pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / europe

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1: - # <pre> +    # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of   # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.      # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to   # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).      # From Paul Eggert (2014-05-31):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is   # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:32:   # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition   # <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>   # [PDF] (1914-03)   #   # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94   # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes:   # "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables   # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,   # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.   # - # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH), - # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm"> + # Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),   # History of Summer Time - # </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese) + # <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm> + # (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)      #   # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;   # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome!   # std dst 2dst   # LMT Local Mean Time   # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic   # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*   # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*   # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer   # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer   # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe   # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*   # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*   # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe   # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*   # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe -  + # 3:00 FET Further-eastern Europe*   # 3:00 MSK MSD MSM* Moscow      # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),   # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for   # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:98:   #   # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands   # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude   # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed   # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They   # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,   # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking   # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'   #   # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's - # position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should + # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should   # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]      # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,   # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.   # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:130:   # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal   # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading   # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.   # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition   # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.   #   # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single   # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much   # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.    - # From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27): - # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915), + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19): + # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time + # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year. + # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the + # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946), + # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value + # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research. + # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society + # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See: + # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg. + # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734 + # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html + # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal + # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten. + # + # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society   # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)   # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.   # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,   # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.   # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and   # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.   # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).   # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in   # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular   # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith, - # designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial, + # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,   # which is permanently set to Summer Time.      # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):   # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of   # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country   # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which   # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the   # foundations of civilization throughout the world. - # -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm"> + # <http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf>   # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly - # </a> +       # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):   # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this   # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the   # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".      # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19): - # +    # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's   # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.      # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)   # From: Jonathan Leffler   # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.   # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in   # politics making a fortune, not computing.      # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:210:   # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):   # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,   # so we use 'BDST'.      # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.   # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in   # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ - # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/"> +    # History of legal time in Britain - # </a> - # Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer - # exists, and the article can now be found at: - # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/"> +    # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ - # </a> +       # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech - # <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0"> - # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976) - # </a>. + # <http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0> + # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   #   # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   #   # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger   # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.   # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:265:   # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than   # Shanks & Pottenger.   # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory   # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was   # to London. For example:   #   # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."   # -- James Joyce, Ulysses      # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): - # Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include - # various relating to legal time, for example: + # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>. + # These include various relating to legal time, for example:   #   # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html   #   # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html   # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html   #   # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html   # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html   # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:465:   # Common Market, etc.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -   # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See: - # <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT"> +    # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council   # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. - # </a> + # <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT>      # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.   Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -      # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:491:   Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 - - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):   #   # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s   # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was - # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the + # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the   # tz database itself, as seen below:   #   # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01   # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15   # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00   #   # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884   # 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:577:   Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):   # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev   # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.   # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.   #   # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian): - # <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583"> +    # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583 - # </a> +    #   # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): - # <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html"> +    # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html - # </a> +       # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):   # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered   # to be standard.      # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT   Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT   Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT      # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST   # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.      # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):   # The official German names ... are   # - # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 - # Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00 + # Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00 + # Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00   # - # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG), + # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),   # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....   # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution   #   # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)   # Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"   # Postfach 3345   # D-38023 Braunschweig   # phone: +49 531 592-0   #   # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:701:    1:00 - CET 1946    1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Belarus   # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):   # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to   # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).   #   # Sources (Russian language): - # 1. - # <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html"> +    # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html - # </a> - # 2. - # <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/"> +    # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ - # </a> - # 3. - # <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html"> +    # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html - # </a> +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880    1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time +  3:00 - FET      # Belgium   #   # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):   # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:   # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique, - # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991 + # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991   # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),   # pp 8-9.   # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:   # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.   # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.   # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.   # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:798:    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Bosnia and Herzegovina   # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Bulgaria   #   # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says: - # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... - # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October + # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ... + # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880    1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:844:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850    0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.      # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):   # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law   # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....   # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL   # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.   #   # The EU treaty with effect from 1973:   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL   #   # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes - # in subsequenet decrees with the law + # in subsequent decrees with the law   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL   #   # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have   # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST   # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to   # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from   # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know   # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only   # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:   # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning   # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which   # was suspended on that night):   # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL    - # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11): + # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):   # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between   # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.      # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):   # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not   # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:897:   Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890    0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   #   # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):   # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in   # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.   # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,   # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU - # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.    - # From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing + # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing   # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),   # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   #   # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC   # is according to the following time line:   #   # The military zone near Thule UTC-4   # Standard Greenland time UTC-3   # Scoresbysund UTC-1   # Danmarkshavn UTC
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:948:   #   # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund   # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.   # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the   # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th   # email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in   # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the   # DPC research station at Zackenberg.   #   # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use - # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab). + # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).   # - # The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it + # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it   # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time   # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.   #   # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and   # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators   # maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of - # this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be + # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be   # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.      # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):   # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place   # there at 2:00 AM.      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; - # the 1995 map as like Godthab. - # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996. + # the 1995 map as like Godthåb. + # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.   # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,   # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.   # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D   Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S   Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1012:   # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,   # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]   # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different   # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules   # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....   # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on   # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to   # summer time next spring."      # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited: - # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390"> +    # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law - # </a> + # <http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390>   # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between - # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120). + # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).   #   # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation   # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"   # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).    - # From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09) + # From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,   # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....   # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European   # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory   # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do   # after that.      # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):   # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation   # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all   # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.      # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):   # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.   # Now we are using again EU rules.   # - # From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28): + # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):   # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880    1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul    1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1074:   # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):   #   # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.   # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour   # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made   # according to the central European standards.   #   # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac   # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in   # Finnish) at - # - # <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf"> +    # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf - # </a> +    #   # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings   # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.   #   # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at: - # - # <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401"> +    # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401 - # </a> +    #   # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not   # exist tonight."    -  + # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13): + # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013] + # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf + # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942 + # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942, + # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper + # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday".... + # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14): + # Go with Oja over Shanks. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S + Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -   Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 - -  +  + # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document); + # round to nearest. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31 -  1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time + Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31 +  1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time    2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983    2:00 EU EE%sT    - # Aaland Is + # Åland Is   Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn         # France      # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):   # - # Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions + # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions   # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993   # - # Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur, + # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,   # Paris, 1991   # - # Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie, - # Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987 + # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie, + # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987         #   # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1158:   Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S   # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger   # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. - # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez, - # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La - # Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes, + # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez, + # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La + # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,   # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin, - # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois, + # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,   # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).   Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer   # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,   # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12), - # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes + # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes   # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.   Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1205:    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Germany      # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.   # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]    - # From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23): + # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):   # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by - # <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/"> - # General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>. + # <http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/> + # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.      # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08): - # <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf"> +    # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf - # </a> +    # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.   # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so   # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.         # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1244:   Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00    1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12): - # Busingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton + # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton   # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE   # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.   # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,   # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.   # - # Source for the time in Busingen 1980: + # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:   # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):   # Busingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.      Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen      # Georgia   # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.   # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1306:   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14    1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981    # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;    # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Hungary + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15): + # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from: + # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945. + # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29). + # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html + # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks + # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 - - Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S - Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 - + Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -   Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 -  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00 +  1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Iceland   #   # From Adam David (1993-11-06):   # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.   #   # (1993-12-05):
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1408:   # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):   # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,   # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).   # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.   # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,   # so record only the time in Rome.   #   # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and   # F. Pollastri - # <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html"> +    # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03) - # </a> + # <http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html>   # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute   # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:   #   # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:   # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W   # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s   # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S   # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W   # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S   # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1518:   # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00   # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is   # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....   #   # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of   # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of   # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.      # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):   # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in - # <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm"> +    # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of - # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only). + # 29-Feb-2000 (#79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>, + # in Latvian for subscribers only).    - # <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html"> - # From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow: - # </a> + # From RFE/RL Newsline + # <http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html> + # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:   # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will   # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.   # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their   # clocks one hour in the spring....   # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few   # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European   # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving   # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government   # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it   # appears that they will not do so....      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - -  +  + # Milne says Riga time was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time). +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880 -  1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time -  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer -  1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 -  1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 -  1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11 + Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:28 - LMT 1880 +  1:36:28 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time +  1:36:28 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer +  1:36:28 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00 +  1:36:28 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00 +  1:36:28 - RMT 1926 May 11    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29    2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2    2:00 EU EE%sT   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1584:   # Lithuania      # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):   # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is   # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.      # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):   # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone   # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.    - # From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29), + # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)   # to be valid here starting from October 31,   # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....   # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a   # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was   # already done by Estonia.    - # From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm"> - # Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism - # </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving. + # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism + # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27): + # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.      # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):   # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will   # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid   # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its   # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of   # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at   # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm      
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1689:   # Moldova      # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write   # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.   # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence   # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).   # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area   # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.   # But [two people] separately reported via - # Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau. + # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.   # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):   # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as   # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition   # to the Winter Time).   #   # News (in Russian): - # <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html"> +    # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html - # </a> - # - # <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html"> +    # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html - # </a> +    #   # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)   # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)   #   # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)   # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol   # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.   #   # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)   #   # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)   # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.   # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own   # decision to abolish DST this winter.   # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-   # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.   # News from Moldova (in russian): - # <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html"> +    # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html - # </a> +          # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880    1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT    1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15    2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1855:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Svalbard & Jan Mayen      # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):   # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and   # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the   # time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared   # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan   # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation   # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came   # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a   # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From - # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been + # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been   # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100) - # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by + # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by   # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever   # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since   # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere   # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):   #   # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,   # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was   # keeping Berlin time.   #   # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists   # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in   # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite - # frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a + # frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a   # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly   # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that   # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.   #   # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an   # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says   # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ   # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were   # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,   # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)   # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>   # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named   # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.   #   # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo   # for these regions.   Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen      # Poland -  +  + # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20), + # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S   # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -   # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, - # Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., + # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,   # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> - # Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. + # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.   # He also gives these further references:   # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>   # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>   Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2046:    -1:00 EU AZO%sT   Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal    -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time    -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT      # Romania   #   # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07): - # <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html"> - # Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at + # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html> + # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at   # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,   # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,   # the same year as Bulgaria.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2071:   Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct    1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT    +    # Russia      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):   # Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011   # (Government document - # <a href="http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/"> +    # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/ - # </a> +    # in Russian)   # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...   # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English   # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below: - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm - # </a> +       # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):   # Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at: - # <a href="http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966"> +    # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966   # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).      # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):   # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia   # changed in September 2011:   #   # One source is - # < a href="http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/> +    # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/ - # </a> +    # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,   # 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # <a href="http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html"> +    # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html - # </a> +    # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the   # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also   # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:   # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue number 5573 September 6, 2011" but which   # does not contain any "effective date" information.   #   # Another source is - # <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7"> +    # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 - # </a> +    # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011...   # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"   # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.   #   # The Wikipedia article refers to - # <a href="http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896"> +    # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896 - # </a> +    # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.   #   # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's   # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" - # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to get - # September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias Conradi notes). + # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to + # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias + # Conradi notes).   #   # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.   #   # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.    -  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01): + # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency) + # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562 + # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to + # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new + # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ... + # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02 + # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N + # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding + # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English): + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html + # + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22): + # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian) + # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711 + # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660 + # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279 + # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this: + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html +    # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.   # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,   # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,   # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat   # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   #   # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):   # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!   # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2163:   # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor   # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.   #   # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):   # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from   # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...   # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.   #   # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from   # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07): - # News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was + # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was   # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with - # the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began + # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began   # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.   #   # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):   # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in   # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the   # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan   # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok   # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are   # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have   # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan. - # +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist + # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions + # are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative + # listing. The region codes listed come from + # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498 + # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their + # future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level + # divisions where available. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - # - # Kaliningradskaya oblast'. +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Europe/Kaliningrad covers... + # 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast +    Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time +  3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  2:00 - EET +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Europe/Moscow covers... + # 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of + # 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of + # 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of + # 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic + # 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of + # 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic + # 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of + # 11 RU-KO Komi Republic + # 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic + # 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of + # 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of + # 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of + # 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic + # 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic + # 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai + # 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai + # 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast + # 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast + # 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast + # 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast + # 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast + # 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast + # 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast + # 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast + # 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast + # 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast + # 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast + # 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast + # 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast + # 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast + # 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast + # 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast + # 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast + # 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast + # 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast + # 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast + # 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast + # 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast + # 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast + # 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast + # 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast + # 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast + # 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast + # 77 RU-MOW Moscow + # 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg + # 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug +  + # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08): + # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow + # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30").... + # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard. + # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz E.L. New Counting of Time in Russia + # since July 1, 1919, p. 18.) The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia + # was defined by Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow + # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory + # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" > + # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 = + # 2:31:19 ...   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast', - # Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast', - # Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast', - # Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya, - # Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya, - # Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, - # Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi, - # Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast', - # Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El, - # Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast', - # Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug, - # Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast', - # Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast', - # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg, - # Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast', - # Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan, - # Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast', - # Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast', - # Yaroslavskaya oblast' - Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880 -  2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time -  2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00 + # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08): + # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in + # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895). + # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in + # Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky. +  + Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880 +  2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time +  2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00    3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - MSK +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Europe/Simferopol covers... + # ** **** Crimea, Republic of + # ** **** Sevastopol +  + Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 +  2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T +  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 +  3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 +  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 - EET 1992 + # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.   # - # Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast', - # Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 - # but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the - # others? But we have no data. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched + # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. + # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say + # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it + # changed in May. +  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May + # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. +  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s +  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s + # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. + # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 +  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): + # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 + # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html + # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): + # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks + # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial + # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Europe/Volgograd covers... + # 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast + # 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast + # 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast + # 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09): + # Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300. + # Perhaps it switched after the others? But we have no data. +    Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3    3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time    3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time    4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11    4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T    3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s -  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  4:00 - VOLT - # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika +  3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  3:00 - MSK +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Europe/Samara covers... + # 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic + # 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast +    Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00    3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21    4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27    4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev -  3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00    4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time    3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    4:00 - SAMT    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers... + # 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of + # 90 RU-PER Perm Krai + # 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast + # 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast + # 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast + # 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast + # 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast + # 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra + # 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug, - # Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast', - # Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast', - # Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast', - # Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug. - Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00 + # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai. +  + # Milne says Yekaterinburg time was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest. +  + Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00    4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time    5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  6:00 - YEKT # Yekaterinburg Time - # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'. +  6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  5:00 - YEKT +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Omsk covers... + # 04 RU-AL Altai Republic + # 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai + # 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast +    Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14 -  5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme +  5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time    6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - OMST - # +  7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - OMST +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Novosibirsk covers... + # 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast + # 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast +    # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's   # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6. - # Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'. +    Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00    6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.    6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - NOVT +  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  6:00 - NOVT    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers... + # 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast +    # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):   # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on   # March 28, 2010:   # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700   # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600   #   # This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September   # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth   # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)   #   # Russian Government web site (Russian language) - # <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv"> +    # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm - # </a> +    # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference   # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010 - # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html"> +    # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html - # </a> +    #   # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010   # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.   #   # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as   # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.    -  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus + # realigning itself with KRAT. +    Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  7:00 - NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk T +  7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers... + # 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic + # 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of + # 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Krasnoyarskij kraj, - # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug, - # Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug. + # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr + # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai. +    Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  8:00 - KRAT +  8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  7:00 - KRAT +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Irkutsk covers... + # 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of + # 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast', - # Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug. - Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880 -  6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time + # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was + # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast. +  + # Milne says Irkutsk time was 6:57:15. +  + Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:15 - LMT 1880 +  6:57:15 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time    7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time    8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  9:00 - IRKT +  9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  8:00 - IRKT +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Asia/Chita covers... + # 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast', - # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'. + # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005... - # Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name. - # YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj. + Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  8:00 - IRKT    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij, - # Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj, - # Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij, - # Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij, - # Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij, - # Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij. +     -  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Yakutsk covers... + # 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast + # + # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-02 **** Aldansky District + # 14-04 **** Amginsky District + # 14-05 **** Anabarsky District + # 14-06 **** Bulunsky District + # 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District + # 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District + # 14-11 **** Gorny District + # 14-12 **** Zhigansky District + # 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District + # 14-14 **** Lensky District + # 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District + # 14-16 **** Mirninsky District + # 14-18 **** Namsky District + # 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District + # 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District + # 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District + # 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District + # 14-26 **** Suntarsky District + # 14-27 **** Tattinsky District + # 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District + # 14-32 **** Khangalassky District + # 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District + # 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District. + # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too. + # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk. +    Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  10:00 - YAKT +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 - YAKT +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Vladivostok covers... + # 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai + # 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai + # 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast   # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj, - # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). + # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District + # 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, ... Ust'-Yanskij. - Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15 + # Milne says Vladivostok time was 8:47:33.5; round to nearest. +  + Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:34 - LMT 1922 Nov 15    9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - VLAT +  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - VLAT    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-28 **** Tomponsky District + # 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District +    # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):   # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time   # in 2011. - # +    # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):   # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.   # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.   # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info. - # +    Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  10:00 - YAKT +  10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  9:00 - YAKT    - # - # Sakhalinskaya oblast'. - # The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Sakhalin covers... + # 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast + # ...with the exception of: + # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) +  + # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.   Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23 -  9:00 - CJT 1938 +  9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1    9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25    11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.    10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s    10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  11:00 - SAKT - # - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] - # Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). - # Probably also: Kuril Islands. +  11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - SAKT    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): - # The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij, - # Nizhnekolymskij, ... Srednekolymskij. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # Asia/Magadan covers... + # 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however, + # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of + # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented + # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will + # need their own zone. +    Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s -  12:00 - MAGT +  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - MAGT    -  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-01 **** Abyysky District + # 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District + # 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District + # 14-17 **** Momsky District + # 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District + # 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District + # + # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast: + # 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands) +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02): + # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with + # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on + # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District + # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by + # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06): + # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27. + # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone + # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary. + # + # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these + # districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently + # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females + # each! (Yikes!) + # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276 + # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493 + # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one. + # + # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have + # fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the + # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most + # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of + # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf + # in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older + # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining. + # Go with Srednekolymsk. + # + # Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT + # as the abbreviation. Use SRET instead. +  + Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2 +  10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: + # 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District +    # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): - # Ojmyakonskij and the Kuril Islands switched from + # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from   # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011. -  + # + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02): + # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch, + # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of + # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on + # UTC+12 since at least then, too. +    Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? -  11:00 - VLAT +  11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s +  10:00 - VLAT    - # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] - # Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug. +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): + # Asia/Kamchatka covers... + # 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai   # - # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. + # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak + # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai. +  + # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps + # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.   Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10    11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time    12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s    11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    12:00 - PETT - # - # Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug +  +  + # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03): + # Asia/Anadyr covers... + # 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug +    Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2    12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time    13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s    12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s    12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s    11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s    12:00 - ANAT    -  +    # San Marino   # See Europe/Rome.      # Serbia   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884    1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s - # Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of + # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of   # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. - # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. + # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.    1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27    1:00 EU CE%sT   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia   Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia      # Slovakia   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2554:    0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s    0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT   # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.      # Sweden      # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:   # - # The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879: + # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:   # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all   # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at   # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the   # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.   #   # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"   # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the   # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....   #   # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk - # forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning + # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning   # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at   # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English   # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west   # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated   # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time   # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.   # - # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states + # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states   # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is   # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....   # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".   #   # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish   # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are   # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available   # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type   # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click - # the Sok-button). + # the Sök-button).   #   # (2001-05-13):   #   # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00   # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show   # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some   # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already   # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another   # hour before the event took place.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2608:    1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time    1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00    1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00    1:00 - CET 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Switzerland   # From Howse:   # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace   # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep - # mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 .... + # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):   # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -   # From Shanks & Pottenger:   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -      # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):   # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.   #   # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values   # to be wrong. This is now verified.   #   # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal - # government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss + # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss   # federal law collection)...   #   # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am   # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.   #   # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am   # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am   #   # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.   # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law   # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any   # other years are made.   #   # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported   # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous   # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such   # a thing had happened in Switzerland.   # - # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de + # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de   # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is   # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled   # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.   #   # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S   # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -   #   # The 1940 rules must be deleted.   #   # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for   # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...   # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of - # the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not + # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not   # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.   # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.   #   # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):   # The Federal regulations say   # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html - # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26'22.50". + # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".   # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.      # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11): - # the "Circulaire du conseil federal" (December 11 1893) + # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)   # <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ...   # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight   # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one   # hour before the beginning of service.      # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):   # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.   #   # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland   # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book:   # - # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmassig, punktlich, schnell: Zeiteinteilung und + # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und   # Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,   # ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.   #   # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not   # agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the   # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the - # "Bundesgesetz uber die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on + # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on   # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16   # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in   # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph   # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"   # (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on   # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and   # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2709:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.    0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time    1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Turkey      # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):   # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now. - # ... The latest rules are available at - + # ... The latest rules are available at:   # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107   # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):   # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that   # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure   # what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:   # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm   # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT   # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM   # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016   # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2734:   # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):   # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC   # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):   # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp   # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:   # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm   # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document   # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:   # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm    - # From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10): - # + # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):   # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer   # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.   # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.   # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872   # Turkish:   # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373      # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):   # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the   # Turkish Local election....   # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik   # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m. - # From Paul Eggert (2014-02-17): - # Here is an English-language source: - # http://www.worldbulletin.net/turkey/129016/turkey-switches-to-daylight-saving-time-march-31 + # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15): + # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31, + # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST + # change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15): + # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule + # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See: + # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency + # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30. + # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2841:   # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of   # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"      # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):   # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to   # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.   #   # Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got   # approval from 266 deputies.   # - # Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian) + # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)   # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/   #   # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)   # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html   #   # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)   # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/   #   # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):   # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2907:   Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880    2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. - # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but + # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but   # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.   Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 - CET 1940    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26    1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00    2:00 - EET 1992
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2933:   # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in   # portable Posix file names.   Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880    2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT - # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997. - Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880 -  2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T -  2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21 -  3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  2:00 - EET 1992 - # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): - # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched - # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. - # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened - # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say - # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it - # changed in May. -  2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May - # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev. -  3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s -  3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s - # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST. - # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks. -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 -  3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u - # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): - # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 - # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html - # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): - # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks - # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial - # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. -  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 -  4:00 - MSK +       # Vatican City   # See Europe/Rome.      ###############################################################################      # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from   # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.   # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.   #
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:2997:   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when   # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only   # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according   # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on   # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following   # years...   # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions   # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST   # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep - # lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now. + # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.   #   # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the   # Soviet Union (as far as I know).   #   # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,   # 4002 Basle, Switzerland   # ...      # ...   # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100