pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / europe

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:61:   # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,   # or are from other sources. Corrections are welcome!   # std dst 2dst   # LMT Local Mean Time   # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic   # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer   # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer   # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe   # 0:19:32.13 AMT* NST* Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)   # 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971) + # 1:00 IST GMT Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST   # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe   # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)   # 1:36:34 RMT* LST* Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*   # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe   # 3:00 MSK MSD MDST* Moscow    - # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), - # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members: + # The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for   # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%   # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous   # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.   # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)   # ...
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:109:   #   # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands   # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude   # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed   # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They   # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,   # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking   # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'   #   # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's - # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should - # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. + # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 18' 45" W. The longitude should + # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]      # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,   # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.   # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)   # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:150:      # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):   # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time   # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.   # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the   # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),   # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value   # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.   # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society   # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See: - # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg. + # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.   # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734   # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html   # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal   # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.   #   # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)   # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:271:   #   # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   #   # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):   # -  + # Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as + # Greenwich was to London. For example:   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than - # Shanks & Pottenger. - # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory - # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was - # to London. For example: - # +    # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."   # -- James Joyce, Ulysses -  + # + # The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time"; + # this being Ireland, opinions differed. + # + # Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees + # with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink + # Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24. + # <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>. Malone + # writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when + # it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used + # the former and the 1896 edition used the latter). Evidently the + # news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists + # UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau. As it is + # not clear that there was any practical significance to the change + # from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this + # transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its + # fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.      # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time   # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that   # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'. She claimed   # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."   # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.   # Irish Times 2014-10-27.   # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411      # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:340:   # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.   # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.      # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):   # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,   # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.   # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate   # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of   # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is   # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". + # + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07): + # The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct + # abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor + # focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time". Though the + # "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an + # error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that + # standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in + # summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter. (Thanks + # to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.) That is, when + # Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish + # Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT + # as a negative daylight saving time in winter. So, in this database + # IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for + # Irish Standard Time after that. See: + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print      # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's   # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947: - # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print.html - # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print.html - # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print.html + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # Summer Time Act, 1916   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274   Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:469:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST   Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey   Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey   Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man    + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15): + # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the + # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html + # and with tests for OpenJDK: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html + # + # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the + # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the + # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish time stamps + # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst + # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often + # suffices. This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE + # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should + # not rely on it. + # + # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in + # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter. It is for when + # negative SAVE values are used. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Eire 1971 only - Oct 31 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u -1:00 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00s # Dublin MT +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00s    -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00s    0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00s    0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00s    0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00s    0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/IST + # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used. +  1:00 Eire IST/GMT + # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative. + # 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u + # 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 + # 0:00 EU GMT/IST    -  +    ###############################################################################      # Europe    - # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, - # Common Market, etc. + # The following rules are for the European Union and for its + # predecessor organization, the European Communities. + # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -   # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:   # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:898:    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Cyprus   # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.      # Czech Republic / Czechia + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15): + # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15. + # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas + # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time; + # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850    0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 9 +  1:00 Czech CE%sT 1946 Dec 1 3:00 + # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. +  1:00 -1:00 GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. + # 0:00 - GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # End of rearguard section.    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.      # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland      # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):   # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law   # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....   # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL   # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.   # - # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL   #   # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes   # in subsequent decrees with the law   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL   #   # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have   # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST   # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to   # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:978:    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   #   # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):   # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in   # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.   # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, - # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10): + # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark, + # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities + # on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU   # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.      # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing   # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),   # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   #   # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC   # is according to the following time line:
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1294:    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Germany      # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. - # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.] + # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]      # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):   # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by   # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/   # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):   # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf   # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.   # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1391:   Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14    1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981    # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981; -  # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. +  # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Hungary   # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):   # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:   # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.   # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).   # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html   # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks   # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1463:   # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.   # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   #   # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):   # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see   # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1918 1919 - Nov 16 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1921 only - Jun 23 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1939 only - Oct 29 2:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1940 1941 - Nov Sun>=2 1:00s 0 - - Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 -   # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1942 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 -   # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week   Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908    -1:00 Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr 7 1:00s    0:00 - GMT      # Italy
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1943:   Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -   Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   # - # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted + # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted   # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835    0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1    0:20 Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16 0:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2067:    1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977    1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal - # +    # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:   # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)   # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf   # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. - # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees - # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for - # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira. + # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett....   # -  + # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15): + # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...: + # These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which, + # according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins, + # all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ... +    # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   #   # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):   # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions   # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.   # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.   # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.   # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal - # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. + # harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.   # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2158:   Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time +  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 0:00u # Lisbon MT    0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00    1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT   # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.   Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 2:00u # Horta MT    -2:00 Port -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s    -2:00 Port +00 1942 Aug 15 22:00s    -2:00 Port -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s    -2:00 Port +00 1943 Aug 28 22:00s    -2:00 Port -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s    -2:00 Port +00 1944 Aug 26 22:00s    -2:00 Port -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s    -2:00 Port +00 1945 Aug 25 22:00s    -2:00 Port -02/-01 1966 Apr 3 2:00    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    -1:00 W-Eur -01/+00 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u    -1:00 EU -01/+00   # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.   Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 1:00u # Funchal MT    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s    -1:00 Port +01 1942 Aug 15 22:00s    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s    -1:00 Port +01 1943 Aug 28 22:00s    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s    -1:00 Port +01 1944 Aug 26 22:00s    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s    -1:00 Port +01 1945 Aug 25 22:00s    -1:00 Port -01/+00 1966 Apr 3 2:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2521:   #   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):   # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the   # chaotic early 1980s in Russia. It's not clear what these entries   # should be. For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the   # time in Moscow.      # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):   # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow - # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30").... + # Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30")....   # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.   # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)   # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by   # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow   # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory - # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" > + # coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" >   # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =   # 2:31:19 ...   #   # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):   # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in   # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).   # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in   # Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.      Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2765:   # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.      # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):   # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25   # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm   # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on   # 1995-05-28.   #   # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html   # has some historical data for Altai Krai: - # before 1957: west part on UTC+6, east on UTC+7 - # after 1957: UTC+7 - # since 1995: UTC+6 + # before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7 + # after 1957: UT+7 + # since 1995: UT+6   # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html   # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):   # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones   # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....   # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...   # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)   # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):   # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3356:   # Sweden      # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:   #   # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:   # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all   # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at   # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the   # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.   # - # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" + # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"   # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the   # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....   #   # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk   # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning   # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at   # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English   # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west   # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated   # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3460:   # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for   # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...   # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of   # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not   # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.   # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.   #   # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):   # The Federal regulations say   # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html - # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50". + # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 26' 22.50".   # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.      # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):   # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)   # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353   # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight   # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one   # hour before the beginning of service.      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:3575:   # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326      # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):   # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....   # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf   #   # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):   # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.   # It takes effect today, which is not much notice.    + # From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28): + # Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10. + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf + # + # From Even Scharning (2017-11-08): + # ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous": + # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482 + # From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08): + # Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like + # Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -   # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;