pike.git / lib / modules / Calendar.pmod / tzdata / europe

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pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1: - # @(#)europe 7.75 + # <pre> + # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of + # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.      # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,   # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to - # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future). + # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is - # Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition), - # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999). + # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition), + # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).   # - # Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source + # Gwillim Law writes that a good source   # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport   # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),   # published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries   # of the IATA's data after 1990.   # - # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991, - # and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards. + # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for + # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.   #   # Other sources occasionally used include:   #   # Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,   # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),   # which I found in the UCLA library.   # -  + # <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf"> + # William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition + # </a> (1914-03) + # + # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94 + # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes: + # "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables + # may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society, + # Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org. + #   # Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),   # <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">   # History of Summer Time   # </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)      # - # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table; + # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;   # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.   # Corrections are welcome! - # std dst - # LMT Local Mean Time - # -4:00 AST Atlantic - # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* - # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* - # 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer - # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer - # 0:00 WET WEST Western Europe - # 1:00 CET CEST Central Europe - # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe - # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow + # std dst 2dst + # LMT Local Mean Time + # -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic + # -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland* + # -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland* + # 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer + # 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer + # 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe + # 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)* + # 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)* + # 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe + # 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)* + # 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe + # 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow   #   # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,   # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04), + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),   # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,   # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.   # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for   # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%   # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous   # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.   # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:67:   # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact   # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the   # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed   # in the Directive.         ###############################################################################      # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):   #   # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about   # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo   # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph   # of the text said:   # - # `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands + # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands   # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude   # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed   # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They   # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,   # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking   # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'   #   # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's   # position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should   # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.   #   # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18): + # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):   #   # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.   # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,   # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.   # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)   # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).   # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway   # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most   # (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the   # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:115:   # one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal   # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading   # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.   # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition   # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.   #   # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single   # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much   # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.    - # From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30): + # From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):   # Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),   # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society - # who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907) + # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)   # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,   # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.   # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,   # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. - # One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. - # See: - # <a href="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/05/18/x-timcrtcrt01011.html"> - # Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18) - # </a> + # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and + # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916. + # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18). + # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in + # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular + # subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith, + # designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial, + # which is permanently set to Summer Time.    -  + # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28): + # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of + # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country + # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which + # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the + # foundations of civilization throughout the world. + # -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm"> + # "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly + # </a> +    # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03): - # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving'' + # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"   # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this   # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the - # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''. + # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".      # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):   #   # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's   # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.      # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed) - # From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john> + # From: Jonathan Leffler   # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.   # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in   # politics making a fortune, not computing.    - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):   # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the   # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published   # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and   # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."      # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):   # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the   # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)   # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:173:   # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png   # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png      # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):   # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time   # which is to be introduced in May....   # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"   # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.      # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02): - # Howse writes (p 157) `DBST' too, but `BDST' seems to have been common + # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common   # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first, - # so we use `BDST'. + # so we use 'BDST'.    - # Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length + # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length   # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom. - # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating + # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating   # and extending this list, which can be found in - # <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/"> + # http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ + # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">   # History of legal time in Britain - # </a> (2000-02-12). + # </a> + # Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer + # exists, and the article can now be found at: + # <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/"> + # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ + # </a>    - # From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06): + # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):   #   # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;   # see Lord Tanlaw's speech   # <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">   # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)   # </a>.    - # From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # - # For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948. + # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.   # - # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect: + # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger + # are incorrect:   # * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until   # 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.   # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.   # * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.   # It actually just had one transition.   # * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.   # Actually, it conformed to Britain.   # * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.   # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.   # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).   # - # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: + # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:   # * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT   # to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to   # conform with Great Britain.   # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.   # - # The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful; + # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;   # we'll ignore it for now.   # * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.   #   # - # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks. + # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than + # Shanks & Pottenger. + # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory + # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was + # to London. For example: + # + # "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time." + # -- James Joyce, Ulysses    -  + # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26): + # Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include + # various relating to legal time, for example: + # + # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html + # + # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html + # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html + # + # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html + # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html + # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html + # + # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html + # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html + # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html + # + # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is + # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.] + # + # (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these + # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover + # the laws applicable in Ireland.) + # + # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined + # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it + # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time + # being GMT+1.) +    # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):   # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)   # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time   # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.   # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that   # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)   # and Frethun run in CT.   # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,   # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,   # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:353:   # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)   # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)   Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST   Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT   # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)   # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)   # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)   Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT   # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)   # See EU for rules starting in 1996. + # + # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 + Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996    0:00 EU GMT/BST - Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT -  -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27 -  1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u -  0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996 -  0:00 EU GMT/BST - Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 -  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT + Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey + Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey + Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man + Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 +  -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00    -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00    0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00    0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00    0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00    0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27    1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u    0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996    0:00 EU GMT/IST      ###############################################################################    - # Continental Europe + # Europe      # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,   # Common Market, etc.      # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -   Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S   Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 - -  + # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See: + # <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT"> + # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council + # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements. + # </a>      # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.   Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -      # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.   # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.   Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 - - Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 - -  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13): + # + # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s + # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was + # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the + # tz database itself, as seen below: + # + # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 + # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 + # + # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 + # 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00 + # + # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 + # 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s + # + # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - + # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + # + # The rule line to be changed is: + # + # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 - + # + # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on + # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no + # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items + # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms + # CET and MET: + # + # Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT + # Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT + # + # It this is right then the corrected version would look like: + # + # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + # + # A small step for mankind though 8-) + Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -      # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.   Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:454:   # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):   Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   # Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in   # Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):   Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -   Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   #   Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 - - Rule Russia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - - Rule Russia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -    -  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14): + # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev + # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011. + # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time. + # + # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian): + # <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583"> + # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583 + # </a> + # + # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian): + # <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html"> + # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html + # </a> +  + # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15): + # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered + # to be standard. +    # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.      # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT   Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT   Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT      # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST   # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.    - # From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12): + # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):   # The official German names ... are   #   # Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00   # Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00   #   # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),   # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....   # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution   #   # Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:534:    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Andorra   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901    0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30    1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Austria +  + # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and + # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and + # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged" + # date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition + # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV, + # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 - - Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - +    Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S -  + Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S + Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Jun 16 3:00 -  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 + Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920 +  1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s +  1:00 - CET 1946    1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Belarus -  + # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16): + # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to + # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST). + # + # Sources (Russian language): + # 1. + # <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html"> + # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html + # </a> + # 2. + # <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/"> + # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/ + # </a> + # 3. + # <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html"> + # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html + # </a>   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880    1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time      # Belgium   #   # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):   # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:   # Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,   # Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991   # (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),   # pp 8-9.   # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:   # Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121. - # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references. + # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.   # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.   # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -   Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:630:    0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT    0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8    1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u    0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Bosnia and Herzegovina - # see Yugoslavia + # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Bulgaria   # - # From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09): + # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):   # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:   # EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...   # EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 - - Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S + Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -   Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880    1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?    2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 3:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 +  1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00    2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00    2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Croatia - # see Yugosloavia + # See Europe/Belgrade.    -  + # Cyprus + # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia. +    # Czech Republic   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -   Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850    0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s    1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT -  + # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.    - # Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland + # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26): + # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law + # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01.... + # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL + # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29. + # + # The EU treaty with effect from 1973: + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL + # + # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes + # in subsequenet decrees with the law + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL + # + # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have + # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST + # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to + # 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from + # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know + # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only + # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981: + # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning + # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which + # was suspended on that night): + # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL +  + # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11): + # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between + # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11): + # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not + # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -   Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 - - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways - # about many of the above dates; go with Shanks. +    # - # For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890 -  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time +  0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT - Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn + Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn    0:00 - WET 1981    0:00 EU WE%sT   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22): + # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31): + # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in + # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones. + # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,   # and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU - # rules at least through 1984. Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab + # rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab   # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU   # rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.    -  + # From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing + # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15), + # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:   # -  + # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC + # is according to the following time line: + # + # The military zone near Thule UTC-4 + # Standard Greenland time UTC-3 + # Scoresbysund UTC-1 + # Danmarkshavn UTC + # + # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be + # introduced. +  + # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01): + # + # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at + # the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have + # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have + # info from earlier correspondence.] + # + # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule + # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight + # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time.... + # + # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund + # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst. + # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the + # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th + # email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in + # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the + # DPC research station at Zackenberg. + # + # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use + # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab). + # + # The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it + # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time + # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules. + # + # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and + # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators + # maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of + # this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be + # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this. +  + # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19): + # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place + # there at 2:00 AM. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT; + # the 1995 map as like Godthab. + # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996. + # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error, + # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year. + # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules. + #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Thule 1993 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D - Rule Thule 1993 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S + Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D + Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S   #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit + Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 +  -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00 +  -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996 +  0:00 - GMT + Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit    -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29    -1:00 EU EG%sT   Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk    -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00    -3:00 EU WG%sT   Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base    -4:00 Thule A%sT      # Estonia - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15): + # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):   # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards   # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,   # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....   # - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28): + # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):   # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,   # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:] - # ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different + # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different   # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules   # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....   # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on   # human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to - # summer time next spring.'' + # summer time next spring."    - # From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited: + # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:   # <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">   # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law   # </a>   # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between   # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).   #   # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation   # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"   # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).   
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:767:   # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European   # Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory   # for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do   # after that.      # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):   # Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation   # no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all   # the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.    + # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21): + # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics. + # Now we are using again EU rules. + # + # From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28): + # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880    1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul    1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22    2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1 -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Finland - # - # From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC): +  + # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):   # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,   # and it's supposed to change at 4am... -  +  + # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994): - # Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981. - # Go with Strang instead. + # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982. + # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour + # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made + # according to the central European standards.   # -  + # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac + # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in + # Finnish) at + # + # <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf"> + # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf + # </a> + # + # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings + # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills. + # + # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at: + # + # <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401"> + # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401 + # </a> + # + # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not + # exist tonight." +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 - -  + Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S + Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31    1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time -  2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00 +  2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983    2:00 EU EE%sT    -  + # Aaland Is + Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn +  +    # France -  +  + # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):   # - # Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman. + # Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions + # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993 + # + # Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur, + # Paris, 1991 + # + # Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie, + # Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987 +  +  + # + # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S   # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st   # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions - # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks. + # were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S - # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, - # but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco). + # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger + # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations. + # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez, + # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La + # Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes, + # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin, + # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois, + # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).   Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - # Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, - # but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12), + # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00, + # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),   # who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes   # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.   Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M   Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 - - # Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00; + # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;   # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.   Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S   Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 - - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05, + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,   # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.   # Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based   # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01 -  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time - # Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT. +  0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.    0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00 -  + # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Germany    - # From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29): + # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):   # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische   # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916. - # - # <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm"> - # Realisation of Legal Time in Germany - # </a> + # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]    -  + # From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23): + # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by + # <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/"> + # General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08): + # <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf"> + # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf + # </a> + # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20. + # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so + # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4. +  +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes - # the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem) - # (1961-11-25), which gives dates only. Guess 3:00 transition times. - Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer - Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S - Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - +    Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -   Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S - # The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times; - # go with Shanks. + # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition + # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger. + # Go with the PTB. + Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M   Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S -  +  + Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer + Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S + Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 - +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00 +  1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946    1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT    -  + # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12): + # Busingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton + # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE + # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did. + # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1, + # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin. + # + # Source for the time in Busingen 1980: + # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3 +  + # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03): + # Busingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970. +  + Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen +  + # Georgia + # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi. + # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni) + # is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part. +    # Gibraltar   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 + Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s    0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00    1:00 - CET 1982    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Greece   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -   Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -   Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -   Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14    1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30    1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4    2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981 -  # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981; +  # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;    # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Hungary   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:973:   Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -   Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918    1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 1 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Iceland   # - # From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06): + # From Adam David (1993-11-06):   # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.   #   # (1993-12-05):   # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of   # Iceland Almanak.   #   # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour   # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts   # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which   # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1006:   # (1993-12-10):   # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the   # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus   # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.   # the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day   # (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.   # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"   # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it   # might mean something else (???).   # - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29): - # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points. - # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that - # Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that. + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points. + # We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely + # that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 -   Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1040:   Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -   Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837    -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?    -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s    0:00 - GMT      # Italy   # - # From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06): - # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri - # <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html"> - # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14) + # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06): + # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893, + # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32). + # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time. + # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff, + # so record only the time in Rome. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and + # F. Pollastri + # <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html"> + # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)   # </a> - # (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute + # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute   # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:   # - # year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with: + # year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:   # 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W   # 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s   # 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S   # 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W   # 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S   # 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W   # 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S   # 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s   # 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S   # 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1104:   Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -   Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -   Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22 -  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time +  0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican   Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino      # Latvia    - # From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17): + # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):      # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy   # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the   # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about   # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....   #   # Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...   # according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24   # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning   # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1156:   # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of   # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of   # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.      # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):   # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in   # <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">   # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of   # 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).    + # <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html"> + # From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow: + # </a> + # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will + # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported. + # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their + # clocks one hour in the spring.... + # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few + # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European + # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving + # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government + # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it + # appears that they will not do so.... +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880    1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time    1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer    1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00    1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00    1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11    2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s    2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21    2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29 -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Liechtenstein - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun -  1:00 - CET 1981 -  1:00 EU CE%sT +     -  + # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09): + # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich. +  + # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18): + # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf + # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942. + # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs: + # ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein + # introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on + # central European time was in force throughout the year. + # From a report of the duke's government to the high council, + # regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977. +  + Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz +  +    # Lithuania      # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):   # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is   # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.    - # From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07): + # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):   # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone   # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.      # From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),   # via Steffen Thorsen:   # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)   # to be valid here starting from October 31,   # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....   # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a   # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was   # already done by Estonia.      # From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">   # Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism   # </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.    -  + # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07): + # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will + # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid + # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its + # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of + # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at + # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm +  +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880    1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time    1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12    2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9    1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3    3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998    2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u    1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u -  2:00 - EET +  2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1 +  2:00 EU EE%sT      # Luxembourg - # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks. + # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -   Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -   Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1256:   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun    1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25    0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s    0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00    1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00    1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Macedonia - # see Yugoslavia + # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Malta   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -   Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -   Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S   Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -   Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta + Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s    1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31    1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Moldova -  +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): + # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write + # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00. + # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence + # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree). + # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area + # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time. + # But [two people] separately reported via + # Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau. + # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now. + # + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17): + # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as + # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition + # to the Winter Time). + # + # News (in Russian): + # <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html"> + # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html + # </a> + # + # <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html"> + # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html + # </a> + # + # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry) + # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17) + # + # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19) + # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol + # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32. + # + # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed) + # + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26) + # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point. + # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own + # decision to abolish DST this winter. + # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- + # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011. + # News from Moldova (in russian): + # <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html"> + # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html + # </a> +  +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880    1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT    1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15    2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6    2:00 - EET 1991    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997   # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.    2:00 EU EE%sT - Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880 -  1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT -  1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT -  2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15 -  2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00 -  2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD +       # Monaco - # Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's + # more precise 0:09:21.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15    0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00    1:00 France CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT    -  + # Montenegro + # See Europe/Belgrade. +    # Netherlands -  +    # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,   # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time. -  +  + # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01): + # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00 + # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including + # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time + # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the + # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was + # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law. + # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and + # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd"). + # + # (2001-04-08): + # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to + # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common + # practice of following Amsterdam mean time. + # + # (2001-04-09): + # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the + # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe + # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was + # actually followed. + # + # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to + # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of + # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most + # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically + # adopted Amsterdam mean time. + # + # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety + # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it + # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe + # Amsterdam mean time. +  + # The data before 1945 are taken from + # <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>. +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman. - Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time - Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time + Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time + Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time   Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT - # Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks. +    Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST - Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT - Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST - # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT + Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT - Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST - Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST - # Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks. - Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun 5 2:00s 1:00 NST - # For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks. + Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST + Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST + # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week + # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.   Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST   Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 - - # Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks. +    Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S - Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 - + Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 - + # + # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted + # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May -  0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul -  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:40 + Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835 +  0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1 +  0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Norway -  + # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks & + # Pottenger.   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 - - # Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04, - # 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks. +    Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -   Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 + Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1    1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00    1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Svalbard & Jan Mayen -  +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01): + # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and + # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the + # time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared + # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan + # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation + # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came + # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a + # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From + # http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been + # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100) + # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by + # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever + # since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since + # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere + # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive). +  + # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04): + # + # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II, + # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was + # keeping Berlin time. + # + # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists + # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in + # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite + # frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a + # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly + # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that + # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules. + # + # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an + # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says + # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ + # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were + # expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return, + # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954) + # <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html> + # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named + # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945. + # + # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo + # for these regions.   Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen - # From Whitman: - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT +       # Poland   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks. + Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S + # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 - - # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks. + # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - - Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski, + # Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U., + # <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1> + # Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference. + # He also gives these further references: + # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm> + # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf> + Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - + Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -   Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S - Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880    1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00    2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun    1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct -  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00 -  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999 - # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_ - # <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml"> - # http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24) - # </a> - # says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00. - # Stick with W-Eur for now. - # - # From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10): - # According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would - # follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not - # worth further discussion. - # - # From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10): - # Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997 - # or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to - # EU rules in 1999. +  1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 +  1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Portugal   # - # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12): + # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):   # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone   # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.   # - # Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve + # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve   # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.   # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.   #   # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):   # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions   # at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.   # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.   # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.   # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal   # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.   #   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not   # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules. - # Go with Shanks. + # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -   Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman. +    Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 - - # Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S - # Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman. + # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.   Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer   Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M   Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M   Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 - - # Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. - # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks. + # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman. + # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -   Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S   Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] -  + # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24; + # Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett.   Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884 -  -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time +  -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00    1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u    0:00 EU WE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada -  -1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time +  -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time    -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time    -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u    -1:00 EU AZO%sT   Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal -  -1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time +  -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time    -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time    0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT      # Romania   #   # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):   # <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">   # Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at   # 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1556:   Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct    1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s    2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991    2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997    2:00 EU EE%sT      # Russia    - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15): + # Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011 + # (Government document + # <a href="http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/"> + # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/ + # </a> + # in Russian) + # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones... + # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English + # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below: + # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm + # </a> +  + # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27): + # Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at: + # <a href="http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966"> + # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966 + # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian). +  + # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): + # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia + # changed in September 2011: + # + # One source is + # < a href="http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/> + # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/ + # </a> + # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31, + # 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information. + # + # Another source is + # <a href="http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html"> + # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html + # </a> + # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the + # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also + # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on: + # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue number 5573 September 6, 2011" but which + # does not contain any "effective date" information. + # + # Another source is + # <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7"> + # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7 + # </a> + # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011... + # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" + # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011. + # + # The Wikipedia article refers to + # <a href="http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896"> + # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896 + # </a> + # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page. + # + # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's + # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication" + # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to get + # September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias Conradi notes). + # + # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks. + # + # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.   # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991, - # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow - # Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s. + # are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger, + # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat + # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.   # - # From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04): - # `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with - # Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group).... + # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29): + # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! + # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; + # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching + # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. + # + # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04): + # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with + # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....   # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor   # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.   # - # From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30): + # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):   # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from   # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...   # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.   # -  + # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from + # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07): + # News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was + # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with + # the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began + # enforcing curfew at the wrong time. + # + # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05): + # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in + # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the + # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan + # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok + # since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are + # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have + # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan. + #   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr + # + # Kaliningradskaya oblast'. + Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945    2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s -  2:00 Russia EE%sT +  2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast', + # Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast', + # Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast', + # Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya, + # Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya, + # Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, + # Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi, + # Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast', + # Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El, + # Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast', + # Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug, + # Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast', + # Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast', + # Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg, + # Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast', + # Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan, + # Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast', + # Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast', + # Yaroslavskaya oblast'   Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880    2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time    2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - MSK + # + # Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast', + # Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 + # but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the + # others? But we have no data. + Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3 +  3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time +  3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time +  4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11 +  4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s +  3:00 Russia VOL%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - VOLT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika   Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00 -  3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev -  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s +  3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 +  4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27 +  4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev    3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s    3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00 -  4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time +  4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time +  3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  4:00 - SAMT +  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug, + # Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast', + # Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast', + # Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast', + # Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00    4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time    5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time +  5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  6:00 - YEKT # Yekaterinburg Time + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.   Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14    5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme    6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  6:00 Russia OMS%sT - # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29): - # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow! - # I do not know why they have decided to make this change; - # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching - # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch. +  6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - OMST + # + # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's + # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6. + # Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.   Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00    6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time    7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks -  6:00 Russia NOV%sT +  7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P. +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - NOVT +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13): + # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on + # March 28, 2010: + # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700 + # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600 + # + # This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September + # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth + # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600) + # + # Russian Government web site (Russian language) + # <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv"> + # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm + # </a> + # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference + # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010 + # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html"> + # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html + # </a> + # + # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010 + # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock. + # + # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as + # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic. +  + Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6 +  6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  7:00 - NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time +  + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Krasnoyarskij kraj, + # Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug, + # Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6    6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time    7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  7:00 Russia KRA%sT +  7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  8:00 - KRAT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast', + # Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.   Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880    6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time    7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time    8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  8:00 Russia IRK%sT +  8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  9:00 - IRKT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast', + # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'. +  + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005... + # Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name. + # YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj. +  + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij, + # Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj, + # Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij, + # Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij, + # Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij, + # Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij. +    Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15    8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time    9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  9:00 Russia YAK%sT +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  10:00 - YAKT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj, + # [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). +  + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, ... Ust'-Yanskij.   Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15    9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time    10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  10:00 Russia VLA%sT +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - VLAT +  + # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): + # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time + # in 2011. + # + # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25): + # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time. + # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004. + # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info. + # + Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004 +  10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  10:00 - YAKT +  + # + # Sakhalinskaya oblast'. + # The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long. + Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23 +  9:00 - CJT 1938 +  9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25 +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T. +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s +  10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  11:00 - SAKT + # + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of] + # Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya). + # Probably also: Kuril Islands. +  + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29): + # The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij, + # Nizhnekolymskij, ... Srednekolymskij.   Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2    10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time    11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  11:00 Russia MAG%sT - # This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long. +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT +  + # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09): + # Ojmyakonskij and the Kuril Islands switched from + # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011. + Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15 +  8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time +  9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1 +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s +  10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s +  11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725? +  11:00 - VLAT +  + # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of] + # Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug. + # + # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.   Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10    11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time    12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia PET%sT +  12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - PETT + # + # Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug   Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2    12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time    13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s    12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s    11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s -  12:00 Russia ANA%sT +  12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s +  11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s +  12:00 - ANAT    -  + # San Marino + # See Europe/Rome. +  + # Serbia + # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] + Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 +  1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 +  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 +  1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s + # Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of + # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. + # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. +  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 +  1:00 EU CE%sT + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia + Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia +    # Slovakia   Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava      # Slovenia - # see Yugoslavia + # See Europe/Belgrade.      # Spain   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks. + # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -   Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S - # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks. + # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer   Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M   Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S   Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -   Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1710:   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 + Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30    1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901    0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00    0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00    0:00 - WET 1924    0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929    0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16    1:00 - CET 1986    1:00 EU CE%sT   Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.    -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time    0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s    0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s    0:00 EU WE%sT   # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.   # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.      # Sweden -  +  + # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger: + # + # The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879: + # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all + # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at + # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the + # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31. + # + # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30" + # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the + # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT.... + # + # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk + # forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning + # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at + # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English + # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west + # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated + # 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time + # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT. + # + # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states + # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is + # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00.... + # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later". + # + # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish + # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are + # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available + # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type + # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click + # the Sok-button). + # + # (2001-05-13): + # + # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00 + # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show + # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some + # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already + # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another + # hour before the event took place. + # + # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left. +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31 -  1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT -  1:00 - CET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Sep 30 23:00s + Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1 +  1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time +  1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00 +  1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00    1:00 - CET 1980    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Switzerland   # From Howse:   # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace   # and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep   # mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....   # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S - # From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''): - Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S - Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - - # From Shanks: - Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S - Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - + # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"): + # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S + # Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 - + # From Shanks & Pottenger: + # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S + # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 - +  + # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17): + # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies. + # + # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values + # to be wrong. This is now verified. + # + # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal + # government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss + # federal law collection)... + # + # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am + # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am. + # + # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am + # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am + # + # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully. + # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law + # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any + # other years are made. + # + # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported + # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous + # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such + # a thing had happened in Switzerland. + # + # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de + # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is + # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled + # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time. + # + # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to: + # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S + # Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 - + # + # The 1940 rules must be deleted. + # + # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for + # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ... + # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of + # the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not + # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time. + # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed. + # + # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11): + # The Federal regulations say + # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html + # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26'22.50". + # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s. +  + # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11): + # the "Circulaire du conseil federal" (December 11 1893) + # <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ... + # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight + # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one + # hour before the beginning of service. +  + # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11): + # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46. + # + # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland + # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book: + # + # Jakob Messerli. Gleichmassig, punktlich, schnell: Zeiteinteilung und + # Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995, + # ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797. + # + # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not + # agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the + # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the + # "Bundesgesetz uber die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on + # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16 + # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in + # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph + # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso" + # (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on + # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and + # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date. +  + # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S + Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S + Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12 -  0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time + Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment. +  0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time    1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981    1:00 EU CE%sT      # Turkey -  +  + # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03): + # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now. + # ... The latest rules are available at - + # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107 + # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03): + # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that + # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure + # what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001: + # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm + # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT + # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM + # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016 + # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021 + # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027 + # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03): + # Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990. +  + # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09): + # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC + # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07): + # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp + # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...: + # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm + # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document + # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006: + # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm +  + # From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10): + # + # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer + # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27. + # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th. + # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872 + # Turkish: + # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373 +  + # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14): + # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the + # Turkish Local election.... + # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik + # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m. + # From Paul Eggert (2014-02-17): + # Here is an English-language source: + # http://www.worldbulletin.net/turkey/129016/turkey-switches-to-daylight-saving-time-march-31 +    # Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 - - # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks. + # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S - # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks. + # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; + # go with Shanks & Pottenger.   Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1810:   Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -   Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S   Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 - + Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 - + Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S + Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 - + Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -   # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880    1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?    2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15    3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time -  2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1986 -  2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991 +  2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007 +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u +  2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u    2:00 EU EE%sT   Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.      # Ukraine -  + # + # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice, + # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27): + # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government + # regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says: + # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday + # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of + # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am" +  + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20): + # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to + # abolish the transfer clock to winter time. + # + # Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got + # approval from 266 deputies. + # + # Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian) + # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/ + # + # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian) + # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html + # + # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian) + # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/ + # + # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18): + # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the + # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter + # time this year after all. + # + # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18): + # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone + # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar + # to Russia) was reverted today: + # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995 + # + # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted: + # The law documents themselves are at + # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484 +  + # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28): + # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST: + # 03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1 Time Zone 3 with DST + # 07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134. + # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html + # + # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law, + # "summer time" was still in action): + # 09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272. + # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html + # + # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action): + # 03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST + # + # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended): + # 09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0 Time Zone 2, no DST + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225. + # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm + # This is an answer. + # + # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure: + # 03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1 DST started + # 09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0 DST ended + # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139. + # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm +    # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]   # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev. -  + # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but + # "Kiev" is more common in English.   Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880    2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6 -  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 -  3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00 -  2:00 - EET 1992 +  3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00 +  2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991. -  + # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but + # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.   Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct    1:00 - CET 1940    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct    1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26    1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00    2:00 - EET 1992    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991. - # Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes. + # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but + # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English + # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in + # portable Posix file names.   Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880    2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995    2:00 EU EE%sT   # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.   Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880    2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T    2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21    3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov    1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990    3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00    2:00 - EET 1992 - # From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12): + # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):   # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched   # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections. - # Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened - # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May. + # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened + # sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say + # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it + # changed in May.    2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May   # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.    3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s    3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s   # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.   # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.    3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997    3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u -  2:00 EU EE%sT + # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17): + # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014 + # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html + # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30): + # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks + # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial + # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about. +  2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00 +  4:00 - MSK    - # Yugoslavia - # Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL] - Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884 -  1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00 -  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s -  1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s - # Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of - # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time. - # Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj. -  1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27 -  1:00 EU CE%sT - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia - Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia + # Vatican City + # See Europe/Rome.      ###############################################################################      # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from   # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.   # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.   #   # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but   # uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.   # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at   # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey   # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time   # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)      # ...   # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann) - # Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp> + # From: Tom Hofmann   # ...   #   # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when   # most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only   # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according   # to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on   # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following   # years...   # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions   # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST   # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep   # lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.   #   # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the   # Soviet Union (as far as I know).   #   # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,   # 4002 Basle, Switzerland - # UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho + # ...      # ...   # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100 - # From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter) + # From: Dik T. Winter   # ...   #   # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.   # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information   # about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.   #   # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on   # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...   # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that   # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
pike.git/lib/modules/Calendar.pmod/tzdata/europe:1960:   # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...   # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not   # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations   # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always   # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the   # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours   # in advance of normal time.   #   # ...   # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland - # INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl - # BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax + # ...      # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):   # ...   # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).   # Since 1978. Change at midnight.   # ...   # Monaco: has same DST as France.   # ...