea   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880 -  9:48:40 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time +  9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time    10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time      # Pitcairn   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown    -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00    -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time      # American Samoa   Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5    -11:22:48 - LMT 1911    -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time    -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome    -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering    -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa    - # W Samoa + # Samoa +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16): + # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received + # the following info: + # + # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year + # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first + # Sunday of April 2011." + # + # Background info: + # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html"> + # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html + # </a> + # + # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not + # contain any dates: + # <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf"> + # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf + # </a> +  + # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07): + # Please see + # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws"> + # http://www.mcil.gov.ws + # </a>, + # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday + # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight + # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks + # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am" +  + # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07): + # I believe this will be posted shortly on the website + # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws"> + # www.mcil.gov.ws + # </a> + # + # PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME + # + # Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision, + # businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight + # saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11). + # + # The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes + # the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, + # then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be + # adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs). + # + # Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE, + # INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011 +  + # From David Zuelke (2011-05-09): + # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line + # + # <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963"> + # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963 + # </a> +  + # From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17): + # I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law + # Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she + # confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather + # than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But + # the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa + # changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13: + # + # International Date Line Bill 2011 + # + # AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make + # consequential amendments to the position of the International Date + # Line, and for related purposes. + # + # BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament + # assembled as follows: + # + # 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the + # International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act + # commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3) + # Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State. + # + # [snip] + # + # 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any + # other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the + # time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time. + # + # 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa + # standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated + # Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's + # time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and + # instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to + # Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this + # Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that + # it defines Samoa standard time.... +  + # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02): + # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html"> + # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html + # </a> + # + # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change + # + # DST + # Year End Time Start Time + # 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am + # 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - - + # + # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011 + # Thursday 29th December 2011 23:59:59 Hours + # Saturday 31st December 2011 00:00:00 Hours + # + # Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03): + # Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 + # seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on + # a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below. + # + # From Nicky (2012-09-10): + # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and + # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013. + # + # Please find link below for more information. + # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html + # + # That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well + # which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the + # future, so for now, we will guess this will continue. +  + # Western Samoa + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule WS 2012 max - Sep lastSun 3:00 1 D + Rule WS 2012 max - Apr Sun>=1 4:00 0 - + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5    -11:26:56 - LMT 1911    -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time -  -11:00 - WST # W Samoa Time +  -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26 +  -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 2 4:00 +  -11:00 - WST 2011 Sep 24 3:00 +  -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Dec 30 +  13:00 1:00 WSDT 2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00 +  13:00 WS WS%sT      # Solomon Is   # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara    11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time      # Tokelau Is -  + # + # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29) + # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping + # December 31 this year ... + # + # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25) + # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking + # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13.... + # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change + # actually was to UTC-11 back then. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25) + # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of + # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948, + # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau + # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T." Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger + # are off by an hour starting in 1901. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901 -  -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time +  -11:00 - TKT 2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time +  13:00 - TKT      # Tonga   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 - - Rule Tonga 2000 only - Nov 4 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Tonga 2001 only - Jan 27 2:00s 0 - + Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901    12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time    13:00 - TOT 1999    13:00 Tonga TO%sT      # Tuvalu   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901    12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time         # US minor outlying islands      # Howland, Baker - # uninhabited since World War II - # no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago + # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British + # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known. + # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944; + # uninhabited thereafter. + # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937; + # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long, + # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000). + # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935 + # until they were abandoned after the war.      # Jarvis - # uninhabited since 1958 + # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?. + # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958; + # uninhabited thereafter.   # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati      # Johnston   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST      # Kingman   # uninhabited      # Midway -  + # + # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23): + # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies, + # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3] + # reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly + # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting + # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone + # designations that I've never seen before:.... + # Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun. + # " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A " + #   Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901 -  +  -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3 +  -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2    -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome    -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering    -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa      # Palmyra   # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati      # Wake   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:455:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901    12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time      ###############################################################################      # NOTES      # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is - # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), - # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   # - # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source + # Gwillim Law writes that a good source   # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries   # of the IATA's data after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990, - # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990. + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for + # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.   #   # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which   # I found in the UCLA library.   # -  + # For data circa 1899, a common source is: + # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 + # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. + #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   #   # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;   # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome!   # std dst   # LMT Local Mean Time   # 8:00 WST WST Western Australia -  + # 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*   # 9:00 JST Japan   # 9:30 CST CST Central Australia   # 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia - # 10:00 GST Guam + # 10:00 ChST Chamorro   # 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe* - # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand + # 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945 + # 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present   # 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*   # -11:00 SST Samoa   # -10:00 HST Hawaii   # - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*   #   # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.   # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.      ###############################################################################      # Australia    - # <a href="http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html"> - # Australia's Daylight Saving Times - # </a>, by Margaret Turner, summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia. + # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08): + # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml"> + # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia + # </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.    -  + # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12): + # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving"> + # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales + # </a> covers New South Wales in particular. +    # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):   # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.   # It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'   # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the   # abbreviation does _not_ change...   # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least   # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the   # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses   # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight   # time'.   # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian   # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'   # or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the   # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers   # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases   # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;   # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.    - # From Arthur David Olson (March 8 1992): + # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):   # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:   # CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30   # WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00   # EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00    -  + # From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01): + # I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones: + # <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time> + # And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations: + # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml> +  + # From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST" + # versus "AEST" etc.: + # + # I see the following points of dispute: + # + # * How important are unique time zone abbreviations? + # + # Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris + # Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper + # operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity + # (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian + # Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon. + # In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique + # abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't + # think it's that important to cater to such software these days. + # + # On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous + # abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is + # particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for + # time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second. + # + # * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used? + # + # Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in + # many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about + # which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard + # Time, for example. + # + # Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to + # refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a + # tiebreaker. + # + # * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern + # Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with + # the word "Australian"? + # + # My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are + # common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more + # popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more + # often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the + # following count of page hits: + # + # 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au + # 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au + # 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au + # 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au + # + # Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight", + # particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US, + # say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer + # Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time. + # + # For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of + # ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and + # many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here + # are the hit counts anyway: + # + # 161,304 "EST" and domain:au + # 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au + # 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au + # 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au + # + # 14,538 "CST" and domain:au + # 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au + # 176 "ACST" and domain:au + # 29 "ACDT" and domain:au + # + # 7,539 "WST" and domain:au + # 68 "AWST" and domain:au + # + # This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in + # practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given + # the ambiguities involved. + # + # * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database? + # + # If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3 + # against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay, + # saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and + # understood in Australia. +    # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19): - # Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. - # Mark Prior <mrp@itd.adelaide.edu.au> writes that his newspaper + # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. + # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper   # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,   # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970   # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.   # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.    - # From Eric Ulevik <eau@zip.com.au> (1998-01-05): + # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):   #   # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,   # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more   # relevant entries in this database.   #   # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):   # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">   # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)   # </a>   # ACT   # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">   # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972   # </a>   # SA   # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">   # Standard Time Act, 1898   # </a>    -  + # From David Grosz (2005-06-13): + # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by + # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. + # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday + # in April instead of the last Sunday in March. + # + # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14): + # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan + # to extend DST together in 2006. + # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt + # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html + # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html + # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772 + # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles + # allude to it. + # But not Queensland + # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html. +    # Northern Territory      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]   # # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.   # ...   # Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST      # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:644:   # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted   # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...   # ...   # Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S   # ...      # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):   # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.    - # South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria + # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning + # from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01): + # WA are trialing DST for three years. + # <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>    - # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08): - # The rules from version 7.1 follow. - # There are lots of differences between these rules and - # the Shepherd et al. rules. Since the Shepherd et al. rules - # and Bradley White's newspaper article are in agreement on - # current DST ending dates, no worries. + # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09): + # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the + # southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western + # Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The + # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so + # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the + # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South + # Australia and Western Australia....   # - # Rule Oz 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 - - # Rule Oz 1986 max - Oct Sun<=24 2:00 1:00 - - # Rule Oz 1972 only - Feb 27 3:00 0 - - # Rule Oz 1973 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 - - # Rule Oz 1987 max - Mar Sun<=21 3:00 0 - - # Zone Australia/Tasmania 10:00 Oz EST - # Zone Australia/South 9:30 Oz CST - # Zone Australia/Victoria 10:00 Oz EST 1985 Oct lastSun 2:00 - # 10:00 1:00 EST 1986 Mar Sun<=21 3:00 - # 10:00 Oz EST + # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09): + # This is confirmed by the section entitled + # "What's the deal with time zones???" in + # <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>. + # + # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07): + # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway, + # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern + # coast of the continent. + # + # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no + # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border + # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west + # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is + # the largest population centre in this zone.... + # + # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the + # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I + # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have, + # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45. + # + # (2006-12-09): + # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving + # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis + # of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well + # before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.    - # From Robert Elz (1991-03-06): - # I believe that the current start date for DST is "lastSun" in Oct... - # that changed Oct 89. That is, we're back to the - # original rule, and that rule currently applies in all the states - # that have dst, incl Qld. (Certainly it was true in Vic). - # The file I'm including says that happened in 1988, I think - # that's incorrect, but I'm not 100% certain. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15): + # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the + # introduction of standard time in 1895.    -  +  + # southeast Australia + # + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT + # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October. + # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html +  +    # South Australia      # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):   # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...   # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving   # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]   # ...   # Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST   # ...   # Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C - # Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun<=21 3:00 0 C + # Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C   # Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C      # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):   # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide   # contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival,   # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."      # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):   # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)   # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:711:   # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):   # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....   # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...   # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).      # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):   # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,   # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can   # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....    - # From John Warburton <jwarb@SACBH.com.au> (1994-10-07): + # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):   # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...   # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....   # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. +    # Tasmania      # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd   # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]      # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):   # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have   # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:738:   # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):   # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the   # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,   # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria   # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000   # instead of the first Sunday in October.      # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:   # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300    + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. +    # Victoria      # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd   # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]    -  + # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29): + # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an + # interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was + # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar + # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located + # in Melbourne, Australia. + # + # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which + # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day + # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's + # fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time, + # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the + # expected time. + # + # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had + # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of + # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps + # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more. + # + # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html + # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au +  + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. +    # New South Wales      # From Arthur David Olson:   # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time. - # Based on law library research by John Mackin (john@basser.cs.su.oz), + # Based on law library research by John Mackin,   # who notes:   # In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the   # individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''   # [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common   # use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the   # legislation. This is very important to understand.   # I have researched New South Wales time only...    - # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27): - # The Information Service of the Australian National Standards Commission - # <a href="http://www.nsc.gov.au/InfoServ/Ileaflet/il27.htm"> - # Daylight Saving - # </a> page (1995-04) has an excellent overall history of Australian DST. - # The Community Relations Division of the NSW Attorney General's Department - # publishes a history of daylight saving in NSW. See: - # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/crd.nsf/pages/time2"> - # Lawlink NSW: Daylight Saving in New South Wales - # </a> -  - # From Eric Ulevik <eau@ozemail.com.au> (1999-05-26): + # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):   # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual   # October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,   # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">   # Two months more daylight saving   # </a>   # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]      # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):   # See the following official NSW source:   # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:822:   # </a> (1999-07-21).      # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian   # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken   # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.      # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:   # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW   # towns to use Queensland time.    + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. +    # Yancowinna      # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):   # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]   # # [ Dec 1990 ]   # ...   # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:846:   # # presently available.   # Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST   # ...   # Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C   # [followed by other Rules]      # Lord Howe Island      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06): - # LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen.. pauline@Aus ] + # LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]   # [ Dec 1990 ]   # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an   # hour ahead of NSW time.      # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):   # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same   # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the   # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is   # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time   # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour - # instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents + # instead of only 30 minutes. [Dependent] on the wishes of residents   # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing   # arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will   # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.      # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):   # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards   # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently   # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as   # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start   # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.    - # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-25): - # For Lord Howe we use Shanks through 1989, and Lonergan thereafter, + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and + # Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.    -  + # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23): + # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later. +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28): + # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight + # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009 + # summer (southern hemisphere). + # + # From + # <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf"> + # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf + # </a> + # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling + # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing. + # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each + # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year. + # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia + # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and + # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year... + # + # We have a wrap-up here: + # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html"> + # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html + # </a>   ###############################################################################      # New Zealand      # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):   # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.   # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for   # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).   # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.      # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):   # # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!   # # or is Australia the west island of N.Z. - # # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Geofft@Aus.. Auckland N.Z. ] + # # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]   # # [ Nov 1990 ]   # ...   # Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D   # Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S   # Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S   # ...   # Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand   # Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island      # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):   # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989   # rather than the October 1 value.      # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19); - # Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand. - # Robert Uzgalis <buz@cs.aukuni.ac.nz> writes that the New Zealand Daylight + # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ. + # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight   # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard   # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.   # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.   # - # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29): - # Shanks gives no time data for Chatham; usno1989 says it's +12:45, - # usno1995 says it's +12:45/+13:45, and IATA SSIM (1991/1999) - # gives the NZ rules but with transitions at 2:45 local standard time. - # Guess that they have been in lock-step with NZ since 1990. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history, + # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references. + # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger. + # + # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with + # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham + # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.    -  + # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30): + # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the + # first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning + # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06. + # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended +    ###############################################################################         # Fiji      # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji   # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time   # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).      # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:949:      # Johnston      # Johnston data is from usno1995.         # Kiribati      # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):   # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati - # ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995'' + # ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''   # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.         # Kwajalein      # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:   # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,   # 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with   # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,   # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.         # N Mariana Is, Guam      # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the   # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones   # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time. - # Ignore this for now, as we have no hard data. See also Asia/Manila. + # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines; + # see Asia/Manila.    -  + # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time, + # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation, + # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law, + # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".    -  +    # Micronesia    - # Alan Eugene Davis <adavis@kuentos.guam.net> writes (1996-03-16), + # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),   # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"   # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''   # - # Shanks writes that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 on 1978-10-01; - # ignore this for now. + # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11 + # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.      # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):   # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in   # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">   # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information   # </a> (1999-01-26)   # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.   # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.       -  + # Midway +  + # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956), + # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection + # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31): + # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight + # Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning, + # your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956 + # we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to + # air at 6am your time. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): + # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they + # started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years + # in Midway, but we have no record of it. +  +    # Pitcairn      # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):   # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998   # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.   #   # The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be   # Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known   # as Pitcairn Standard Time.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1053:   #   # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer   # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40   # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40   # minutes we have lost?"   #   # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that   # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth   # to say your prayers in the morning."    - # From Paul Eggert (1999-08-12): - # Shanks says the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.      # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):   # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium   # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.   # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from   # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan   # Government.    - # From Steffen Thorsen [straen@thorsen.priv.no] (1999-09-09): + # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # * Tonga will introduce DST in November   # - # I was given this link by John Letts <johnletts@earthlink.net>: - # <a hef="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm"> + # I was given this link by John Letts: + # <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">   # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm   # </a>   #   # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November   # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead   # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead   # (12 + 1 hour DST).    - # From Arthur David Olson [arthur_david_olson@nih.gov] (1999-09-20): - # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html> + # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20): + # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">   # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html   # </a>:   # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000   # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the   # third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on   # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and   # set back an hour on the closing date."   # Alas, no indication of the time of day.      # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/australasia:1102:   # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com   # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19   # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article   # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the   # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.   # (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )      # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):   # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.    + # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow: + # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom + # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday + # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one + # hour to 1:00am. +  + # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05): + # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't. +  +  + # Wake +  + # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup, + # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02): + # + # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the + # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the + # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we + # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time + # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost + # impossible. + # + # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm +  + # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23): + # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now. +    ###############################################################################      # The International Date Line      # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):   #   # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,   # convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.   # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on   # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.   #   # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and   # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL   # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most   # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line   # has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific   # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international - # convention, but are not legally binding national borders. - # - # An Anglo-French Conference on Time-Keeping at Sea (June, 1917) agreed that - # legal time on the high seas would be zone time, i.e., the standard time at - # the nearest meridian that is a multiple of fifteen degrees. The date is + # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is   # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some   # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not   # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the   # correct date is ambiguous. -  +  + # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31): + # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting + # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's + # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's + # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the + # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all + # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones + # on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any + # nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted + # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's + # entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were + # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many + # independent merchant ships until World War II. +  + # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen + # (2005-03-20): + # + # The American Practical Navigator (2002) + # <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187> + # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in + # international waters; it ignores the international date line.