pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / europe

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1:   # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.      # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to   # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see   # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31): + # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):   #   # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   # - # Gwillim Law writes that a good source - # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source + # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries   # of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted,   # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).   #   # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for   # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:30:   #   # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),   # which I found in the UCLA library.   #   # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition   # <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>   # [PDF] (1914-03)   #   # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 - # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes: + # <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes:   # "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables   # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,   # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.   #   # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.   # This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see - # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html   # The full Russian citation is:   # Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток   # введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го   # июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:   # Десятая гос. тип., 1919.   # http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf   #   # Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),   # History of Summer Time   # <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>   # (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) -  +    #   # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table; - # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. - # Corrections are welcome! - # std dst 2dst - # LMT Local Mean Time - # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic - # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* - # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* - # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer - # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer - # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe - # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)* - # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)* - # 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971) - # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe - # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)* - # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe - # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow + # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time, + # or are from other sources. Corrections are welcome! + # std dst 2dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic + # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer + # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer + # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe + # 0:19:32.13 AMT* NST* Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937) + # 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971) + # 1:00 IST GMT Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST + # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe + # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899) + # 1:36:34 RMT* LST* Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)* + # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe + # 3:00 MSK MSD MDST* Moscow    - # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), - # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members: + # The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for   # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%   # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous   # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.   # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)   # ...
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:112:   #   # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands   # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude   # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed   # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They   # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,   # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking   # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'   #   # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's - # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should - # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. + # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 18' 45" W. The longitude should + # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]      # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,   # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.   # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)   # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:153:      # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):   # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time   # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.   # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the   # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),   # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value   # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.   # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society   # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See: - # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg. + # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.   # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734   # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html   # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal   # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.   #   # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)   # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:183:   # which is permanently set to Summer Time.      # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):   # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of   # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country   # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which   # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the   # foundations of civilization throughout the world.   # -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;   # republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26 - # http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf + # https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill      # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this   # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the   # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".   # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:   # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press   # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:221:   # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the   # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)   # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).      # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):   # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir   # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any   # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't   # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British   # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally. - # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png - # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png      # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):   # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time   # which is to be introduced in May....   # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"   # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.      # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):   # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,   # so we use 'BDST'.      # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.   # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in - # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/      # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech - # http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0 + # https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0   # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   #   # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   #   # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger   # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:274:   #   # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   #   # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):   # -  + # Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as + # Greenwich was to London. For example:   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than - # Shanks & Pottenger. - # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory - # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was - # to London. For example: - # +    # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."   # -- James Joyce, Ulysses -  + # + # The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time"; + # this being Ireland, opinions differed. + # + # Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees + # with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink + # Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24. + # <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>. Malone + # writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when + # it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used + # the former and the 1896 edition used the latter). Evidently the + # news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists + # UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau. As it is + # not clear that there was any practical significance to the change + # from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this + # transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its + # fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.      # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time   # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that   # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'. She claimed   # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."   # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.   # Irish Times 2014-10-27. - # http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411 + # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411      # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):   # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.   # These include various relating to legal time, for example:   #   # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html   #   # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html   # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:343:   # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.   # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.      # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):   # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,   # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.   # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate   # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of   # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is   # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". + # + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07): + # The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct + # abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor + # focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time". Though the + # "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an + # error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that + # standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in + # summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter. (Thanks + # to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.) That is, when + # Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish + # Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT + # as a negative daylight saving time in winter. So, in this database + # IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for + # Irish Standard Time after that. See: + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print    -  + # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's + # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947: + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # Summer Time Act, 1916   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274   Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:466:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST   Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey   Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey   Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man    + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15): + # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the + # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html + # and with tests for OpenJDK: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html + # + # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the + # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the + # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish time stamps + # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst + # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often + # suffices. This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE + # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should + # not rely on it. + # + # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in + # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter. It is for when + # negative SAVE values are used. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Eire 1971 only - Oct 31 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u -1:00 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00s    -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00 +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00s +  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00s +  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00s +  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00s +  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/IST + # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used. +  1:00 Eire IST/GMT + # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative. + # 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u + # 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 + # 0:00 EU GMT/IST    -  +    ###############################################################################      # Europe    - # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, - # Common Market, etc. + # The following rules are for the European Union and for its + # predecessor organization, the European Communities. + # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -   # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:   # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:621:   #   Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -   # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.      # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):   # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of   # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the   # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.   #   # I did not find full texts of these acts. For the 1989 one we have - # title at http://base.garant.ru/70754136/ : + # title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :   # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of   # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,   # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".   # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to   # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules   # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov   # oblasts. Since last Sunday of March 1989:   # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:   # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);   # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:652:      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):   # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev   # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.   # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.   #   # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):   # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583   #   # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): - # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html + # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html      # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):   # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered   # to be standard.      # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:779:   # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September   # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).   #   # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):   # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to   # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).   #   # Sources (Russian language):   # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html   # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ - # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html + # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html   #   # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):   # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....   # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880    1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:895:    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Cyprus   # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.      # Czech Republic / Czechia + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15): + # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15. + # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas + # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time; + # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850    0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 9 +  1:00 Czech CE%sT 1946 Dec 1 3:00 + # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. +  1:00 -1:00 GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. + # 0:00 - GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # End of rearguard section.    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.      # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland      # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):   # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law   # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....   # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL   # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.   # - # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL   #   # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes   # in subsequent decrees with the law   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL   #   # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have   # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST   # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to   # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:975:    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   #   # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):   # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in   # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.   # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, - # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10): + # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark, + # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities + # on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU   # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.      # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing   # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),   # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   #   # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC   # is according to the following time line:
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1057:   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996 +  -3:00 - -03 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU -03/-02 1996    0:00 - GMT   Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit -  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29 -  -1:00 EU EG%sT +  -2:00 - -02 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -2:00 C-Eur -02/-01 1981 Mar 29 +  -1:00 EU -01/+00   Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -3:00 EU WG%sT +  -3:00 - -03 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU -03/-02   Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base    -4:00 Thule A%sT      # Estonia   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):   # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).   #   # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):   # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1100:   # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:   # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law   # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390   # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between   # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).   #   # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation   # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"   # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).    - # From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09) + # From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,   # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....   # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European   # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory   # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do   # after that.      # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):   # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1152:   # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):   #   # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.   # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour   # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made   # according to the central European standards.   #   # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac   # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in   # Finnish) at - # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf + # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf   #   # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings   # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.   #   # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:   # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401   #   # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not   # exist tonight."      # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):   # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013] - # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf + # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf   # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942   # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,   # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper   # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....   # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):   # Go with Oja over Shanks.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1291:    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Germany      # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. - # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.] + # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]      # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):   # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by - # http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/ + # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/   # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):   # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf   # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.   # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so   # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.         # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1388:   Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14    1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981    # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981; -  # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. +  # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Hungary   # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):   # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:   # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.   # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).   # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html   # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks   # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1460:   # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.   # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   #   # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):   # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see   # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1918 1919 - Nov 16 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1921 only - Jun 23 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1939 only - Oct 29 2:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1940 1941 - Nov Sun>=2 1:00s 0 - - Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 -   # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1942 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 -   # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week   Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908 -  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s +  -1:00 Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr 7 1:00s    0:00 - GMT      # Italy   #   # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):   # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,   # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).   # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.   # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,   # so record only the time in Rome.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1520:   # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):   # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.   # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...   # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is   # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...   # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):   # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944   # for the Kingdom of Italy. This is consistent with Renzo Baldini. - # Model Rome's occupation by using using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10 + # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10   # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it   # was effectively controlled by Germany.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 24:00 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1916 1917 - Sep 30 24:00 0 -   Rule Italy 1917 only - Mar 31 24:00 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 9 24:00 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1918 only - Oct 6 24:00 0 -   Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 1 24:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1835:   #   # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)   # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.   # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own   # decision to abolish DST this winter.   # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-   # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.   # News from Moldova (in russian): - # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html + # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html      # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):   # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077   # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):   # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that   # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time. Also, - # http://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara + # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara   # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.   # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Moldova 1997 max - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Moldova 1997 max - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880    1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1914:   # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most   # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically   # adopted Amsterdam mean time.   #   # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety   # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it   # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe   # Amsterdam mean time.      # The data entries before 1945 are taken from - # http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm + # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time   Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time   Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT   Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT   Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1940:   Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -   Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   # - # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted + # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted   # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835    0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1 -  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time +  0:20 Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16 0:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway   # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &   # Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1995:   # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since   # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere   # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):   #   # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,   # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was   # keeping Berlin time.   # - # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists + # <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists   # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in   # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite   # frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a   # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly   # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that   # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.   #   # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an   # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says   # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2033:   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -   # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,   # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., - # http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1 + # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1   # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.   # He also gives these further references:   # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>   # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>   Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2064:    1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977    1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal - # +    # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:   # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26) - # http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf + # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf   # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. - # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees - # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for - # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira. + # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett....   # -  + # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15): + # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...: + # These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which, + # according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins, + # all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ... +    # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   #   # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):   # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions   # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.   # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.   # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.   # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal - # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. + # harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.   # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2155:   Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time +  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 0:00u # Lisbon MT    0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00    1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT -  + # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.   Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time -  -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time -  -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -  -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 2:00u # Horta MT +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1942 Aug 15 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1943 Aug 28 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1944 Aug 26 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1945 Aug 25 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  -1:00 W-Eur -01/+00 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u -  -1:00 EU AZO%sT +  -1:00 EU -01/+00 + # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.   Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time -  -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 1:00u # Funchal MT +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1942 Aug 15 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1943 Aug 28 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1944 Aug 26 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1945 Aug 25 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1966 Apr 3 2:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT      # Romania   #   # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):   # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>   # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at   # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,   # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2231:   # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):   # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia   # changed in September 2011:   #   # One source is   # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/   # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,   # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html + # https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html   # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the   # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also   # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:   # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which   # does not contain any "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 + # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7   # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...   # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"   # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.   #   # The Wikipedia article refers to   # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896   # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.   #   # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's   # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2275:   # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N   # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding   # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):   # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):   # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)   # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711   # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660   # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279 - # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this: + # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:   # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,   # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,   # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat   # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   #   # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):   # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2322:   # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok   # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are   # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have   # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.      # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):   # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist   # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions   # are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative   # listing. The region codes listed come from - # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498 + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498   # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their   # future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level   # divisions where available.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]         # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):   # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...   # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2487:   # There were some exceptions, though.   # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,   # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992   # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some   # lists found in the internet are quite wild.)   #   # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.   # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091   # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the   # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at - # http://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html + # https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html   # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception   # 2 days before the switch.   #   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):   # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the   # chaotic early 1980s in Russia. It's not clear what these entries   # should be. For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the   # time in Moscow.      # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):   # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow - # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30").... + # Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30")....   # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.   # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)   # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by   # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow   # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory - # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" > + # coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" >   # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =   # 2:31:19 ...   #   # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):   # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in   # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).   # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in   # Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.      Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2529:    3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    3:00 - MSK       - # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): - # Europe/Simferopol covers... - # ** **** Crimea, Republic of - # ** **** Sevastopol + # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): + # Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.      Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880    2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 - EET 1992   # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2561:    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May   # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.    3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 0:00s    3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s   # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.   # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997    3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):   # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 - # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html + # https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html   # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):   # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks   # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial   # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.    2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00    4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s    3:00 - MSK         # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2744:   # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai      # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):   # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25   # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm   # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on   # 1995-05-28.   # - # http://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html + # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html   # has some historical data for Altai Krai: - # before 1957: west part on UTC+6, east on UTC+7 - # after 1957: UTC+7 - # since 1995: UTC+6 + # before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7 + # after 1957: UT+7 + # since 1995: UT+6   # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html   # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):   # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones   # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....   # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...   # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)   # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):   # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3118:      # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):   # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.   # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone   # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.   #   # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these   # districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently   # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females   # each! (Yikes!) - # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 - # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493 + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493   # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.   #   # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have   # fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the   # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most   # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of   # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf   # in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older   # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.   # Go with Srednekolymsk.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3225:   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia      # Slovakia   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava      # Slovenia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Spain + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14): + # + # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is: + # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios. + # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish). + # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf + # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure, + # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data. + # + # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for + # the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that + # the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart, + # with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to + # the next day's 00:00. Our data format cannot represent this + # directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a + # fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00. +  + # From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15): + # The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at + # https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf + # says in its article 5 (my translation): + # These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the + # instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1, + # the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer - Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M - Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1918 1919 - Oct 6 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 6 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S + # Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28. + Rule Spain 1937 only - Jun 16 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1937 only - Oct 2 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1938 only - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1938 only - Apr 30 23:00 2:00 M + Rule Spain 1938 only - Oct 2 24:00 1:00 S + # The following rules are for unified Spain again. + # + # Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on + # 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on + # 1939-04-15. For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not + # change during that period. + # + # The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain. + #Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1939 only - Oct 7 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1943 1944 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1945 1946 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 - - Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1949 only - Oct 2 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=12 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - - Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1977 only - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1978 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - + # Nationalist Spain during the civil war + #Rule NatSpain 1937 only - May 22 23:00 1:00 S + #Rule NatSpain 1937 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 24:00s 0 - + #Rule NatSpain 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00 1:00 S   # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s -  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30 + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1900 Dec 31 23:45:16 +  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1940 Mar 16 23:00    1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901 + Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1900 Dec 31 23:38:44    0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00    0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00    0:00 - WET 1924    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929    0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16    1:00 - CET 1986    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. -  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries T +  -1:00 - -01 1946 Sep 30 1:00    0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s    0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT   # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.      # Sweden      # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:   #   # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:   # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all   # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at   # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the   # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.   # - # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" + # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"   # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the   # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....   #   # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk   # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning   # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at   # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English   # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west   # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated   # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3409:   #   # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for   # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...   # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of   # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not   # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.   # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.   #   # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):   # The Federal regulations say - # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html - # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50". + # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html + # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 26' 22.50".   # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.      # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):   # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)   # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353   # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight   # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one   # hour before the beginning of service.      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3486:   # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:   # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm   # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document   # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:   # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm      # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):   # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer   # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.   # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th. - # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872 + # https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872   # Turkish: - # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373 + # https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464      # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):   # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the   # Turkish Local election....   # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik   # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.   # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):   # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,   # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST   # change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3525:   # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326      # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):   # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....   # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):   # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.   # It takes effect today, which is not much notice.    + # From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28): + # Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10. + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf + # + # From Even Scharning (2017-11-08): + # ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous": + # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482 + # From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08): + # Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like + # Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -   # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3624:   # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got   # approval from 266 deputies.   #   # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)   # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/   #   # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)   # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html   #   # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian) - # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/ + # https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/   #   # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):   # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the   # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter   # time this year after all.   #   # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):   # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone   # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar   # to Russia) was reverted today:
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3702:    1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00    2:00 - EET 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.   # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but   # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English   # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in   # portable Posix file names.   Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880 -  2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T +  2:20 - +0220 1924 May 2    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Vatican City   # See Europe/Rome.