pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / calendars

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/calendars:1: + ----- Calendrical issues -----    -  + As mentioned in Theory.html, although calendrical issues are out of + scope for tzdb, they indicate the sort of problems that we would run + into if we extended tzdb further into the past. The following + information and sources go beyond Theory.html's brief discussion. + They sometimes disagree. +  +  + France +  + Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20. + French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31, + and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23. +  +  + Russia +  + From Chris Carrier (1996-12-02): + On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an "Eternal Calendar" + with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week. + On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the + Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it + reverted to the 7-day week. With the 6-day week the usual days + off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month. + (Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_) +  +  + Mark Brader reported a similar story in "The Book of Calendars", edited + by Frank Parise (1982, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8719-6467-8), page 377. But: +  + From: Petteri Sulonen (via Usenet) + Date: 14 Jan 1999 00:00:00 GMT + ... +  + If your source is correct, how come documents between 1929 and 1940 were + still dated using the conventional, Gregorian calendar? +  + I can post a scan of a document dated December 1, 1934, signed by + Yenukidze, the secretary, on behalf of Kalinin, the President of the + Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet, if you like. +  +  +  + Sweden (and Finland) +  + From: Mark Brader + Subject: Re: Gregorian reform - a part of locale? + <news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com> + Date: 1996-07-06 +  + In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian. Sweden + decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of + those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap + year after 1696 would be in 1744 - putting the whole country on a calendar + different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years. +  + However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through; + they did, after all, have a leap year that year. And one in 1708. In 1712 + they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that + year!... +  + Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner, + getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule. +  + (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers + produced the following references to support it: "Tideräkning och historia" + by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tideräkning och + kalenderväsen" by Lars-Olof Lodén (1968). +  +  + Grotefend's data +  + From: "Michael Palmer" [with one obvious typo fixed] + Subject: Re: Gregorian Calendar (was Re: Another FHC related question + Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.german + Date: Tue, 9 Feb 1999 02:32:48 -800 + ... +  + The following is a(n incomplete) listing, arranged chronologically, of + European states, with the date they converted from the Julian to the + Gregorian calendar: +  + 04/15 Oct 1582 - Italy (with exceptions), Spain, Portugal, Poland (Roman +  Catholics and Danzig only) + 09/20 Dec 1582 - France, Lorraine +  + 21 Dec 1582/ +  01 Jan 1583 - Holland, Brabant, Flanders, Hennegau + 10/21 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Liege (Lüttich) + 13/24 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Augsburg + 04/15 Oct 1583 - electorate of Trier + 05/16 Oct 1583 - Bavaria, bishoprics of Freising, Eichstedt, Regensburg, +  Salzburg, Brixen + 13/24 Oct 1583 - Austrian Oberelsaß and Breisgau + 20/31 Oct 1583 - bishopric of Basel + 02/13 Nov 1583 - duchy of Jülich-Berg + 02/13 Nov 1583 - electorate and city of Köln + 04/15 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Würzburg + 11/22 Nov 1583 - electorate of Mainz + 16/27 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Strassburg and the margraviate of Baden + 17/28 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Münster and duchy of Cleve + 14/25 Dec 1583 - Steiermark +  + 06/17 Jan 1584 - Austria and Bohemia + 11/22 Jan 1584 - Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn + 12/23 Jan 1584 - Silesia and the Lausitz + 22 Jan/ +  02 Feb 1584 - Hungary (legally on 21 Oct 1587) +  Jun 1584 - Unterwalden + 01/12 Jul 1584 - duchy of Westfalen +  + 16/27 Jun 1585 - bishopric of Paderborn +  + 14/25 Dec 1590 - Transylvania +  + 22 Aug/ +  02 Sep 1612 - duchy of Prussia +  + 13/24 Dec 1614 - Pfalz-Neuburg +  +  1617 - duchy of Kurland (reverted to the Julian calendar in +  1796) +  +  1624 - bishopric of Osnabrück +  +  1630 - bishopric of Minden +  + 15/26 Mar 1631 - bishopric of Hildesheim +  +  1655 - Kanton Wallis +  + 05/16 Feb 1682 - city of Strassburg +  + 18 Feb/ +  01 Mar 1700 - Protestant Germany (including Swedish possessions in +  Germany), Denmark, Norway + 30 Jun/ +  12 Jul 1700 - Gelderland, Zutphen + 10 Nov/ +  12 Dec 1700 - Utrecht, Overijssel +  + 31 Dec 1700/ +  12 Jan 1701 - Friesland, Groningen, Zürich, Bern, Basel, Geneva, +  Turgau, and Schaffhausen +  +  1724 - Glarus, Appenzell, and the city of St. Gallen +  + 01 Jan 1750 - Pisa and Florence +  + 02/14 Sep 1752 - Great Britain +  + 17 Feb/ +  01 Mar 1753 - Sweden +  + 1760-1812 - Graubünden +  + The Russian empire (including Finland and the Baltic states) did not + convert to the Gregorian calendar until the Soviet revolution of 1917. +  + Source: H. Grotefend, _Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen + Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_, herausgegeben von Dr. O. Grotefend + (Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1941), pp. 26-28. +  + ----- +  + This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 2009-05-17 by + Arthur David Olson. +  + ----- + Local Variables: + coding: utf-8 + End:   Newline at end of file added.