pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / europe

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.    - # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better, + # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see + # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.    - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is + # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10): + # + # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),   # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003). -  + # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.   # - # Gwillim Law writes that a good source - # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport + # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source + # for time zone data was the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries - # of the IATA's data after 1990. + # of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted, + # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.   # -  + # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is + # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). + #   # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for   # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.   #   # Other sources occasionally used include:   #   # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),   # which I found in the UCLA library.   # - # <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf"> +    # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition - # </a> (1914-03) + # <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf> + # [PDF] (1914-03)   #   # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 - # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes: + # <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes:   # "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables   # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,   # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.   # - # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH), - # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm"> + # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919. + # This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html + # The full Russian citation is: + # Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток + # введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го + # июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград: + # Десятая гос. тип., 1919. + # http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf + # + # Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),   # History of Summer Time - # </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) -  + # <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm> + # (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)   #   # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table; - # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources. - # Corrections are welcome! - # std dst 2dst - # LMT Local Mean Time - # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic - # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* - # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* - # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer - # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer - # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe - # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)* - # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)* - # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe - # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)* - # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe - # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow - # - # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain, - # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997). + # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time, + # or are from other sources. Corrections are welcome! + # std dst 2dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic + # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer + # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer + # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe + # 0:19:32.13 AMT* NST* Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937) + # 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971) + # 1:00 IST GMT Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST + # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe + # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899) + # 1:36:34 RMT* LST* Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)* + # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe + # 3:00 MSK MSD MDST* Moscow    - # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), - # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members: + # The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for   # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%   # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous   # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.   # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)   # ...
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:98:   #   # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands   # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude   # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed   # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They   # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,   # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking   # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'   #   # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's - # position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should - # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761. + # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 18' 45" W. The longitude should + # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]      # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,   # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.   # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)   # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:130:   # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal   # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading   # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.   # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition   # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.   #   # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single   # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much   # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.    - # From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27): - # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915), + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19): + # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time + # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year. + # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the + # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946), + # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value + # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research. + # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society + # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See: + # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°. + # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734 + # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html + # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal + # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten. + # + # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)   # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.   # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,   # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.   # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and   # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.   # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).   # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in   # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular   # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith, - # designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial, + # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,   # which is permanently set to Summer Time.      # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):   # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of   # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country   # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which   # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the   # foundations of civilization throughout the world. - # -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm"> - # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly - # </a> + # -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly; + # republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26 + # https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill    - # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): + # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this   # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the   # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer". -  + # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see: + # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press + # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.      # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): - # +    # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's   # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.      # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)   # From: Jonathan Leffler   # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.   # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in   # politics making a fortune, not computing.      # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:191:   # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the   # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)   # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).      # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):   # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir   # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any   # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't   # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British   # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally. - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png      # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):   # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time   # which is to be introduced in May....   # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"   # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.      # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):   # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,   # so we use 'BDST'.      # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.   # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in - # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ - # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/"> - # History of legal time in Britain - # </a> - # Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer - # exists, and the article can now be found at: - # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/"> - # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ - # </a> + # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/      # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech - # <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0"> - # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976) - # </a>. + # https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0 + # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   #   # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   #   # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger   # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.   # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:253:   #   # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   #   # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):   # -  + # Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as + # Greenwich was to London. For example:   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than - # Shanks & Pottenger. - # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory - # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was - # to London. For example: - # +    # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."   # -- James Joyce, Ulysses -  + # + # The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time"; + # this being Ireland, opinions differed. + # + # Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees + # with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink + # Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24. + # <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>. Malone + # writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when + # it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used + # the former and the 1896 edition used the latter). Evidently the + # news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists + # UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau. As it is + # not clear that there was any practical significance to the change + # from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this + # transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its + # fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.    -  + # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time + # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that + # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'. She claimed + # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'." + # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising. + # Irish Times 2014-10-27. + # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411 +    # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): - # Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include - # various relating to legal time, for example: + # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>. + # These include various relating to legal time, for example:   #   # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html   #   # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html   # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html   #   # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html   # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html   # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:309:   # and Frethun run in CT.   # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,   # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,   # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.   # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,   # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.   # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.      # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):   # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94, - # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC. + # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.   # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate   # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of   # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is   # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST". -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07): + # The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct + # abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor + # focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time". Though the + # "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an + # error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that + # standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in + # summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter. (Thanks + # to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.) That is, when + # Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish + # Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT + # as a negative daylight saving time in winter. So, in this database + # IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for + # Irish Standard Time after that. See: + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print    -  + # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's + # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947: + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print + # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # Summer Time Act, 1916   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT   # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274   Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:428:   # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)   # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)   # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)   Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT   # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)   # See EU for rules starting in 1996.   #   # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u +  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST   Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey   Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey   Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man -  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15): + # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the + # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html + # and with tests for OpenJDK: + # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html + # + # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the + # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the + # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish time stamps + # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst + # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often + # suffices. This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE + # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should + # not rely on it. + # + # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in + # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter. It is for when + # negative SAVE values are used. + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Eire 1971 only - Oct 31 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 0 - + Rule Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u -1:00 - + Rule Eire 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u -1:00 - +  + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 -  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00s +  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00 -  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00 -  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00 +  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00s +  0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00s +  0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00s +  0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00s +  0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/IST + # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used. +  1:00 Eire IST/GMT + # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative. + # 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u + # 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996 + # 0:00 EU GMT/IST    -  +    ###############################################################################      # Europe    - # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC, - # Common Market, etc. + # The following rules are for the European Union and for its + # predecessor organization, the European Communities. + # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -   # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See: - # <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT"> +    # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council   # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. - # </a> + # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT      # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.   Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -      # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:491:   Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 - - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):   #   # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s   # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was - # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the + # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the   # tz database itself, as seen below:   #   # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01   # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 - # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 + # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884   # 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s   #   # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -   # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   #   # The rule line to be changed is:   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:545:   Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -      # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.   Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S   Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -    +  + # Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union + # + # The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23). +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time - Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time - Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time + Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time + # + # Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137 + Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time + # + # Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001 + Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time   Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST -  + # + # Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949   Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST - Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 - - Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S + # + Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 0:00u 1:00 MSD + Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 MSK + # + # Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840 + Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 MSD + # + # Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949 + Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 +05 + # + Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 MSD   Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - - # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24): + # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):   Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 - - # Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in - # Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): - Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in + # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14): + Rule Russia 1984 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule Russia 1985 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   # - Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 - - Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - +    Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - -  + # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.    -  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): + # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of + # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the + # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227. + # + # I did not find full texts of these acts. For the 1989 one we have + # title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ : + # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of + # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan, + # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts". + # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to + # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules + # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov + # oblasts. Since last Sunday of March 1989: + # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast: + # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1); + # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt + # rules (Moscow time) + # c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1). +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27): + # Unamended version of the act of the + # Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992 + # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0 + # says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday + # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September + # at 3 hours. It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October. +    # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):   # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev   # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.   # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.   #   # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian): - # <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583"> +    # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583 - # </a> +    #   # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): - # <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html"> - # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html - # </a> + # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html      # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):   # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered   # to be standard.      # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT   Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT   Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT      # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST   # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.      # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):   # The official German names ... are   # - # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 - # Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00 + # Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 + # Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00   # - # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), + # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),   # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....   # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution   #   # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)   # Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"   # Postfach 3345   # D-38023 Braunschweig   # phone: +49 531 592-0   #   # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:662:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914    1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16    1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Andorra   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901    0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30 -  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Austria      # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and   # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and   # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"   # date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:688:   Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -   Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920 -  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s    1:00 - CET 1946    1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Belarus -  + # + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02): + # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm + # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from + # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00 + # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September + # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations). + #   # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):   # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to   # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).   #   # Sources (Russian language): - # 1. - # <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html"> +    # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html - # </a> - # 2. - # <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/"> +    # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ - # </a> - # 3. - # <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html"> - # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html - # </a> + # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html + # + # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09): + # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time.... + # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880 -  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time +  1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s -  2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time +  3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - +03      # Belgium   #   # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):   # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:   # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, - # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991 + # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991   # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),   # pp 8-9.   # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:   # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.   # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.   # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.   # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:782:   Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -   Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -   Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880 -  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT +  0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT    0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8    1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u    0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Bosnia and Herzegovina   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Bulgaria   #   # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): - # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says: - # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... - # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October + # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says: + # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... + # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880    1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?    2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 -  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00 +  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00    2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00 -  2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00 +  2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 3:00    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Cyprus   # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.    - # Czech Republic + # Czech Republic / Czechia + # + # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15): + # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15. + # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas + # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time; + # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - + Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Czech 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850 -  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s +  0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 9 +  1:00 Czech CE%sT 1946 Dec 1 3:00 + # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST. +  1:00 -1:00 GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST. + # 0:00 - GMT 1947 Feb 23 2:00 + # End of rearguard section.    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.      # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):   # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law   # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....   # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL   # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.   # - # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL   #   # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes - # in subsequenet decrees with the law + # in subsequent decrees with the law   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL   #   # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have   # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST   # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to   # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from   # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know   # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only   # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:   # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning   # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which   # was suspended on that night):   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):   # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between   # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.      # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):   # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not   # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:893:   Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890    0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT -  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   #   # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):   # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in   # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.   # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, - # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU - # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab + # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10): + # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark, + # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities + # on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.    - # From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing + # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing   # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),   # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   #   # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC   # is according to the following time line:   #   # The military zone near Thule UTC-4   # Standard Greenland time UTC-3   # Scoresbysund UTC-1   # Danmarkshavn UTC
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:948:   #   # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund   # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.   # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the   # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th   # email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in   # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the   # DPC research station at Zackenberg.   #   # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use - # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab). + # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).   # - # The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it + # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it   # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time   # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.   #   # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and   # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators   # maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of - # this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be + # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be   # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.      # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):   # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place   # there at 2:00 AM.      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; - # the 1995 map as like Godthab. - # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996. + # the 1995 map as like Godthåb. + # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.   # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,   # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.   # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules. -  +  + # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20): + # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named + # "National Park" by Executive Order: + # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf + # It is their only National Park.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996 +  -3:00 - -03 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU -03/-02 1996    0:00 - GMT   Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit -  -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29 -  -1:00 EU EG%sT +  -2:00 - -02 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -2:00 C-Eur -02/-01 1981 Mar 29 +  -1:00 EU -01/+00   Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk -  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 -  -3:00 EU WG%sT +  -3:00 - -03 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU -03/-02   Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base    -4:00 Thule A%sT      # Estonia -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). + #   # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):   # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards   # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,   # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....   #   # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):   # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,   # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]   # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different   # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules   # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....   # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on   # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to   # summer time next spring."      # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited: - # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390"> +    # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law - # </a> + # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390   # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between - # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120). + # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).   #   # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation   # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"   # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).    - # From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09) + # From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,   # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....   # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European   # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory   # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do   # after that.      # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29): - # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation - # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all + # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation + # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all   # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.      # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):   # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.   # Now we are using again EU rules.   # - # From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28): + # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):   # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880 -  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time +  1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul    1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22 -  2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1 +  2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Oct 31 4:00    2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Finland      # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):   # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,   # and it's supposed to change at 4am...      # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):   #   # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.   # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour   # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made   # according to the central European standards.   #   # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac   # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in   # Finnish) at -  + # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf   # - # <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf"> - # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf - # </a> - # +    # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings   # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.   #   # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at: - # - # <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401"> +    # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401 - # </a> +    #   # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not   # exist tonight."    -  + # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13): + # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013] + # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf + # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942 + # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942, + # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper + # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday".... + # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14): + # Go with Oja over Shanks. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -   Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 - -  +  + # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document); + # round to nearest. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31 -  1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time + Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31 +  1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time    2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983    2:00 EU EE%sT    - # Aaland Is + # Åland Is   Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn         # France      # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):   # - # Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions + # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions   # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993   # - # Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur, + # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,   # Paris, 1991   # - # Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie, - # Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987 + # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie, + # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987         #   # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1158:   Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S   # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger   # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. - # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez, - # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La - # Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes, + # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez, + # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La + # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,   # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin, - # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois, + # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,   # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).   Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer   # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,   # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12), - # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes + # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes   # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.   Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -   # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;   # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.   Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -   # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,   # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.   # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based   # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT   # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.    0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00   # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;   # go with Shanks & Pottenger.    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Germany      # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. - # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.] + # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]    - # From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23): + # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):   # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by - # <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/"> - # General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>. + # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/ + # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08): - # <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf"> +    # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf - # </a> +    # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.   # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so - # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4. + # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.         # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition   # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.   # Go with the PTB.   Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1238:   Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S      Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer   Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S   Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00    1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12): - # Busingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton + # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton   # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE   # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.   # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,   # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.   # - # Source for the time in Busingen 1980: + # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:   # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03): - # Busingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970. + # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.      Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen      # Georgia   # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.   # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)   # is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.      # Gibraltar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00 + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s +  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00    1:00 - CET 1982    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Greece   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1297:   Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -   Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14 -  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT +  1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981    # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981; -  # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1. +  # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Hungary -  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): + # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from: + # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945. + # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29). + # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html + # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks + # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 - - Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -   Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 -  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00 +  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Iceland   #   # From Adam David (1993-11-06):   # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.   #   # (1993-12-05):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1364:   # (1993-12-10):   # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the   # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus   # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.   # the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day   # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.   # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points. - # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely - # that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22): + # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see + # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 -   Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 - - Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 - - Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1918 1919 - Nov 16 1:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 - + Rule Iceland 1921 only - Jun 23 1:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 - + Rule Iceland 1939 only - Oct 29 2:00 0 - + Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 - + Rule Iceland 1940 1941 - Nov Sun>=2 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 -   # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 - + Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 - + Rule Iceland 1942 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter - Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S - # 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week + Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 - + # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week   Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837 -  -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time? -  -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s + Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908 +  -1:00 Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr 7 1:00s    0:00 - GMT      # Italy   #   # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):   # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,   # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).   # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.   # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,   # so record only the time in Rome.   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and - # F. Pollastri - # <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html"> - # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03) - # </a> - # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute - # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows: + # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24): + # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10 + # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into + # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in + # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."   # - # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with: - # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W - # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s - # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S - # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W - # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S - # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W - # 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S - # 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s - # 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S - # 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s - # 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur) - # 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s - # 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s - # 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S - # 09-20 09-27 00:00 S + # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20): + # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological + # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at + # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml + # (2016-10-24): + # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/ + # has still different data for 1944. It divides Italy in two, as + # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic + # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south + # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.   # -  + # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23): + # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219. + # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ... + # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is + # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ... + # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27): + # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944 + # for the Kingdom of Italy. This is consistent with Renzo Baldini. + # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10 + # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it + # was effectively controlled by Germany. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 - - Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - - Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - - Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 - - Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S - Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - - Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1916 1917 - Sep 30 24:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1917 only - Mar 31 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 9 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1918 only - Oct 6 24:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 1 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1919 only - Oct 4 24:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 20 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 18 24:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 14 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1944 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 1:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1966 only - Sep 24 24:00 0 - + Rule Italy 1967 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 - + Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 -  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean -  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean +  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1943 Sep 10 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jun 4    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican   Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino      # Latvia      # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):      # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy   # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the   # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about   # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....   # - # Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... - # according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24 + # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ... + # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24   # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning   # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)   # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).   # - # Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... - # according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13 + # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ... + # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13   # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning   # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00   # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of   # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).   # - # Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... - # according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14 + # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ... + # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14   # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,   # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the   # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia   # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00   # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of   # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00   # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is   # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....   #   # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of   # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of   # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.      # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):   # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in - # <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm"> +    # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of - # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only). + # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>, + # in Latvian for subscribers only).    - # <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html"> - # From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow: - # </a> + # From RFE/RL Newsline + # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html + # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:   # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will   # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.   # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their   # clocks one hour in the spring.... - # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few + # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few   # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European   # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving   # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government   # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it   # appears that they will not do so....      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - -  +  + # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). + # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34. + # Go with Byalokoz. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880 -  1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time -  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer -  1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 -  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 -  1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11 + Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880 +  1:36:34 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 # Riga MT +  1:36:34 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 # Latvian ST +  1:36:34 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 +  1:36:34 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 +  1:36:34 - RMT 1926 May 11    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29    2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Liechtenstein      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):   # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1576:   # introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on   # central European time was in force throughout the year.   # From a report of the duke's government to the high council,   # regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.      Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz         # Lithuania    + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). +    # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):   # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is   # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.      # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):   # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone   # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.    - # From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29), + # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)   # to be valid here starting from October 31,   # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....   # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a   # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was   # already done by Estonia.    - # From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm"> - # Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism - # </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving. + # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism + # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27): + # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.      # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):   # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will   # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid   # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its   # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of   # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at   # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm         # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880 -  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time    1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12    2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9    1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 -  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u -  1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u    2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Luxembourg   # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;   # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1653:   Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -   Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun    1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25 -  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s -  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 -  1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00 +  0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s +  0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00 +  1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Macedonia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Malta -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21): + # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -   Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -   Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta -  1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31    1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Moldova    -  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): + # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04 + # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2 + # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR + # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt + # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be + # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer" + # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and + # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00. +    # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write   # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.   # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence   # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).   # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area   # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.   # But [two people] separately reported via - # Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau. + # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.   # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):   # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as   # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition   # to the Winter Time).   #   # News (in Russian): - # <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html"> +    # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html - # </a> - # - # <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html"> +    # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html - # </a> +    #   # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)   # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)   #   # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)   # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol   # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.   #   # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)   # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.   # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own   # decision to abolish DST this winter.   # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-   # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.   # News from Moldova (in russian): - # <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html"> - # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html - # </a> + # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html    -  + # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02): + # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077 + # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01): + # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that + # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time. Also, + # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara + # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time. + # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.    -  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Moldova 1997 max - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Moldova 1997 max - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880    1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT    1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15    2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6 -  2:00 - EET 1991 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 May 6 2:00    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997   # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules. -  2:00 EU EE%sT +  2:00 Moldova EE%sT      # Monaco   # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's   # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time -  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time +  0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Montenegro   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Netherlands      # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,   # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1792:   # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of   # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most   # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically   # adopted Amsterdam mean time.   #   # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety   # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it   # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe   # Amsterdam mean time.    - # The data before 1945 are taken from - # <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>. + # The data entries before 1945 are taken from + # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time   Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time   Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT   Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT   Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1819:   Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -   Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   # - # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted + # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted   # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835    0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1 -  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  0:20 Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16 0:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway   # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &   # Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -   Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1855:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Svalbard & Jan Mayen      # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):   # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and   # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the   # time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared   # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan   # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation   # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came   # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a   # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been   # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100) - # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by + # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by   # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever   # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since   # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere   # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):   #   # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,   # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was   # keeping Berlin time.   # - # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists + # <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists   # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in   # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite - # frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a + # frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a   # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly   # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that   # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.   #   # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an   # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says   # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ   # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were   # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,   # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) - # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html> + # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html   # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named   # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.   #   # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo   # for these regions.   Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen      # Poland -  +  + # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20), + # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -   # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, - # Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., - # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> - # Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. + # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., + # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1 + # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.   # He also gives these further references:   # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>   # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>   Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880 -  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00 +  1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun -  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00 +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977    1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal -  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne: + # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26) + # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf + # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00. + # Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett....   # -  + # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15): + # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...: + # These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which, + # according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins, + # all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ... +    # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   #   # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):   # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions   # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.   # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.   # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.   # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal - # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter. + # harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.   # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2019:   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24; - # Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett. - Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 -  1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -  0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s -  1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u + Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884 +  -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 0:00u # Lisbon MT +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00 +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time -  -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time -  -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s -  -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s -  0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u -  -1:00 EU AZO%sT - Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time -  -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time -  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s + # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z. + Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 2:00u # Horta MT +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1942 Aug 15 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1943 Aug 28 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1944 Aug 26 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s +  -2:00 Port +00 1945 Aug 25 22:00s +  -2:00 Port -02/-01 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1983 Sep 25 1:00s +  -1:00 W-Eur -01/+00 1992 Sep 27 1:00s +  0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u +  -1:00 EU -01/+00 + # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z. + Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 1:00u # Funchal MT +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1942 Aug 15 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1943 Aug 28 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1944 Aug 26 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s +  -1:00 Port +01 1945 Aug 25 22:00s +  -1:00 Port -01/+00 1966 Apr 3 2:00 +  0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT      # Romania   #   # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): - # <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html"> - # Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at + # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html> + # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at   # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,   # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,   # the same year as Bulgaria.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -   Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct -  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT -  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s +  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT +  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT    -  +    # Russia      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15): - # Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011 + # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011   # (Government document - # <a href="http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/"> +    # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/ - # </a> +    # in Russian)   # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...   # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English   # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below: - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm - # </a> +       # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27): - # Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at: - # <a href="http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966"> + # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:   # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966   # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):   # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia   # changed in September 2011:   #   # One source is - # < a href="http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/> +    # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/ - # </a> +    # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31, - # 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information. + # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # <a href="http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html"> - # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html - # </a> + # https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html   # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the   # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also   # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on: - # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue number 5573 September 6, 2011" but which + # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which   # does not contain any "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7"> - # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 - # </a> - # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011... + # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 + # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...   # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"   # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.   #   # The Wikipedia article refers to - # <a href="http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896"> +    # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896 - # </a> +    # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.   #   # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's   # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" - # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to get - # September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias Conradi notes). + # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to + # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias + # Conradi notes).   #   # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.   #   # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.    -  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01): + # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency) + # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562 + # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to + # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new + # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ... + # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02 + # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N + # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding + # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English): + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html + # + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22): + # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian) + # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711 + # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660 + # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279 + # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this: + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html +    # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations. +    # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,   # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,   # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat   # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   #   # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):   # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!   # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;   # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching   # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2163:   # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor   # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.   #   # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):   # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from   # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...   # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.   #   # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from   # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07): - # News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was + # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was   # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with - # the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began + # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began   # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.   #   # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):   # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in   # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the   # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan   # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok   # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are   # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have   # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan. - # +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist + # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions + # are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative + # listing. The region codes listed come from + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498 + # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their + # future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level + # divisions where available. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # - # Kaliningradskaya oblast'. +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Europe/Kaliningrad covers... + # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): + # http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni + # confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented. + # (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that + # summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But + # 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.) + # ... + # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091 + # says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided + # at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to + # Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19. +    Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  2:00 - EET +  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and + # Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Europe/Moscow covers... + # 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of + # 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of + # 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of + # 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic + # 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of + # 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic + # 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of + # 11 RU-KO Komi Republic + # 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic + # 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of + # 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of + # 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of + # 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic + # 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic + # 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai + # 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai + # 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast + # 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast + # 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast + # 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast + # 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast + # 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast + # 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast + # 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast + # 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast + # 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast + # 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast + # 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast + # 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast + # 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast + # 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast + # 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast + # 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast + # 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast + # 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast + # 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast + # 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast + # 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast + # 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast + # 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast + # 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast + # 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast + # 77 RU-MOW Moscow + # 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg + # 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23): + # The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919. Decree No. 59 + # (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time + # zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854 + # specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT. + # No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date; + # later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are + # taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks. + # (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.) +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): + # 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982. + # Wikipedia refers to + # http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html + # http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast', - # Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast', - # Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast', - # Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya, - # Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya, - # Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, - # Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi, - # Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast', - # Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El, - # Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast', - # Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug, - # Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast', - # Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast', - # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg, - # Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast', - # Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan, - # Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast', - # Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast', - # Yaroslavskaya oblast' - Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880 -  2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time -  2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00 + # The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn + # magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to + # the Trud newspaper from February 1982. The first link provides the + # same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses + # time belt changes map). + # + # The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to + # introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt + # border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous + # Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka + # according to the provided map (colored one). In addition to that + # "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time + # belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on + # 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage. (Komi ASSR was + # supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2 + # hour difference.) Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01 + # is also provided. + # + # The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems + # and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not + # moving to summer time on 1982-04-01. Namely: Dagestan, + # Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian, + # Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol + # krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, + # Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and + # Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky + # district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug. As a result Evenk Autonomous + # Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end + # up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow + # time. + # + # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt + # attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers + # of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982. 1980-925.txt also adds + # Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky + # district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug. Probably erroneously. + # + # The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow, + # Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk. + # + # 12. Udmurtia + # The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i + # Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from + # Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act. + # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt + # implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01. + # Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991. + # + # ... + # + # All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at + # 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1 + # change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia). + # + # There were some exceptions, though. + # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd, + # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992 + # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some + # lists found in the internet are quite wild.) + # + # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment. + # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091 + # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the + # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at + # https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html + # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception + # 2 days before the switch. + # + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the + # chaotic early 1980s in Russia. It's not clear what these entries + # should be. For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the + # time in Moscow. +  + # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08): + # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow + # Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30").... + # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard. + # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.) + # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by + # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow + # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory + # coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" > + # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 = + # 2:31:19 ... + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): + # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in + # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895). + # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in + # Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky. +  + Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880 +  2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time +  2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 0:00u +  3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - MSK +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK +  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06): + # Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea. +  + Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 +  2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 - EET 1992 + # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.   # - # Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast', - # Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 - # but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the - # others? But we have no data. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched + # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. + # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say + # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it + # changed in May. +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May + # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. +  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 0:00s +  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s + # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. + # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 +  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): + # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 + # https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html + # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): + # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks + # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial + # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK +  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Europe/Astrakhan covers: + # 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast + # + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12): + # On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation + # Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time).... + # This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00. + # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056 +  + Zone Europe/Astrakhan 3:12:12 - LMT 1924 May +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 2016 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11): + # Europe/Volgograd covers: + # 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast + # The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04). +    Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3 -  3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time -  3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time -  4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11 -  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T -  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s -  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - VOLT +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 - +04 1961 Nov 11 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1988 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11): + # Europe/Saratov covers: + # 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast +  + # From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11): + # Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3.... Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4. + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11): + # ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18. + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031 +  + Zone Europe/Saratov 3:04:18 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 0:00u +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1988 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 2016 Dec 4 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Europe/Kirov covers: + # 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika - Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 -  3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 -  4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27 -  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev -  3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s -  3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 -  4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time -  3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - SAMT + Zone Europe/Kirov 3:18:48 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 0:00u +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - +03    -  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Europe/Samara covers... + # 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic + # 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20. + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). +  + Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:20 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 0:00u +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 - +04 1935 Jan 27 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia +02/+03 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 1991 Oct 20 3:00 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Europe/Ulyanovsk covers: + # 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast +  + # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14). +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17): + # Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am. + # Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ... + # 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading. + # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051 +  + Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk 3:13:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 0:00u +  3:00 - +03 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia +02/+03 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  3:00 Russia +03/+04 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - +03 2016 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - +04 +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers... + # 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of + # 90 RU-PER Perm Krai + # 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast + # 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast + # 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast + # 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast + # 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast + # 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra + # 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug, - # Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast', - # Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast', - # Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast', - # Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug. - Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 -  4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time -  5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  6:00 - YEKT # Yekaterinburg Time + # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai. +  + # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. + # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05. + # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard. + # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks. +  + Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1916 Jul 3 +  3:45:05 - PMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 +  4:00 - +04 1930 Jun 21 +  5:00 Russia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 Russia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  5:00 Russia +05/+06 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  5:00 - +05 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Omsk covers... + # 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast +  + # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30. +  + Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:30 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 +  5:00 - +05 1930 Jun 21 +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  5:00 Russia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22): + # Asia/Barnaul covers: + # 04 RU-AL Altai Republic + # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai +  + # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger. +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07): + # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25 + # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm + # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on + # 1995-05-28.   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'. - Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 -  5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme -  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - OMST + # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html + # has some historical data for Altai Krai: + # before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7 + # after 1957: UT+7 + # since 1995: UT+6 + # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html + # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date. +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17): + # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones + # by March 27, 2016 at 2am.... + # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ... + # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) + # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043 + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038 +  + Zone Asia/Barnaul 5:35:00 - LMT 1919 Dec 10 +  6:00 - +06 1930 Jun 21 +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1995 May 28 +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 2016 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Asia/Novosibirsk covers: + # 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30): + # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6 + # moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7. + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04): + # The law was signed yesterday and published today on + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064 +  + Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00 +  6:00 - +06 1930 Jun 21 +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P. +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 2016 Jul 24 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 +  + # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18): + # Asia/Tomsk covers: + # 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24): + # Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51. +  + # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29): + # Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow. +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19): + # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743 + # (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time) + # / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ... + # Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their + # GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally + # belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced + # with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a + # 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014). +  + # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12): + # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6 + # This bill was approved in the first reading today. It moves Tomsk oblast + # from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at + # 2:00. The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by + # the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President + # and published to become a law. Minor changes in the text are to be expected + # before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the + # recent changes).   # - # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's - # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6. - # Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'. - Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00 -  6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P. -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - NOVT + # Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws, + # the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule + # http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/ + # http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303 + # I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the + # bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday, + # approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and + # published as a law around 2016-04-26.    -  + # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048 +  + Zone Asia/Tomsk 5:39:51 - LMT 1919 Dec 22 +  6:00 - +06 1930 Jun 21 +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 2002 May 1 3:00 +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - +06 2016 May 29 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers... + # 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast +    # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):   # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on   # March 28, 2010:   # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700   # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600   # - # This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September + # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September   # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth   # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)   #   # Russian Government web site (Russian language) - # <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv"> +    # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm - # </a> +    # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference   # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010 - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html - # </a> +    #   # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010   # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock. -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus + # realigning itself with KRAT. +  + Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - LMT 1924 May 1 +  6:00 - +06 1930 Jun 21 +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers... + # 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic + # 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of + # 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai   # - # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as - # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic. + # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr + # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.    - Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6 -  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time + # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.    -  + Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:26 - LMT 1920 Jan 6 +  6:00 - +06 1930 Jun 21 +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia +06/+07 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  8:00 - +08 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  7:00 - +07 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Irkutsk covers... + # 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of + # 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Krasnoyarskij kraj, - # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug, - # Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug. - Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6 -  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  8:00 - KRAT + # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was + # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast. +  + # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05. + # Go with Byalokoz. +  + Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:05 - LMT 1880 +  6:57:05 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time +  7:00 - +07 1930 Jun 21 +  8:00 Russia +08/+09 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  7:00 Russia +07/+08 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  8:00 Russia +08/+09 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  9:00 - +09 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  8:00 - +08 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Asia/Chita covers... + # 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast', - # Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug. - Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880 -  6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time -  7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time -  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  9:00 - IRKT + # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai. +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02): + # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) - + # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9. Effective date will + # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am.... + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107 +  + Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - +08 1930 Jun 21 +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia +08/+09 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - +10 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  8:00 - +08 2016 Mar 27 2:00 +  9:00 - +09 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Yakutsk covers... + # 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast', - # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'. + # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-02 **** Aldansky District + # 14-04 **** Amginsky District + # 14-05 **** Anabarsky District + # 14-06 **** Bulunsky District + # 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District + # 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District + # 14-11 **** Gorny District + # 14-12 **** Zhigansky District + # 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District + # 14-14 **** Lensky District + # 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District + # 14-16 **** Mirninsky District + # 14-18 **** Namsky District + # 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District + # 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District + # 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District + # 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District + # 14-26 **** Suntarsky District + # 14-27 **** Tattinsky District + # 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District + # 14-32 **** Khangalassky District + # 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District + # 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005... - # Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name. - # YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj. + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District. + # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too. + # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij, - # Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj, - # Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij, - # Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij, - # Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij, - # Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.    - Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 -  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  10:00 - YAKT + Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:58 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - +08 1930 Jun 21 +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia +08/+09 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - +10 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 - +09 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Vladivostok covers... + # 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai + # 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai + # 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj, - # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). + # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District + # 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, ... Ust'-Yanskij. - Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 -  9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - VLAT + # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5. + # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31. + # Go with Byalokoz.    -  + Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:31 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 +  9:00 - +09 1930 Jun 21 +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - +11 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - +10 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-28 **** Tomponsky District + # 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District +    # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):   # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time   # in 2011. - # +    # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):   # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.   # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.   # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info. - # +    Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 -  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004 -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  10:00 - YAKT +  8:00 - +08 1930 Jun 21 +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia +08/+09 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 2004 +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - +11 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  10:00 - +10 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 - +09    - # - # Sakhalinskaya oblast'. - # The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Sakhalin covers... + # 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast + # ...with the exception of: + # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) +  + # From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22): + # Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ... + # (2016-03-09): + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044 +  + # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.   Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23 -  9:00 - CJT 1938 -  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25 -  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T. -  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s -  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - SAKT +  9:00 - +09 1945 Aug 25 +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - +11 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - +10 2016 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - +11 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Magadan covers... + # 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however, + # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of + # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented + # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will + # need their own zone. +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27): + # ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ... + # will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). - # Probably also: Kuril Islands. + # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05): + # ... signed by the President today ... + # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij, - # Nizhnekolymskij, ... Srednekolymskij. +    Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT +  10:00 - +10 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - +12 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - +10 2016 Apr 24 2:00s +  11:00 - +11    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-01 **** Abyysky District + # 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District + # 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District + # 14-17 **** Momsky District + # 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District + # 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District + # + # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast: + # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02): + # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with + # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on + # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District + # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by + # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27. + # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone + # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary. + # + # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these + # districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently + # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females + # each! (Yikes!) + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 + # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493 + # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one. + # + # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have + # fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the + # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most + # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of + # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf + # in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older + # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining. + # Go with Srednekolymsk. +  + Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  10:00 - +10 1930 Jun 21 +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - +12 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 - +11 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District +    # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): - # Ojmyakonskij and the Kuril Islands switched from + # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from   # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011. -  + # + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch, + # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of + # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on + # UTC+12 since at least then, too. +    Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 -  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time -  9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1 -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  11:00 - VLAT +  8:00 - +08 1930 Jun 21 +  9:00 Russia +09/+10 1981 Apr 1 +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia +10/+11 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - +12 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  11:00 - +11 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - +10    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Kamchatka covers... + # 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai   # - # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. + # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai. +  + # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps + # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.   Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10 -  11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time -  12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - PETT - # - # Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug +  11:00 - +11 1930 Jun 21 +  12:00 Russia +12/+13 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia +12/+13 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - +12 +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Anadyr covers... + # 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug +    Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2 -  12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time -  13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s -  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - ANAT +  12:00 - +12 1930 Jun 21 +  13:00 Russia +13/+14 1982 Apr 1 0:00s +  12:00 Russia +12/+13 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  12:00 Russia +12/+13 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia +11/+12 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - +12    -  +    # San Marino   # See Europe/Rome.      # Serbia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884    1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 -  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s +  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s - # Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of + # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of   # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. - # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. + # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.    1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27    1:00 EU CE%sT   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia      # Slovakia   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava      # Slovenia   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Spain -  + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14): + # + # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is: + # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios. + # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish). + # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf + # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure, + # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data. + # + # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for + # the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that + # the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart, + # with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to + # the next day's 00:00. Our data format cannot represent this + # directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a + # fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00. +  + # From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15): + # The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at + # https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf + # says in its article 5 (my translation): + # These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the + # instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1, + # the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; - # go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger. - Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer - Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M - Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1918 1919 - Oct 6 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 6 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S + # Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28. + Rule Spain 1937 only - Jun 16 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1937 only - Oct 2 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1938 only - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1938 only - Apr 30 23:00 2:00 M + Rule Spain 1938 only - Oct 2 24:00 1:00 S + # The following rules are for unified Spain again. + # + # Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on + # 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on + # 1939-04-15. For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not + # change during that period. + # + # The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain. + #Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1939 only - Oct 7 24:00s 0 - + Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1943 1944 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1945 1946 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 - - Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1949 only - Oct 2 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=12 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 - - Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - + Rule Spain 1977 only - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1978 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 - + # Nationalist Spain during the civil war + #Rule NatSpain 1937 only - May 22 23:00 1:00 S + #Rule NatSpain 1937 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 24:00s 0 - + #Rule NatSpain 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00 1:00 S   # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s -  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30 + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1900 Dec 31 23:45:16 +  0:00 Spain WE%sT 1940 Mar 16 23:00    1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901 + Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1900 Dec 31 23:38:44    0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00    0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00    0:00 - WET 1924    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929 -  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16 +  0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16    1:00 - CET 1986    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C. -  -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time -  0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s -  0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s +  -1:00 - -01 1946 Sep 30 1:00 +  0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s +  0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT   # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.      # Sweden      # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:   # - # The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879: + # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:   # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all   # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at   # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the   # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.   # - # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" + # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"   # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the   # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....   #   # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk - # forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning + # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning   # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at   # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English   # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west   # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated   # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time   # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.   # - # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states + # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states   # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is   # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....   # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".   #   # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish   # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are   # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available   # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type   # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click - # the Sok-button). + # the Sök-button).   #   # (2001-05-13):   #   # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00   # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show   # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some   # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already   # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another   # hour before the event took place.   #   # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1 -  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time +  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time    1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00 -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00 +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 1:00    1:00 - CET 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Switzerland   # From Howse:   # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace   # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep - # mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 .... + # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):   # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -   # From Shanks & Pottenger:   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -      # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):   # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.   #   # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values   # to be wrong. This is now verified.   #   # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal - # government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss + # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss   # federal law collection)...   #   # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am   # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.   #   # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am   # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am   #   # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.   # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law   # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any   # other years are made.   #   # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported   # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous   # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such   # a thing had happened in Switzerland.   # - # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de + # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de   # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is   # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled   # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.   #   # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -   #   # The 1940 rules must be deleted.   #   # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for   # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...   # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of - # the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not + # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not   # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.   # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.   #   # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):   # The Federal regulations say - # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html - # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26'22.50". + # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html + # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 26' 22.50".   # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.      # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11): - # the "Circulaire du conseil federal" (December 11 1893) - # <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ... + # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893) + # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353   # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight   # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one   # hour before the beginning of service.      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):   # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.   #   # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland   # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book:   # - # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmassig, punktlich, schnell: Zeiteinteilung und + # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und   # Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,   # ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.   #   # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not   # agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the   # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the - # "Bundesgesetz uber die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on + # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on   # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16   # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in   # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph   # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"   # (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on   # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and   # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment. -  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time +  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time    1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Turkey    - # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03): - # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now. - # ... The latest rules are available at - - # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107 - # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03): - # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that - # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure - # what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001: - # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm - # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT - # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM - # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016 - # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021 - # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027 - # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03): - # Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990. + # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25): + # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with + # no exceptions. + # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ... + # Here are official papers: + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf - page 2 for 1986 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf - page 4 for 1987 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf - page 15 for 1988 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf - page 6 for 1989 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf - page 1 for 1990 - 1992 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf - page 15 for 1993 - 1995 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf - page 1 for overriding 1994 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf - page 1 for 1996, 1997 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf - page 10 for 1998 - 2000 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2 - for 2001 + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2 - for 2002-2006 + # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25): + # Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1985.      # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):   # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC   # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):   # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp   # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:   # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm   # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document   # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:   # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm    - # From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10): - # + # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):   # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer   # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.   # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th. - # - # <a href="http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872"> - # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872 - # </a> + # https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872   # Turkish: - # <a href="http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373"> - # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373 - # </a> + # https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464    -  + # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14): + # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the + # Turkish Local election.... + # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik + # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m. + # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15): + # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31, + # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST + # change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15): + # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule + # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See: + # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency + # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30. + # I guess the best we can do is document the official time. +  + # From Fatih (2015-09-29): + # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy. + # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00 + # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217 + # + # From BBC News (2015-10-25): + # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a + # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan + # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan. + # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326 +  + # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08): + # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter.... + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf + # + # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07): + # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey. + # It takes effect today, which is not much notice. +  + # From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28): + # Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10. + # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf + # + # From Even Scharning (2017-11-08): + # ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous": + # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482 + # From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08): + # Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like + # Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -   # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2801:   Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - - Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Turkey 1986 1993 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1986 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Turkey 1994 only - Mar 20 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1995 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880    1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?    2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15 -  3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time +  3:00 Turkey +03/+04 1985 Apr 20    2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007 -  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u -  2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u -  2:00 EU EE%sT +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2015 Oct 25 1:00u +  2:00 1:00 EEST 2015 Nov 8 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2016 Sep 7 +  3:00 - +03   Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.      # Ukraine   #   # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,   # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):   # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government - # regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says: + # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:   # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday   # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of   # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):   # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to   # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.   # - # Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got + # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got   # approval from 266 deputies.   # - # Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian) - # <a href="http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/"> + # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)   # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/ - # </a> +    #   # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian) - # <a href="http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html"> +    # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html - # </a> +    #   # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian) - # <a href="http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/"> - # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/ - # </a> + # https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/   #   # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):   # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the   # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter   # time this year after all.   #   # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):   # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone   # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar   # to Russia) was reverted today: - # - # <a href="http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995"> +    # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995 - # </a> +    #   # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:   # The law documents themselves are at - # - # <a href="http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484"> +    # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484 - # </a> +     -  + # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28): + # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST: + # 03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1 Time Zone 3 with DST + # 07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134. + # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html + # + # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law, + # "summer time" was still in action): + # 09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272. + # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html + # + # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action): + # 03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # + # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended): + # 09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0 Time Zone 2, no DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225. + # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm + # This is an answer. + # + # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure: + # 03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1 DST started + # 09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0 DST ended + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139. + # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.   # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but   # "Kiev" is more common in English.   Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880    2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  2:00 - EET 1992 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. - # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but + # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but   # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.   Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 - CET 1940    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26    1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00    2:00 - EET 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.   # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but   # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English   # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in   # portable Posix file names.   Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880 -  2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T +  2:20 - +0220 1924 May 2    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT - # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. - Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 -  2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T -  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 -  3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  2:00 - EET 1992 - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched - # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. - # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened - # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say - # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it - # changed in May. -  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May - # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. -  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s -  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s - # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. - # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 -  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u -  2:00 EU EE%sT +       # Vatican City   # See Europe/Rome.      ###############################################################################      # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from   # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.   # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2960:   # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey   # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time   # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)      # ...   # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100   # From: Tom Hofmann   # ...   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when - # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only + # most European countries started DST. Before that year, only   # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according   # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on   # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following   # years...   # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions   # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST   # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep - # lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now. + # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.   #   # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the   # Soviet Union (as far as I know).   #   # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,   # 4002 Basle, Switzerland   # ...      # ...   # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100